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冷核聚变

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馬丁·弗萊許曼實驗裝置

冷核聚变(英語:Cold fusion)是指常温常压下发生的核聚变反应的假说。冷核聚变不同于恒星内部、热核武器实验性聚变反应堆中高温、高压的“热”核聚变,也不包括常温的μ子催化聚变(1950年代就已证实,但不具实用价值)。目前,并不存在被主流物理学共识接受的冷核聚变理论或现象。

1989年,电化学家马丁·弗莱施曼英语Martin Fleischmann斯坦利·庞斯英语Stanley Pons报告称其实验装置出现反常放热(“余热”)现象,声称其数量级无法依靠化学反应解释,唯一的可能性是核反应[1]两人在论文中进一步报告称,实验检测到少量中子等核反应副产物。[2]此外,该实验较简单,仅是一个发生于电极表面的的重水电解实验,可以使用小型电解装置在实验室桌面上进行。[3]本研究受到了媒体的广泛关注[3],引发了人们对低成本清洁能源的遐想。[4]

但是,该实验未能被其他科学家成功复现。起初大量实验者报告复现失败,少数“成功”的实验者也撤回主张;随后,人们指出最初实验中有许多可导致实验错误的漏洞;最终,人们意识到两人根本没有检测到所谓的核反应副产物。[4][5][6][7]清洁能源的希望也因此破灭。时至1989年末,大多数科学家认为“冷核聚变说”已死。[4][7][8][9][10]随后,冷核聚变普遍被认为是一种病态科学英语Pathological science[11][12]1989年美国能源部调查报告认为,实验者报告的余热现象并非有用能源的确凿证据,不应向冷核聚变提供研究经费。2004年,美国能源部发布了审评近期研究的第二轮报告,依然没有改变最初的结论。[13][14][15]目前,冷核聚变研究很少能发表在经同行审评的期刊中,其研究所受到的审视低于主流科学研究。[9][16]

少数研究者依然相信冷核聚变存在可能。例如,谷歌公司在2019年资助了一项冷核聚变实验,并在《自然》期刊上发表论文,但该实验未能复现马丁·弗莱施曼和斯坦利·庞斯的实验结果。[17][18]为避免“冷核聚变”一词的负面联系,该领域研究者将其称为低能量核反應Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, LENR)与凝態态核科學Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, CMNS),这个边缘科学群体仍在继续开展研究。[4][19][20][21][22][23][24]

歷史[编辑]

冷核融合為大眾所週知起因於1989年3月「弗萊許曼-龐斯實驗」的爭議性——由科學家馬丁·弗萊許曼(Martin Fleischmann)與史坦利·龐斯(Stanley Pons)所進行。當時有許多科學家努力重複該實驗,卻發現無法再現一樣的結果[25]。人们对冷聚变最大的责难集中在其实验的低重复性和核反应产物不匹配两点上。[26]

2008年,日本大阪大學物理學教授荒田吉明宣稱完成第一次成功冷融合示範。在實驗中,荒田吉明使進入一個包含鈀與鋯氧化物之混合物中,在這種稠密的狀態下,來自於不同原子的氘原子核融合產生氦原子核。

2011年,義大利波隆納大學(University of Bologna)物理系的科學家安卓·羅西(Andrea Rossi)與Sergio Focardi宣布已成功利用能源催化劑(Energy Catalyzer )引發冷核融合反應,但尚未普遍得到其他科學家證實。

