全球公民意識

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廣義而言,全球公民意識世界公民意識一般典型的定義是具備「以全球為一家」的意識觀念超越他個人的特定國家意識或在地意識之個人。這樣的想法意味著他的認同超越了地理或政治的界限,認為整個地球的人類群體是相互影響的整體。這個專有名詞已經可見於教育以及政治哲学中,同時許多如「世界公民」以及「世界化(世界主義)」的社會運動也被普遍的使用。

定義[编辑]

公民意識(citizenship)」意思是個人與某個地理區域(如一座城市、一個國家或民族)之間的身份認同以及個人在一地工作、生活與參與政治的權利。當公民意識一詞跟「全球」結合,通常意指此人對「國際社群」的公民身份認同,會要高過其對自己的民族國家或是城市的身份認同。這代表著其身份認同是超越「地理」或「政治」的邊界,而其認同的責任與權利界線是歸類在「人道精神」。這並不代表這類人士會放棄自己的國籍或其他在地的身份認同,而是會這一類身份認同放在較國際社群之後的「次要位置」[1]。延伸下來,世界公民意識的概念也引導人們思考在全球化的時代,全球社會現狀的相關議題[2]

一般而言,這個詞語的定義跟「世界公民(World Citizen)」或是世界主義等同,但在不同場合的使用情境下也可能有更廣義或更特殊的意義。

用途[编辑]

教育[编辑]

在教育界,全球公民意識這個詞最常被用來描述教育人們的某種世界观價值觀(例如由联合国秘書長所主導的「全球教育第一倡議」)[3]。「全球社會」一詞有時也會用來描述提供學生成為全球公民的全球研究學習目標(例如佛罗里达大学「全球社會下之人文學科」榮譽學程)[4]

全球公民意識教育[编辑]

在教育系統中,全球公民意識教育(英語:Global Citizenship education,簡稱為GCE)已經逐漸取代了過去多種不同的教育改革倡議或運動,諸如多元文化主義教育、和平教育人權教育永續發展教育英语Education for sustainable development、以及國際教育英语international education[5] 。 除此之外全球公民意識也快速地融合了上述的運動。全球公民的概念也已經連結到人道救援的獎項[6] 。老師們也被認為是創造社會改變的一份子[7]──里茲大學公民與人權中心的執行長奧黛莉·厄斯樂(Audrey Osler)指出「教育大家我們是一起生活在一個互相倚賴的世界裡,這並不是個外加的選項,而是必須的基礎。[8]

Noteworthy, Global Education Magazine 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 is a digital journal supported by UNESCO and UNHCR, inspired in the universal values of the Declaration of Emerging Human Rights that aims to contribute to achieve the Millennium Development Goals 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 by GCE consciousness.[9] An initiative launched by the teaching team that formulated the proposal most voted in the group “Sustainable Development for the Eradication of Poverty in Rio+20英语Rio+20”.[10]

With GCE gaining attention, scholars are investigating the field and developing perspectives. The following are a few of the more common perspectives:

  • Critical and transformative perspective. Citizenship is defined by being a member with rights and responsibilities. Therefore, GCE must encourage active involvement. GCE can be taught from a critical and transformative 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 perspective, whereby students are thinking, feeling, and doing. In this approach, GCE requires students to be politically critical and personally transformative. Teachers provide social issues 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 in a neutral and grade-appropriate way for students to understand, grapple with, and do something about.[11]
  • Worldmindedness. Graham Pike and David Selby view GCE as having two strands. Worldmindedness, the first strand, refers to understanding the world as one unified system and a responsibility to view the interests of individual nations with the overall needs of the planet in mind. The second strand, Child-centeredness 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, is a pedagogical approach that encourages students to explore and discover on their own and addresses each learner as an individual with inimitable beliefs, experiences, and talents.[12]
  • Holistic Understanding. The Holistic Understanding perspective was founded by Merry Merryfield, focusing on understanding the self in relation to a global community. This perspective follows a curriculum that attends to human values and beliefs, global systems, issues, history, cross-cultural 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 understandings, and the development of analytical 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 and evaluative 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 skills.[7]
  • 哲學[编辑]

    觀點[编辑]

    地理、主權、shit[编辑]

    在地、國內、以及全球勢力之間的緊張關係[编辑]

    人權[编辑]

    聯合國大會[编辑]

    美國獨立宣言[编辑]

    支持全球政府論者[编辑]

    社會運動[编辑]

    世界公民[编辑]

    世界化[编辑]

    地球國歌[编辑]

    爭議[编辑]

    參見[编辑]

    參考文獻[编辑]

    1. ^ Summer 2012).. [2015-07-30]. (原始内容存档于2013-09-21). 
    2. ^ Shaw, Martin. Global Society and International Relations: Sociological Concepts and Political Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity Press. 2000 [2015-07-30]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-14). 
    3. ^ "Priority #3: Foster Global Citizenship.". [2015-07-30]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-14). 
    4. ^ Humanities for a Global Society. University of Florida. [6 July 2013]. (原始内容存档于2013年6月17日). 
    5. ^ Australian Government (2008). Global Perspectives: A framework for global education in Australian schools. Carlton South Victoria, Australia: Curriculum Corporation. ISBN 978 1 74200 075 6
    6. ^ Jim Luce. Euro-American Women' s Council Global Forum and Awards Set For Athens in July. Huffington Post. 1 June 2010 [2010-06-16]. (原始内容存档于2011-06-07). Dionysia-Theodora Avgerinopoulou is a Member of the Hellenic Parliament. She is also on the Executive Global Board of the EAWC. Orphans International Worldwide (OIWW) awarded her its Global Citizenship Award for Leadership in Helping Humanity in New York in February. 
    7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Mundy, K., et al. (eds). Comparative and International Education. New York: Economic Policy Institute and Teachers College. ISBN 978-0807748817
    8. ^ Osler, Audrey and Hugh Starkey (2010). Teachers and Human Rights Education. London:Trentham Books. ISBN 978-1858563848
    9. ^ Global Education Magazine (2012). The Humanist Quantum Interference: Towards the "Homo Conscienciatus". Javier Collado Ruano, October 17th: International Day for the Eradication of Poverty. ISSN 2255-033X. [2015-07-31]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-24). 
    10. ^ NGO Educar para Vivir (2012). [2015-07-31]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-24). 
    11. ^ O’Sullivan, M. (2008). "You can’t criticize what you don’t understand: Teachers as social change agents in neo liberal times." Pp. 113-126 in O’Sullivan, Michael & K. Pashby (eds.) Citizenship in the era of globalization: Canadian perspectives. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
    12. ^ Pike, G. & D. Selby (2000). In the Global Classroom 2. Toronto: Pippin.

    外部連結[编辑]