千人基因组计划

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千人基因组计划英语:1000 Genomes Project)启动于2008年1月,是一项国际研究工作,目标是迄今建立最详尽的人类遗传变异英语Human genetic variation目录。科学家们计划在随后三年内,利用新开发的、更快、更便宜的技术,测定来自不同族群的数量至少一千名的匿名参与者的基因组序列。在2010年,该项目完成了试点阶段,数据结果发表在《自然 (期刊)》杂志(Nature)上。[1]在2012年10月,1092个基因组的测序在《自然》杂志上被公布[2]。2015年,两篇《自然》论文报告了结果,和项目的完成和未来研究的机会。限于密切相关群体的许多罕见变异被识别了,并且八个结构变异类被分析[3]

基因数量和顺序的变化(A-D)在群体内和种群之间产生遗传多样性。

该项目联合来自世界各地机构的多学科研究团队,包括中国意大利日本肯尼亚尼日利亚秘鲁英国美国。每一个团队将贡献巨大的测序数据集,并来精致的改善人类基因组计划,这将成为通过公共数据库,免费向科学界和社会公众的开放。[2]

通过提供所有人类遗传变异的概述,该联盟将为生物科学的所有领域,特别是在遗传学医学药理学生物化学生物信息学学科中产生有价值的工具[4]

背景[编辑]

人类基因组计划完成后,人类群体遗传学比较基因组学的进步使得有可能越来越多地洞察遗传多样性的性质[5]。然而,我们刚刚才开始明白如何随机取样配子结构变异(插入/删除(indel),拷贝数变异英语Copy-number variation(CNV),反转录转座子),单核苷酸多态性(SNP)和自然选择等过程的塑造了物种内部以及物种之间变化的水平和模式[6][7][8][9]

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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Moffatt, Paul Scheet, Carlo Sidore, Matthew Snyder, Xiaowei Zhan, Sebastian Zöllner, Philip Awadalla, Ferran Casals, Youssef Idaghdour, John Keebler, Eric A. Stone, Martine Zilversmit, Lynn Jorde, Jinchuan Xing, Evan E. Eichler, Gozde Aksay, Can Alkan, Iman Hajirasouliha, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Jeffrey M. Kidd, S. Cenk Sahinalp, Peter H. Sudmant, Elaine R. Mardis, Ken Chen, Asif Chinwalla, Li Ding, Daniel C. Koboldt, Mike D. McLellan, David Dooling, George Weinstock, John W. Wallis, Michael C. Wendl, Qunyuan Zhang, Cornelis A. Albers, Qasim Ayub, Senduran Balasubramaniam, Jeffrey C. Barrett, David M. Carter, Yuan Chen, Donald F. Conrad, Petr Danecek, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis, Min Hu, Ni Huang, Matt E. Hurles, Hanjun Jin, Luke Jostins, Thomas M. Keane, Si Quang Le, Sarah Lindsay, Quan Long, Daniel G. MacArthur, Stephen B. Montgomery, Leopold Parts, James Stalker, Chris Tyler-Smith, Klaudia Walter, Yujun Zhang, Mark B. Gerstein, Michael Snyder, Alexej Abyzov, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Robert Bjornson, Jiang Du, Fabian Grubert, Lukas Habegger, Rajini Haraksingh, Justin Jee, Ekta Khurana, Hugo Y. K. Lam, Jing Leng, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Alexander E. Urban, Zhengdong Zhang, Yingrui Li, Ruibang Luo, Gabor T. Marth, Erik P. Garrison, Deniz Kural, Aaron R. Quinlan, Chip Stewart, Michael P. Stromberg, Alistair N. Ward, Jiantao Wu, Charles Lee, Ryan E. Mills, Xinghua Shi, Steven A. McCarroll, Eric Banks, Mark A. DePristo, Robert E. Handsaker, Chris Hartl, Joshua M. Korn, Heng Li, James C. Nemesh, Jonathan Sebat, Vladimir Makarov, Kenny Ye, Seungtai C. Yoon, Jeremiah Degenhardt, Mark Kaganovich, Laura Clarke, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Jan O. Korbel, Sean Humphray, R. Keira Cheetham, Michael Eberle, Scott Kahn, Lisa Murray, Kai Ye, Francisco M. De La Vega, Yutao Fu, Heather E. Peckham, Yongming A. Sun, Mark A. Batzer, Miriam K. Konkel, Jerilyn A. Walker, Chunlin Xiao, Zamin Iqbal, Brian Desany, Tom Blackwell, Matthew Snyder, Jinchuan Xing, Evan E. Eichler, Gozde Aksay, Can Alkan, Iman Hajirasouliha, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Jeffrey M. Kidd, Ken Chen, Asif Chinwalla, Li Ding, Mike D. McLellan, John W. Wallis, Matt E. Hurles, Donald F. Conrad, Klaudia Walter, Yujun Zhang, Mark B. Gerstein, Michael Snyder, Alexej Abyzov, Jiang Du, Fabian Grubert, Rajini Haraksingh, Justin Jee, Ekta Khurana, Hugo Y. K. Lam, Jing Leng, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Alexander E. Urban, Zhengdong Zhang, Richard A. Gibbs, Matthew Bainbridge, Danny Challis, Cristian Coafra, Huyen Dinh, Christie Kovar, Sandy Lee, Donna Muzny, Lynne Nazareth, Jeff Reid, Aniko Sabo, Fuli Yu, Jin Yu, Gabor T. Marth, Erik P. Garrison, Amit Indap, Wen Fung Leong, Aaron R. Quinlan, Chip Stewart, Alistair N. Ward, Jiantao Wu, Kristian Cibulskis, Tim J. Fennell, Stacey B. Gabriel, Kiran V. Garimella, Chris Hartl, Erica Shefler, Carrie L. Sougnez, Jane Wilkinson, Andrew G. 