公民身份法修正案示威

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公民身份法修正案示威
2019年示威英语Protests of 2019的一部份
JMI students and locals protesting against CAA NRC.jpg
Anti CAA protests in Guwahati.jpg
Shaheen Bagh protestors blocking a major road in New Delhi for 28 days Visual taken on 11 Jan 2020.jpg
Locals protest against CAB CAA (cropped).jpg
Peoples long march CAA and NRC at ernakulam, kerala 9.jpg
(从顶部逆时针方向)印度国立伊斯兰大学英语Jamia Millia Islamia的学生在示威,在古瓦哈提梅加拉亚邦喀拉拉邦和Shaheen Bagh(新德里)举行抗议活动,抗议者阻止了交通。
日期 从2019年12月4日开始
地點
印度多地
起因
目標
  • 撤销《修正案》
  • 逃避公民登记表
  • 对德里警察局的暴力展开独立调查[3]
  • 方法 公民不服从示威包围战术绝食联合罢工英语hartal破坏标签运动英语hashtag activism
    狀況 进行中
    衝突方
    • 各地示威者
    • 示威学生
    • 印度东北部居民
    • 全阿萨姆学生联合会 (AASU)
    • 全印度学生会 (AISF)[11]
    • 印度各地学生会[12]
    • 印度民主青年会[13]
    領導人物
    傷亡
    死亡 25(包括3名未成年人)[17][18][19][20][21][22]
    受傷 175人[16]
    逮捕 1000多人[23]
    拘留 近1600人[16]

    公民身份法修正案示威是针对已经生效的《2019年公民身份法(修正案)》和即将实施的印度公民登记表英语National Register of Citizens of India的一系列抗议活动。抗议于2019年12月4日始于印度阿萨姆[24]德里[25]梅加拉亚[26]曼尼普尔特里普拉[27],而后蔓延至印度其他地区。示威者的不满包括對穆斯林的宗教歧视英语Religious discrimination[28]、对非法移民的安置和警方在大学中对示威者的暴力手段英语Police brutality[29]

    阿萨姆邦的居民反对《修正案》,因为他们担心非当地居民(如孟加拉人)入籍后会破坏当地族群的平衡,继而引发宗派冲突。阿萨姆邦曾和联邦政府达成协议英语Assam Accord,只接受1971年前的非法移民,然而《修正案》却要求阿萨姆邦继续接受2014年前的非法移民[30]。其他东北部的居民也有类似的担忧。

    亦有一些律师的批评该法案违宪[31][32][33][34]。一些组织向印度最高法院英语Supreme Court of India提出申请,要求其宣布该法案不合法。

    抗议活动始于2019年12月4日议会通过法案后的阿萨姆。后来,印度东北部所有地区爆发抗议活动,再随后印度所有主要城市都爆发了抗议活动。12月15日,警察强行进入正在举行抗议活动的印度国立伊斯兰大学英语Jamia Millia Islamia,用警棍催泪瓦斯袭击学生。有二百多名学生受伤,大约100名学生被拘留。警方的暴行受到广泛批评,并导致全国各地的抗议作为回应。

    抗议活动导致一千多人被捕,25人死亡,[23]其中包括3名未成年人[22]。与此同时,在新德里西孟加拉邦阿里格爾和整个阿萨姆邦,都出现了通讯障碍。阿里格爾斷網已將近一週[35]

    背景[编辑]

    今次《修正案》是针对《1955年印度公民身份法英语Indian nationality law》提出的一项修正案,旨在为来自巴基斯坦孟加拉国阿富汗的“宗教少数群体”提供印度公民权(主要為2014年之前進入印度)[36],而这些“宗教少数群体”包括印度教徒锡克教徒佛教徒耆那教徒祆教徒基督徒[37]。这是印度法律第一次将宗教作为公民身份的标准[38]

    影響[编辑]

    旅遊[编辑]

    英国美国法国以色列加拿大对访问印度东北部地区的人发出了旅游警告[39][40][41]

    反應[编辑]

    國內[编辑]

    國際[编辑]

    •  联合国人权事务高级专员办事处批评该法,称其“根本具有歧视性质”。报告补充说,“尽管印度仍然实行更宽泛的入籍法,但这些修正案将对人们获得国籍产生歧视性影响”。[42]
    •  巴基斯坦总理伊姆兰·汗批评该法“违反了国际人权法和与巴基斯坦的双边协定的所有准则”[51]
    • 孟加拉国 孟加拉国外交部长莫门在12月11日表示,法案可能会削弱印度作为一个世俗国家的历史特征,并否认少数民族在他的国家面临宗教迫害[52]。16日,莫门要求印度政府出具非法居住在印度的孟加拉国公民的名单,以便其重返孟加拉国[53]
    •  马来西亚总理马哈蒂尔批评这项法律,说它可能会“剥夺一些穆斯林的公民权”。印度则驳斥道,这项法律并没有“剥夺任何印度人的信仰或者公民权”[54]

    另見[编辑]

    参考[编辑]

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    3. ^ Jamia vice chancellor demands high level inquiry in police action. The Economic Times. 2019-12-16 [2019-12-16]. 
    4. ^ Singh, Bikash. Assam burns over CAB, curfew in Guwahati, Army deployed. 12 December 2019 –通过The Economic Times. 
    5. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为The Hindu的参考文献提供内容
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    7. ^ DelhiDecember 11, Asian News International New; December 11, 2019UPDATED:; Ist, 2019 15:13. Centre starts withdrawing paramilitary forces from J&K, troops moved to Assam: Report. India Today. 
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