千人基因组计划

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千人基因组计划(英語:1000 Genomes Project)启动于2008年1月,是一项国际研究工作,目标是迄今建立最详尽的人类遗传变异英语Human genetic variation目录。科学家们计划在随后三年内,利用新开发的、更快、更便宜的技术,测定来自不同族群的数量至少一千名的匿名参与者的基因组序列。在2010年,该项目完成了试点阶段,数据结果发表在《自然 (期刊)》杂志(Nature)上[1]。在2012年10月,1092个基因组的测序结果公布在《自然》杂志上[2]。2015年,两篇关于项目结果和未来展望的论文发表在了《自然》杂志上。项目识别出许多限于密切相关群体的罕见变异和八种结构类变异[3]

基因数量和顺序的变化(A-D)在群体内和种群之间产生遗传多样性。

该项目联合来自世界各地机构的多学科研究团队,包括中国意大利日本肯尼亚尼日利亚秘鲁英国美国。每一个团队将贡献巨大的测序数据集,并且精心完善人类基因组计划。最终收集数据建立公共数据库,免费向科学界和社会公众开放。[2]

通过提供所有人类遗传变异的概述,该联盟将为生物科学的所有领域,特别是在遗传学医学药理学生物化学生物信息学学科打造有价值的科研工具[4]

背景[编辑]

人类基因组计划完成后,人类群体遗传学比较基因组学的进步使得有可能越来越多地洞察遗传多样性的性质[5]。然而,我们刚刚才开始明白如何随机取样配子结构变异(插入/删除(indel),拷贝数变异英语Copy-number variation(CNV),反转录转座子),单核苷酸多态性(SNP)和自然选择等过程的塑造了物种内部以及物种之间变化的水平和模式[6][7][8][9]

人类遗传变异[编辑]

有性生殖期间配子的随机抽样导致遗传漂变 - 后代中种群频率的随机波动 - 并且在没有外部影响的情况下会导致所有变异的丧失。 据推测,遗传漂移率与种群规模成反比,并且可能在特定情况下加速,例如种群瓶颈,种群规模减少一段时间,以及奠基者效应(英語:founder effect,指个体在一群人追溯到少数创始人)[6]

项目发现[编辑]

试点阶段[编辑]

试点阶段(Pilot phase)包括三个项目:

  • 来自4个群体的179个个体的低覆盖度全基因组测序
  • 2个三人组(母亲-父亲-孩子)的高覆盖率排序
  • 来自7个群体的697个个体的外显子靶向测序

结果发现,平均而言,每个人在注释基因中携带约250-300个功能丧失变体,并且先前涉及遗传性疾病的50-100个变体。 基于这2个三人组,估计每个新的种系的从头开始生殖系突变率约为每一对每一代有10−8[1]