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  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Gil A. McVean, David M. Altshuler (Co-Chair), Richard M. Durbin (Co-Chair), Gonçalo R. Abecasis, David R. Bentley, Aravinda Chakravarti, Andrew G. Clark, Peter Donnelly, Evan E. Eichler, Paul Flicek, Stacey B. Gabriel, Richard A. Gibbs, Eric D. Green, Matthew E. Hurles, Bartha M. Knoppers, Jan O. Korbel, Eric S. Lander, Charles Lee, Hans Lehrach, Elaine R. Mardis, Gabor T. Marth, Deborah A. Nickerson, Jeanette P. Schmidt, Stephen T. Sherry, Jun Wang, Richard K. Wilson, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Huyen Dinh, Christie Kovar, Sandra Lee, Lora Lewis, Donna Muzny, Jeff Reid, Min Wang, Jun Wang (Principal Investigator), Xiaodong Fang, Xiaosen Guo, Min Jian, Hui Jiang, Xin Jin, Guoqing Li, Jingxiang Li, Yingrui Li, Zhuo Li, Xiao Liu, Yao Lu, Xuedi Ma, Zhe Su, Shuaishuai Tai, Meifang Tang, Bo Wang, Guangbiao Wang, Honglong Wu, Renhua Wu, Ye Yin, Wenwei Zhang, Jiao Zhao, Meiru Zhao, Xiaole Zheng, Yan Zhou, Eric S. Lander (Principal Investigator), David M. Altshuler, Stacey B. Gabriel (Co-Chair), Namrata Gupta, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Laura Clarke, Rasko Leinonen, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Russell Grocock, Sean Humphray, Terena James, Zoya Kingsbury, Hans Lehrach (Principal Investigator), Ralf Sudbrak (Project Leader), Marcus W. Albrecht, Vyacheslav S. Amstislavskiy, Tatiana A. Borodina, Matthias Lienhard, Florian Mertes, Marc Sultan, Bernd Timmermann, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Stephen T. Sherry (Principal Investigator), Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Elaine R. Mardis (Co-Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Richard K. Wilson (Co-Principal Investigator), Lucinda Fulton, Robert Fulton, George M. Weinstock, Richard M. Durbin (Principal Investigator), Senduran Balasubramaniam, John Burton, Petr Danecek, Thomas M. Keane, Anja Kolb-Kokocinski, Shane McCarthy, James Stalker, Michael Quail, Jeanette P. Schmidt (Principal Investigator), Christopher J. Davies, Jeremy Gollub, Teresa Webster, Brant Wong, Yiping Zhan, Adam Auton (Principal Investigator), Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Fuli Yu (Project Leader), Matthew Bainbridge, Danny Challis, Uday S. Evani, James Lu, Donna Muzny, Uma Nagaswamy, Jeff Reid, Aniko Sabo, Yi Wang, Jin Yu, Jun Wang (Principal Investigator), Lachlan J. M. Coin, Lin Fang, Xiaosen Guo, Xin Jin, Guoqing Li, Qibin Li, Yingrui Li, Zhenyu Li, Haoxiang Lin, Binghang Liu, Ruibang Luo, Nan Qin, Haojing Shao, Bingqiang Wang, Yinlong Xie, Chen Ye, Chang Yu, Fan Zhang, Hancheng Zheng, Hongmei Zhu, Gabor T. Marth (Principal Investigator), Erik P. Garrison, Deniz Kural, Wan-Ping Lee, Wen Fung Leong, Alistair N. Ward, Jiantao Wu, Mengyao Zhang, Charles Lee (Principal Investigator), Lauren