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 60 Minutes: Once Considered Junk Science, Cold Fusion Gets A Second Look By Researchers, CBS, 17 April 2009, (原始内容存档于12 February 2012) 
  2. ^ Fleischmann & Pons 1989,第301頁 ("It is inconceivable that this [amount of heat] could be due to anything but nuclear processes... We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers...")
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Voss, David, What Ever Happened to Cold Fusion, Physics World, 1 March 1999a, 12 (3): 12–14 [1 May 2008], ISSN 0953-8585, doi:10.1088/2058-7058/12/3/14, (原始内容存档于2008-07-01) 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Browne, M., Physicists Debunk Claim Of a New Kind of Fusion, The New York Times, 3 May 1989 [25 May 2008] 
  5. ^ Close, Frank E., Too Hot to Handle: The Race for Cold Fusion 2, London: Penguin, 1992, ISBN 978-0-14-015926-4 
  6. ^ Huizenga, John R., Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century 2, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-19-855817-0 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Taubes, Gary, Bad Science: The Short Life and Weird Times of Cold Fusion, New York: Random House, 1993, ISBN 978-0-394-58456-0 
  8. ^ Kean, Sam, Palladium: The Cold Fusion Fanatics Can't Get Enough of the Stuff, Slate, 26 July 2010 [31 July 2011] 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Goodstein, David, Whatever happened to cold fusion?, American Scholar, 1994, 63 (4): 527–541 [25 May 2008], ISSN 0003-0937, (原始内容存档于16 May 2008) 
  10. ^ Van Noorden, R., Cold fusion back on the menu, Chemistry World, April 2007 [25 May 2008], ISSN 1473-7604 
  11. ^ Chang, Kenneth, US will give cold fusion a second look, The New York Times, 25 March 2004 [8 February 2009] 
  12. ^ Ouellette, Jennifer, Could Starships Use Cold Fusion Propulsion?, Discovery News, 23 December 2011, (原始内容存档于7 January 2012) 
  13. ^ US DOE, U.S. Department of Energy, Report of the Review of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (PDF) (Report), Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, 2004 [19 July 2008], (原始内容 (PDF)存档于26 February 2008) 
  14. ^ Choi, Charles, Back to Square One, Scientific American, 2005 [25 November 2008] 
  15. ^ Feder, Toni, Cold Fusion Gets Chilly Encore, Physics Today, January 2005, 58 (1): 31, Bibcode:2005PhT....58a..31F, doi:10.1063/1.1881896 
  16. ^ Labinger, JA; Weininger, SJ, Controversy in chemistry: how do you prove a negative?—the cases of phlogiston and cold fusion, Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2005, 44 (13): 1916–22, PMID 15770617, doi:10.1002/anie.200462084, So there matters stand: no cold fusion researcher has been able to dispel the stigma of 'pathological science' by rigorously and reproducibly demonstrating effects sufficiently large to exclude the possibility of error (for example, by constructing a working power generator), nor does it seem possible to conclude unequivocally that all the apparently anomalous behavior can be attributed to error. 
  17. ^ Koziol, Michael. Whether Cold Fusion or Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions, U.S. Navy Researchers Reopen Case. IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. 22 March 2021 [2021-03-23] (英语). 
  18. ^ Berlinguette, C.P., Chiang, YM., Munday, J.N. et al. Revisiting the cold case of cold fusion. Nature 570, 45–51 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1256-6
  19. ^ Broad, William J., Despite Scorn, Team in Utah Still Seeks Cold-Fusion Clues, The New York Times, 31 October 1989: C1 
  20. ^ Goodstein 1994, Platt 1998, Voss 1999a, Beaudette 2002, Feder 2005, Adam 2005 "Advocates insist that there is just too much evidence of unusual effects in the thousands of experiments since Pons and Fleischmann to be ignored", Kruglinski 2006, Van Noorden 2007, Alfred 2009. Daley 2004 calculates between 100 and 200 researchers, with damage to their careers.
  21. ^ 'Cold fusion' rebirth? New evidence for existence of controversial energy source, American Chemical Society, (原始内容存档于21 December 2014) 
  22. ^ Hagelstein, Peter L.; McKubre, Michael; Nagel, David; Chubb, Talbot; Hekman, Randall, New Physical Effects in Metal Deuterides (PDF), Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion. Held 31 October-5 November 2004 in Marseilles 11, 2004: 23, Bibcode:2006cmns...11...23H, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.233.5518可免费查阅, ISBN 9789812566409, doi:10.1142/9789812774354_0003, (原始内容 (PDF)存档于6 January 2007),  |journal=被忽略 (帮助)
  23. ^ ICMNS FAQ. International Society of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. (原始内容存档于3 November 2015). 
  24. ^ Biberian, Jean-Paul, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (Cold Fusion): An Update (PDF), International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, 2007, 3 (1): 31–42, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.618.6441可免费查阅, doi:10.1504/IJNEST.2007.012439, (原始内容存档 (PDF)于30 May 2008) 
  25. ^ APS Special Session on Cold Fusion, May 1-2, 1989. [2006-11-22]. (原始内容存档于2007-03-11). 
  26. ^ http://hps.phil.pku.edu.cn/viewarticle.php?sid=1348&st=40[永久失效連結]

延伸閱讀[编辑]

報導與評論[编辑]

期刊與書籍[编辑]

Websites and repositories[编辑]

新聞[编辑]

1980年代[编辑]

1990年代[编辑]

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書目[编辑]

  • Krivit, Steven ; Winocur, Nadine. The Rebirth of Cold Fusion: Real Science, Real Hope, Real Energy. Los Angeles, CA, Pacific Oaks Press, 2004 ISBN 0-9760545-8-2.
  • Charles Beaudette|Beaudette, Charles. Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed, 2nd. Ed. South Bristol, ME, Oak Grove Press, 2002. ISBN 0-9678548-3-0.
  • Robert L. Park|Park, Robert L. Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-513515-6. It gives a thorough account of cold fusion and its history which represents the perspective of the mainstream scientific community.
  • Mizuno, Tadahiko. Nuclear Transmutation: The Reality of Cold Fusion. Concord, N.H.: Infinite Energy Press, 1998. ISBN 1-892925-00-1.
  • Taubes, Gary. Bad Science: The Short Life and Weird Times of Cold Fusion. New York, N.Y. : Random House, 1993. ISBN 0-394-58456-2.
  • Huizenga, John R. Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 1992. ISBN 1-878822-07-1; ISBN 0-19-855817-1. Huizenga was co-chair of the 1989 DOE panel set up to investigate the Pons/Fleischmann experiment
  • Close, Frank E..Too Hot to Handle: The Race for Cold Fusion. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-691-08591-9; ISBN 0-14-015926-6.
  • Mallove, Eugene Fire from Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor. Concord, N.H.: Infinite Energy Press, 1991. ISBN 1-892925-02-8. It's an early account from the pro-cold-fusion perspective.