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兰德尔·克里默

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威廉·蘭德爾·克雷默 1903年諾貝爾和平獎得主
William Randal Cremer

爵士
个人资料
逝世倫敦

威廉·兰德尔·克里默爵士(Sir William Randal Cremer,1828年3月18日—1908年7月22日),英国政治家,社會活動家,曾任英国下议院议员、国际工人联合会(即第一国际)书记,1903年获诺贝尔和平奖

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Sir
兰德尔·克里默
Member of Parliament for Haggerston
任期
24 October 1900—22 July 1908
前任John Lowles
继任Rupert Guinness
任期
18 December 1885—13 July 1895
继任John Lowles
个人资料
出生18 March 1828
Fareham, Hampshire, England
逝世22 July 1908
London, England
政党Liberal
获奖

Sir William Randal Cremer (18 March 1828 – 22 July 1908) usually known by his middle name "Randal", was an English Liberal Member of Parliament, a pacifist, and a leading advocate for international arbitration. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1903 for his work with the international arbitration movement.[1]

Early life[编辑]

Cremer was born to a working-class family in the southern English town of Fareham. His father was a coachman, who abandoned the family soon after Randal Cremer was born. His mother raised him along with his two sisters, ensuring he received an education at a local Methodist school. He augmented his knowledge by attending free lectures, was apprenticed as a builder, and became a skilled carpenter.[2]

Moving to London 1852, Cremer became active as a union organiser, swiftly becoming a recognized labour leader. Cremer was elected as the Secretary of the International Workingmen's Association in 1865, but resigned two years later in 1867, when the organization decided to make women eligible for membership. Being strongly opposed to women's suffrage,[3] this might have contributed to make him feel the organization was becoming too radical . While heavily involved in campaigning for progressive causes, and respected by Marx, Cremer did not agree with a worker led revolution.[4]

Role in the international arbitration movement[编辑]

From as early as his first unsuccessful run for Parliament in 1868, Cremer had advocated the expansion of international arbitration as peaceful alternative to war for the resolution of disputes.[4]

He was elected as Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for Haggerston in the Shoreditch district of Hackney from 1885 to 1895, and then from 1900 until his death from pneumonia in 1908.

Using his platform as an MP, Cremer cultivated allies on both continental Europe and across the Atlantic, including Frédéric Passy, William Jennings Bryan and Andrew Carnegie. Using his network of contacts and his talent for organisation, Cremer did much to create and expand institutions for international arbitration, which during his lifetime were successful in peacefully resolving numerous international disputes. This work includes co-founding the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the International Arbitration League; gaining acceptance for the 1897 Olney–Pauncefote Treaty between the United States and Britain that would have required arbitration of major disputes as the Essequibo territory (the treaty was rejected by the US Senate and never went into effect); and preparing the ground for the Hague peace conferences of 1899 and 1907.[4]

In recognition of his work in the arbitration movement, Cremer won the Nobel Peace Prize, the first to do so solo, in 1903.[5] Of the £8,000 award he donated £7,000 as an endowment for the International Arbitration League.[6]

He also was named a Chevalier of the French Légion d'honneur,[7] won the Norwegian Knighthood of Saint Olaf and was knighted in 1907.

Randal Cremer Primary School, in Haggerston,[8] is named in his honour.

Death[编辑]

Cremer died on 22 July 1908, leaving an estate of £2,241 (£1,803 net).[6]

参见[编辑]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 1903 Randal Cremer. nobelprize.org. [2022-08-05]. (原始内容存档于2017-12-22). 
  2. ^  Lee, Sidney (编). Cremer, William Randal. Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement​ 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1912. 
  3. ^ Views of Anti-Suffrage MP William Cremer, The Times, April 1906
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Mark Mazower. Chpt 3: The empire of Law. Governing the world. Allen Lane. 2012. ISBN 9780-7-1399683-8. 
  5. ^ Winners. The Nobel Peace Prize. [2021-02-11]. (原始内容存档于2021-08-03) (英国英语). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Sir W. Cremer's Will. The Cardiff Times (David Duncan and William Ward). 1908-10-24. hdl:10107/3434413. 
  7. ^ Among the world's peacemakers: an epitome of the Interparliamentary Union edited by Hayne Davis, 1908
  8. ^ Randal Cremer Primary School. Hackney Borough Council. [2009-08-24]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-08). 

参考资料[编辑]

外部链接[编辑]

官衔
前任:
New position
General Secretary of the International Workingmen's Association
1864–1866
繼任:
Peter Fox
前任:
Peter Fox
General Secretary of the International Workingmen's Association
1866–1867
繼任:
Johann Eccarius
大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国国会
新選區 Member of Parliament for Haggerston
18851895
繼任者:
John Lowles
前任:
John Lowles
Member of Parliament for Haggerston
19001908
繼任:
Rupert Guinness, Viscount Elveden