动物产品

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用三种鸭子产品(鸭蛋油封鸭鸭胸)做出的菜肴——“鸭鸭鸭”(Duck, Duck, Duck)

动物产品(animal product)泛指任何源自动物身体的产品[1],在国际贸易法规中使用的术语则是“动物来源产品”(products of animal origin,简称POAO)[2]。常见的动物产品包括肉、蛋、奶、毛、皮、角、血等等[3],其中人类可以食用的产品(肉、蛋、奶、血等)在学术界被称为动物来源食物(animal source food,简称ASF)[4]

动物副产品(animal by-product,缩写ABP)则泛指除了家畜家禽骨骼肌以外的所有动物产品(美国农业部定义)[5],而欧盟的定义更狭义,必须是人类不直接烹饪食用的才算是副产品[6],虽然一些动物副产品经过回收可能会被提炼加工成可使用的食材[7]。由腐烂动物或化石成分产生出来的产品(比如石油)并不被算入动物产品的范畴。

许多人群的饮食习惯会禁止食用动物产品(比如素食主义纯素主义[8]),而另一些可能会限制允许的动物产品的种类(比如魚素主義)。一些宗教信仰会有各种各样的饮食禁忌,比如佛教印度教都在一定程度上提倡吃素斋不吃动物产品,而犹太教饮食规定伊斯兰教清真都是限制动物产品摄入的传统。

种类[编辑]

食品[编辑]

非食用产品[编辑]

宠物副产品[编辑]

屠宰场废弃物

被除肉后剩余的动物副产品常常被屠宰场丢弃,但是这些残骸也可以被废物利用。其中一种方法就是将这些剩余部位加工成宠物食品[9]。许多大牌的宠物食品都用动物副产品作为其配方中蛋白质的补充来源,包括肝脏肺脏脾脏头部、被人厌恶不吃的下水以及肉骨粉。这些副产品在加工过程中会被高温消毒,因此对宠物来说既有营养又比较安全[9]。有些宠物食品生产商为了迎合素食主义者,会声称自己的产品没有使用动物副产品,然而这种行为则被批评是在鼓励食物浪费并且降低了肉联厂可持续性操作[10]

添加剂[编辑]

另见[编辑]

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ Gilman, Daniel Coit; Peck, Harry Thurston; Colby, Frank Moore. The New International Encyclopædia. Dodd, Mead & Co. 1907: 474 (英语). 
  2. ^ Animals and animal products: international trade regulations
  3. ^ Unklesbay, Nan. World Food and You. Routledge, 1992, p. 179ff.
  4. ^ Adesogan, Adegbola. Animal source foods: Sustainability problem or malnutrition andsustainability solution? Perspective matters. Global Food Security. 14 October 2019, 25: 100325 [2 March 2020]. doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2019.100325可免费查阅. 
  5. ^ Archived copy. [2017-01-20]. (原始内容存档于2017-02-02). 
  6. ^ https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/animal-by-products_en
  7. ^ Ockerman, Herbert and Hansen, Conly L. Animal by-product processing & utilization. Technomic Publishing Company Inc., 2000, p. 1.
  8. ^ Stepaniak, Joanne. Being Vegan: Living with Conscience, Conviction, and Compassion. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000, p. 7.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Byproducts. talkspetfood.aafco.org. 
  10. ^ A big pawprint: The environmental impact of pet food. Clinical Nutrition Service at Cummings School. 8 February 2018. 
  11. ^ Jones, Nathaniel Lee, Benji. Yoplait strawberry yogurt is one of many foods colored with carmine, a dye made from crushed cochineal bugs. Business Insider. [2020-09-03]. 
  12. ^ Pearson, Gwen. You Know What Makes Great Food Coloring? Bugs. Wired. 2015-09-10 [2020-09-03]. ISSN 1059-1028. 
  13. ^ Smale, Helen Soteriou and Will. Why you may have been eating insects your whole life. BBC News. 2018-04-28 [2020-09-03] (英国英语). 
  14. ^ Is it true that some candies are coloured with insect extract?. Office for Science and Society. [2020-09-03] (英语). 
  15. ^ Center for Science in the Public Interest. cspinet.org. [2020-09-03]. 
  16. ^ Conference proceedings literature added to ISI's chemistry citation index. Applied Catalysis A: General. December 1993, 107 (1): N4–N5. ISSN 0926-860X. doi:10.1016/0926-860x(93)85126-a. 
  17. ^ Cochineal and Starbucks: Actually, this dye is everywhere. Los Angeles Times. 2012-04-20 [2020-09-03] (美国英语). 
  18. ^ Cruz, Kim Bhasin, Noelia de la. Here's what you need to know about the ground-up insects that Starbucks puts in your Frappuccino. Business Insider. [2020-09-03]. 
  19. ^ Why You Should Never, Ever Give Red Candies To Your Valentine. HuffPost. 2014-02-13 [2020-09-03] (英语). 

额外阅读[编辑]

  • Extensive list identifying animal-derived and vegan ingredients
  • FDA Consumer Magazine: The Lowdown on Labels
  • Heinz, G. & Hautzinger, P. "Meat Processing Technology", Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007, accessed March 30, 2012.
  • Leoci, R., Animal by-products (ABPs): origins, uses, and European regulations, Mantova (Italy): Universitas Studiorum, 2014. ISBN 978-88-97683-47-6
  • Mian N Riaz, Riaz N Riaz, Muhammad M Chaudry. Halal Food Production, CRC Press, 2004. ISBN 1-58716-029-3
  • Tsai, Michelle. "What's in a can of dog food?, Slate, March 19, 2007.
  • Earthly Origin of Materials, is a material animal, vegetable, or mineral?