Griffin, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Ryan E. Mills, Xinghua Shi, Marcin von Grotthuss, Chengsheng Zhang, Mark J. Daly (Principal Investigator), Mark A. DePristo (Project Leader), David M. Altshuler, Eric Banks, Gaurav Bhatia, Mauricio O. Carneiro, Guillermo del Angel, Stacey B. Gabriel, Giulio Genovese, Namrata Gupta, Robert E. Handsaker, Chris Hartl, Eric S. Lander, Steven A. McCarroll, James C. Nemesh, Ryan E. Poplin, Stephen F. Schaffner, Khalid Shakir, Seungtai C. Yoon (Principal Investigator), Jayon Lihm, Vladimir Makarov, Hanjun Jin (Principal Investigator), Wook Kim, Ki Cheol Kim, Jan O. Korbel (Principal Investigator), Tobias Rausch, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Kathryn Beal, Laura Clarke, Fiona Cunningham, Javier Herrero, William M. McLaren, Graham R. S. Ritchie, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Andrew G. Clark (Principal Investigator), Srikanth Gottipati, Alon Keinan, Juan L. Rodriguez-Flores, Pardis C. Sabeti (Principal Investigator), Sharon R. Grossman, Shervin Tabrizi, Ridhi Tariyal, David N. Cooper (Principal Investigator), Edward V. Ball, Peter D. Stenson, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Bret Barnes, Markus Bauer, R. Keira Cheetham, Tony Cox, Michael Eberle, Sean Humphray, Scott Kahn, Lisa Murray, John Peden, Richard Shaw, Kai Ye (Principal Investigator), Mark A. Batzer (Principal Investigator), Miriam K. Konkel, Jerilyn A. Walker, Daniel G. MacArthur (Principal Investigator), Monkol Lek, Sudbrak (Project Leader), Vyacheslav S. Amstislavskiy, Ralf Herwig, Mark D. Shriver (Principal Investigator), Carlos D. Bustamante (Principal Investigator), Jake K. Byrnes, Francisco M. De La Vega, Simon Gravel, Eimear E. Kenny, Jeffrey M. Kidd, Phil Lacroute, Brian K. Maples, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Fouad Zakharia, Eran Halperin (Principal Investigator), Yael Baran, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Alexis Christoforides, Nils Homer, Tyler Izatt, Ahmet A. Kurdoglu, Shripad A. Sinari, Kevin Squire, Stephen T. Sherry (Principal Investigator), Chunlin Xiao, Jonathan Sebat (Principal Investigator), Vineet Bafna, Kenny Ye, Esteban G. Burchard (Principal Investigator), Ryan D. Hernandez (Principal Investigator), Christopher R. Gignoux, David Haussler (Principal Investigator), Sol J. Katzman, W. James Kent, Bryan Howie, Andres Ruiz-Linares (Principal Investigator), Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis (Principal Investigator), Tuuli Lappalainen, Scott E. Devine (Principal Investigator), Xinyue Liu, Ankit Maroo, Luke J. Tallon, Jeffrey A. Rosenfeld (Principal Investigator), Leslie P. Michelson, Gonçalo R. Abecasis (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Hyun Min Kang (Project Leader), Paul Anderson, Andrea Angius, Abigail Bigham, Tom Blackwell, Fabio Busonero, Francesco Cucca, Christian Fuchsberger, Chris Jones, Goo Jun, Yun Li, Robert Lyons, Andrea Maschio, Eleonora Porcu, Fred Reinier, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, Carlo Sidore, Adrian Tan, Mary Kate Trost, Philip Awadalla (Principal Investigator), Alan Hodgkinson, Gerton Lunter (Principal Investigator), Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Jonathan L. Marchini (Principal Investigator), Simon Myers (Principal Investigator), Claire Churchhouse, Olivier Delaneau, Anjali Gupta-Hinch, Zamin Iqbal, Iain Mathieson, Andy Rimmer, Dionysia K. Xifara, Taras