副作用

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尼古丁的副作用。

醫學中,副作用(英語:side effect)是指藥品往往有多種作用,作用於不同身體部位受體,治療時利用其一種或一部分受體作用,其他作用或是受體產生作用即變成為副作用。雖然副作用一詞常被用來形容 不良反应 (医学)(adverse effects),但事實上副作用也可以指那些「有益處、意料之外」的效果。

有時候,一些藥物的副作用反而成為醫生處方那些藥物的目的;在這種情況下,那些藥物的副作用不再是副作用,反而是藥物的主作用了。 例如:X輻射線/X光(X-rays)一直被用做醫學影像用途,人們原本把它的輻射線對人體產生的效果當成是副作用。但自從人們發現X輻射線/X光能夠用來治療腫瘤後,輻射線被應用為放射線療法(radiotherapy)。在醫學影像領域中被當成副作用的輻射線效果,在癌症治療上反而成了消滅贅生物(tumours)的正作用了。


副作用出現頻率的术语[编辑]

通常以下列幾個術語來表示副作用出現的機率[參 1] [1][2]

  • 非常常見 (Very common) >= 1/10
  • 常見( Common (frequent)) >= 1/100 & <1/10
  • 不常見 (Uncommon (infrequent)) >= 1/1000 & <1/100
  • 罕見 (Rare) >= 1/10000 & <1/1000
  • 非常罕見 (Very rare) < 1/10000

有治療作用的「副作用」[编辑]

尼古丁可能的副作用
Possible side effects of nicotine.[3]

相關條目[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Common and Rare Side Effects for misoprostol oral. 
  2. ^ http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/safety_efficacy/trainingcourses/definitions.pdf
  3. ^ Detailed reference list is located on a separate image page.
  4. ^ Boseley, Sarah. Drugs firm blocks cheap blindness cure. The Guardian (London). 2006-06-17 [2010-05-20]. 
  5. ^ Gracer, Richard. The Buprenorphine Effect on Depression (PDF). naabt.org. National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment. February 2007 [19 September 2015]. 
  6. ^ Bodkin, JA; Zornberg, GL; Lukas, SE; Cole, JO. Buprenorphine Treatment of Refractory Depression. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1995, 15: 49–57. PMID 7714228. doi:10.1097/00004714-199502000-00008. 
  7. ^ Mood Stabilizers for Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depressive). Leeheymd.com (2003-08-01). Retrieved on 2011-08-17.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Dexamethasone. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. [Jul 29, 2015]. 
  9. ^ van de Beek D, de Gans J, McIntyre P, Prasad K. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007, (1): CD004405. PMID 17253505. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004405.pub2. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Wing, DA; Powers, B; Hickok, D. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval: Slow Advances in Obstetric Care in the United States. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010, 115 (4): 825–33. PMID 20308845. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d53843. 
  11. ^ Shen, WW; Mahadevan, J; Hofstatter, L; Sata, LS. Doxepin as a potent H2 and H2 antihistamine for epigastric distress. Am J Psychiatry. July 1983, 140 (7): 957–8. PMID 6859336. doi:10.1176/ajp.140.7.957. 
  12. ^ Off-label Use of Gabapentin, Idaho Drug Utilization Review, educational leaflet, 2004.
  13. ^ Pregnancy. drugs.nmihi.com. (New Medical Information and Health Information). (原始内容存档于11 October 2008). 
  14. ^ Deem, Samuel G. Premature Ejaculation. Emedicine.com. [2011-08-17]. 
  15. ^ Gelenberg, Alan J.; 等. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. 2010. 
  16. ^ Cheshire, William P.; Fealey, Robert D. Drug-induced hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis: incidence, prevention and management (PDF). Drug Safety. 2008, 31 (2): 109–126. ISSN 0114-5916. PMID 18217788. 
  17. ^ Filagra Vs Fildena. Filagra100mg.com. 23 February 2017. 

備註[编辑]

  1. ^ The probability or chance of experiencing side effects are characterised as :
  2. ^ 原文:Dexamethasone and Betamethasone英语Betamethasone in premature labor, to enhance pulmonary maturation of the fetus.

外部連結[编辑]