冰晶石

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冰晶石
Cryolite from Ivigtut Greenland
基本資料
類別鹵化物
化學式六氟铝酸钠 - Na3AlF6
施特龙茨分类03.CB.15
戴納礦物分類11.6.1.1
晶体空间群Monoclinic 2/m
晶胞a = 7.7564(3) Å, b = 5.5959(2) Å, c = 5.4024(2) Å; β = 90.18°; Z = 2
性質
分子量209.9 g mol−1 u
顏色無色、黑褐、灰、白、紅褐色
晶体惯态Usually massive, coarsely granular. The rare crystals are equant and pseudocubic
晶系單斜晶系 2/m
雙晶Very common, often repeated or polysynthetic with simultaneous occurrence of several twin laws
解理
斷口參差狀
韌性/脆性易脆
摩氏硬度2.5 to 3
光澤玻璃,或珍珠光澤 {001}
條痕白色
透明性透明至半透明
比重2.95 to 3.0.
光學性質Biaxial (+)
折射率nα = 1.3385–1.339, nβ = 1.3389–1.339, nγ = 1.3396–1.34
雙折射δ = 0.001
2V angle43°
色散率r < v
熔點1012 °C
溶解度Soluble in AlCl3 solution, soluble in H2SO4 with the evolution of HF, which is poisonous. Insoluble in water.[1]
其他特徵Weakly thermoluminescent. Small clear fragments become nearly invisible when placed in water, since its refractive index is close to that of water. May fluoresce intense yellow under SWUV, with yellow phosphorescence, and pale yellow phosphorescence under LWUV. Not radioactive.
參考文獻[2][3][4][5][6]

冰晶石英語Cryolite)一种矿物,主要成分为六氟铝酸钠(Na3AlF6),白色单斜晶系(109摄氏度),微溶于,能溶于氧化铝,在电解铝工业作助熔剂、制造乳白色玻璃搪瓷遮光剂格陵蘭西海岸的伊維圖特Ivigtût)是冰晶石的主要產地,此矿于1987年开采完毕。现时多以萤石人工合成六氟铝酸钠供工业使用。

使用[编辑]

冰晶石可用作在霍尔-埃鲁法中還原氧化鋁之電解質,能溶于氧化铝,在电解铝工业作助熔剂,被用于的提炼。冰晶石可用作陶瓷、殺蟲劑[7]、研磨料結合劑、電子絕緣、光亮劑等。可由氟化鈉氟化鋁熔融反应制得。

參考[编辑]

  1. ^ CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd Ed., p. 4-84.
  2. ^ Gaines, Richard V., et al (1997) Dana’s New Mineralogy, Wiley, 8th, ISBN 978-0-471-19310-4
  3. ^ Cryolite: Cryolite mineral information and data. Mindat.org (2010-10-03). Retrieved on 2010-10-25.
  4. ^ Cryolite Mineral Data. Webmineral.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-25.
  5. ^ Cryolite, Handbook of Mineralogy. Retrieved on 2010-10-25.
  6. ^ Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  7. ^ EPA R.E.D. FACTS Cryolite 存档副本 (PDF). [2011-01-13]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2012-10-26).