K. Oleksyk (Principal Investigator), Yunxin Fu (Principal Investigator), Xiaoming Liu, Momiao Xiong, Lynn Jorde (Principal Investigator), David Witherspoon, Jinchuan Xing, Evan E. Eichler (Principal Investigator), Brian L. Browning (Principal Investigator), Can Alkan, Iman Hajirasouliha, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Arthur Ko, Peter H. Sudmant, Elaine R. Mardis (Co-Principal Investigator), Ken Chen, Asif Chinwalla, Li Ding, David Dooling, Daniel C. Koboldt, Michael D. McLellan, John W. Wallis, Michael C. Wendl, Qunyuan Zhang, Richard M. Durbin (Principal Investigator), Matthew E. Hurles (Principal Investigator), Cornelis A. Albers, Qasim Ayub, Senduran Balasubramaniam, Yuan Chen, Alison J. Coffey, Vincenza Colonna, Petr Danecek, Ni Huang, Luke Jostins, Thomas M. Keane, Heng Li, Shane McCarthy, Aylwyn Scally, James Stalker, Klaudia Walter, Yali Xue, Yujun Zhang, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator), Alexej Abyzov, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Jieming Chen, Declan Clarke, Yao Fu, Lukas Habegger, Arif O. Harmanci, Mike Jin, Ekta Khurana, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Cristina Sisu, Yingrui Li, Ruibang Luo, Hongmei Zhu, Charles Lee (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Lauren Griffin, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Ryan E. Mills, Xinghua Shi, Marcin von Grotthuss, Chengsheng Zhang, Gabor T. Marth (Principal Investigator), Erik P. Garrison, Deniz Kural, Wan-Ping Lee, Alistair N. Ward, Jiantao Wu, Mengyao Zhang, Steven A. McCarroll (Project Leader), David M. Altshuler, Eric Banks, Guillermo del Angel, Giulio Genovese, Robert E. Handsaker, Chris Hartl, James C. Nemesh, Khalid Shakir, Seungtai C. Yoon (Principal Investigator), Jayon Lihm, Vladimir Makarov, Jeremiah Degenhardt, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Laura Clarke, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Jan O. Korbel (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Tobias Rausch, Adrian M. Stütz, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Bret Barnes, R. Keira Cheetham, Michael Eberle, Sean Humphray, Scott Kahn, Lisa Murray, Richard Shaw, Kai Ye (Principal Investigator), Mark A. Batzer (Principal Investigator), Miriam K. Konkel, Jerilyn A. Walker, Phil Lacroute, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Nils Homer, Deanna Church, Chunlin Xiao, Jonathan Sebat (Principal Investigator), Vineet Bafna, Jacob J. Michaelson, Kenny Ye, Scott E. Devine (Principal Investigator), Xinyue Liu, Ankit Maroo, Luke J. Tallon, Gerton Lunter (Principal Investigator), Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Zamin Iqbal, David Witherspoon, Jinchuan Xing, Evan E. Eichler (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Can Alkan, Iman Hajirasouliha, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Arthur Ko, Peter H. Sudmant, Ken Chen, Asif Chinwalla, Li Ding, Michael D. McLellan, John W. Wallis, Matthew E. Hurles (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Ben Blackburne, Heng Li, Sarah J. Lindsay, Zemin Ning, Aylwyn Scally, Klaudia Walter, Yujun Zhang, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator), Alexej Abyzov, Jieming Chen, Declan Clarke, Ekta Khurana, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Cristina Sisu, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Fuli Yu (Project Leader), Matthew