冷淡教友

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
Confusion grey.svg
提示:本条目的主题不是叛教

天主教背教者(或叛教者),[1]也稱冷淡教友,是指那些早年領洗加入天主教,但已經離開教會,甚至已信其他宗教之人士。[2]根據天主教教義和法律,他們仍然被視為天主教徒。[3][4][5]

定義[编辑]

冷淡教友是指那些「喪失信仰或不守教規」之教友,[1]他們在嬰兒或學校領洗後不知所蹤,或成人領洗後離開了教會。[6]

教會身分[编辑]

從教義與教會法角度看,背教者仍然是天主教教徒。按照《天主教教理》,圣洗圣事基督徒身上留下了不可磨灭的精神印记,表示他属于基督。任何罪恶也消除不了这个印记。[4]因此一位離開天主教或很少繼續去參與天主教活動的受洗者會被稱為冷淡天主教徒而非前天主教徒。如果一个天主教教徒背教后重新恢復信仰,他们不需要再改宗,仅需参加成年人入门礼仪来更新信仰。[5]

天主教保祿修會出版社《天主教法典新注釋》指出:

一旦領洗、加入天主教,他就永遠是天主教教友(semel catholicus semper catholicus)。當中改信其他宗教的,即使成為無神論者不可知論者,甚至被逐出教會,仍被視為天主教徒。[5]

各地情況[编辑]

美國[编辑]

美國天主教神父兼資深傳媒人里斯承認當地教友出走問題嚴重,他更引民調數據指出,背教者數目已佔全國天主教人口三分之一。[7]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 《天主教字典》,聖德肋撒堂
  2. ^ Kinkel, R.J. (2008), Cinderella Church: the Story of Early Christianity, introduction: "In the old days (1950s) these people would be called backsliders, apostates, lapsed Christians, and now this label has emerged: FARC, ie fallen away Roman Catholic."
  3. ^ Barbernitz, P. (1993), Parish Ministry for Returning Catholics, p3, "'I'm Catholic' is also the statement frequently used by some other people — those whom others might have named 'inactive' Catholics, 'fallen-away' or 'lapsed' Catholics. For many of them, the statement remains, 'I'm Catholic.'"
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 《天主教教理》第1272條:「受過洗的人,因聖洗而與基督結成一體,肖似基督。聖洗為基督徒蓋上不可磨滅的靈性印記(神印),表示他隸屬於基督。雖然罪惡能阻礙聖洗結出救恩的果實,但任何罪惡都不能拭去這印記。」
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Beal, J.P., New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, "Once a Catholic by baptism or reception, one always remains a Catholic (semel catholicus semper catholicus). Even those who have joined another religion, have become atheists or agnostics, or have been excommunicated remain Catholics. Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law; their rights are restored when they are reconciled through the remission of the penalty."
  6. ^ 天主教香港教區教區會議文件,教友培育與職務,1.1.2C項
  7. ^ Reese, Thomas (2011), The hidden exodus: Catholics becoming Protestants, National Catholic Reporter