Bainbridge, Danny Challis, Uday S. Evani, Christie Kovar, Lora Lewis, James Lu, Donna Muzny, Uma Nagaswamy, Jeff Reid, Aniko Sabo, Jin Yu, Xiaosen Guo, Yingrui Li, Renhua Wu, Gabor T. Marth (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Erik P. Garrison, Wen Fung Leong, Alistair N. Ward, Guillermo del Angel, Mark A. DePristo, Stacey B. Gabriel, Namrata Gupta, Chris Hartl, Ryan E. Poplin, Andrew G. Clark (Principal Investigator), Juan L. Rodriguez-Flores, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Laura Clarke, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Daniel G. MacArthur (Principal Investigator), Carlos D. Bustamante (Principal Investigator), Simon Gravel, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Alexis Christoforides, Nils Homer, Tyler Izatt, Stephen T. Sherry (Principal Investigator), Chunlin Xiao, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis (Principal Investigator), Gonçalo R. Abecasis (Principal Investigator), Hyun Min Kang, Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Elaine R. Mardis (Principal Investigator), David Dooling, Lucinda Fulton, Robert Fulton, Daniel C. Koboldt, Richard M. Durbin (Principal Investigator), Senduran Balasubramaniam, Thomas M. Keane, Shane McCarthy, James Stalker, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator), Suganthi Balasubramanian, Lukas Habegger, Erik P. Garrison, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Matthew Bainbridge, Donna Muzny, Fuli Yu, Jin Yu, Guillermo del Angel, Robert E. Handsaker, Vladimir Makarov, Juan L. Rodriguez-Flores, Hanjun Jin (Principal Investigator), Wook Kim, Ki Cheol Kim, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Kathryn Beal, Laura Clarke, Fiona Cunningham, Javier Herrero, William M. McLaren, Graham R. S. Ritchie, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Shervin Tabrizi, Daniel G. MacArthur (Principal Investigator), Monkol Lek, Carlos D. Bustamante (Principal Investigator), Francisco M. De La Vega, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Ahmet A. Kurdoglu, Tuuli Lappalainen, Jeffrey A. Rosenfeld (Principal Investigator), Leslie P. Michelson, Philip Awadalla (Principal Investigator), Alan Hodgkinson, Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Ken Chen, Yuan Chen, Vincenza Colonna, Adam Frankish, Jennifer Harrow, Yali Xue, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Alexej Abyzov, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Jieming Chen, Declan Clarke, Yao Fu, Arif O. Harmanci, Mike Jin, Ekta Khurana, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Cristina Sisu, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Gerald Fowler, Walker Hale, Divya Kalra, Christie Kovar, Donna Muzny, Jeff Reid, Jun Wang (Principal Investigator), Xiaosen Guo, Guoqing Li, Yingrui Li, Xiaole Zheng, David M. Altshuler, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Laura Clarke (Project Leader), Jonathan Barker, Gavin Kelman, Eugene Kulesha, Rasko Leinonen, William M. McLaren, Rajesh Radhakrishnan, Asier Roa, Dmitriy Smirnov, Richard E. Smith, Ian Streeter, Iliana Toneva, Brendan Vaughan, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Tony Cox, Sean Humphray, Scott Kahn, Ralf Sudbrak (Project Leader), Marcus W. Albrecht, Matthias Lienhard, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Tyler Izatt, Ahmet A. Kurdoglu, Stephen T. 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