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Durbin, R. M.; Abecasis, G. R.; Altshuler, R. M.; Auton, A.; Brooks, D. R.; Durbin, A.; Gibbs, A. G.; Hurles, F. S.; McVean, F. M.; Donnelly, P.; Egholm, M.; Flicek, P.; Gabriel, S. B.; Gibbs, R. A.; Knoppers, B. M.; Lander, E. S.; Lehrach, H.; Mardis, E. R.; McVean, G. A.; Nickerson, D. A.; Peltonen, L.; Schafer, A. J.; Sherry, S. T.; Wang, J.; Wilson, R. K.; Gibbs, R. A.; Deiros, D.; Metzker, M.; Muzny, D.; Reid, J. A map of human genome variation from population-scale sequencing. Nature. 2010, 467 (7319): 1061–1073. PMC 3042601. PMID 20981092. doi:10.1038/nature09534. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Gil A. McVean, David M. Altshuler (Co-Chair), Richard M. Durbin (Co-Chair), Gonçalo R. Abecasis, David R. Bentley, Aravinda Chakravarti, Andrew G. Clark, Peter Donnelly, Evan E. Eichler, Paul Flicek, Stacey B. Gabriel, Richard A. Gibbs, Eric D. Green, Matthew E. Hurles, Bartha M. Knoppers, Jan O. Korbel, Eric S. Lander, Charles Lee, Hans Lehrach, Elaine R. Mardis, Gabor T. Marth, Deborah A. Nickerson, Jeanette P. Schmidt, Stephen T. Sherry, Jun Wang, Richard K. Wilson, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Huyen Dinh, Christie Kovar, Sandra Lee, Lora Lewis, Donna Muzny, Jeff Reid, Min Wang, Jun Wang (Principal Investigator), Xiaodong Fang, Xiaosen Guo, Min Jian, Hui Jiang, Xin Jin, Guoqing Li, Jingxiang Li, Yingrui Li, Zhuo Li, Xiao Liu, Yao Lu, Xuedi Ma, Zhe Su, Shuaishuai Tai, Meifang Tang, Bo Wang, Guangbiao Wang, Honglong Wu, Renhua Wu, Ye Yin, Wenwei Zhang, Jiao Zhao, Meiru Zhao, Xiaole Zheng, Yan Zhou, Eric S. Lander (Principal Investigator), David M. Altshuler, Stacey B. Gabriel (Co-Chair), Namrata Gupta, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Laura Clarke, Rasko Leinonen, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Russell Grocock, Sean Humphray, Terena James, Zoya Kingsbury, Hans Lehrach (Principal Investigator), Ralf Sudbrak (Project Leader), Marcus W. Albrecht, Vyacheslav S. Amstislavskiy, Tatiana A. Borodina, Matthias Lienhard, Florian Mertes, Marc Sultan, Bernd Timmermann, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Stephen T. Sherry (Principal Investigator), Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Elaine R. Mardis (Co-Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Richard K. Wilson (Co-Principal Investigator), Lucinda Fulton, Robert Fulton, George M. Weinstock, Richard M. Durbin (Principal Investigator), Senduran Balasubramaniam, John Burton, Petr Danecek, Thomas M. Keane, Anja Kolb-Kokocinski, Shane McCarthy, James Stalker, Michael Quail, Jeanette P. Schmidt (Principal Investigator), Christopher J. Davies, Jeremy Gollub, Teresa Webster, Brant Wong, Yiping Zhan, Adam Auton (Principal Investigator), Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Fuli Yu (Project Leader), Matthew Bainbridge, Danny Challis, Uday S. Evani, James Lu, Donna Muzny, Uma Nagaswamy, Jeff Reid, Aniko Sabo, Yi Wang, Jin Yu, Jun Wang (Principal Investigator), Lachlan J. M. Coin, Lin Fang, Xiaosen Guo, Xin Jin, Guoqing Li, Qibin Li, Yingrui Li, Zhenyu Li, Haoxiang Lin, Binghang Liu, Ruibang Luo, Nan Qin, Haojing Shao, Bingqiang Wang, Yinlong Xie, Chen Ye, Chang Yu, Fan Zhang, Hancheng Zheng, Hongmei Zhu, Gabor T. Marth (Principal Investigator), Erik P. Garrison, Deniz Kural, Wan-Ping Lee, Wen Fung Leong, Alistair N. Ward, Jiantao Wu, Mengyao Zhang, Charles Lee (Principal Investigator), Lauren Griffin, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Ryan E. Mills, Xinghua Shi, Marcin von Grotthuss, Chengsheng Zhang, Mark J. Daly (Principal Investigator), Mark A. DePristo (Project Leader), David M. Altshuler, Eric Banks, Gaurav Bhatia, Mauricio O. Carneiro, Guillermo del Angel, Stacey B. Gabriel, Giulio Genovese, Namrata Gupta, Robert E. Handsaker, Chris Hartl, Eric S. Lander, Steven A. McCarroll, James C. Nemesh, Ryan E. Poplin, Stephen F. Schaffner, Khalid Shakir, Seungtai C. Yoon (Principal Investigator), Jayon Lihm, Vladimir Makarov, Hanjun Jin (Principal Investigator), Wook Kim, Ki Cheol Kim, Jan O. Korbel (Principal Investigator), Tobias Rausch, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Kathryn Beal, Laura Clarke, Fiona Cunningham, Javier Herrero, William M. McLaren, Graham R. S. Ritchie, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Andrew G. Clark (Principal Investigator), Srikanth Gottipati, Alon Keinan, Juan L. Rodriguez-Flores, Pardis C. Sabeti (Principal Investigator), Sharon R. Grossman, Shervin Tabrizi, Ridhi Tariyal, David N. Cooper (Principal Investigator), Edward V. Ball, Peter D. Stenson, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Bret Barnes, Markus Bauer, R. Keira Cheetham, Tony Cox, Michael Eberle, Sean Humphray, Scott Kahn, Lisa Murray, John Peden, Richard Shaw, Kai Ye (Principal Investigator), Mark A. Batzer (Principal Investigator), Miriam K. Konkel, Jerilyn A. Walker, Daniel G. MacArthur (Principal Investigator), Monkol Lek, Sudbrak (Project Leader), Vyacheslav S. Amstislavskiy, Ralf Herwig, Mark D. Shriver (Principal Investigator), Carlos D. Bustamante (Principal Investigator), Jake K. Byrnes, Francisco M. De La Vega, Simon Gravel, Eimear E. Kenny, Jeffrey M. Kidd, Phil Lacroute, Brian K. Maples, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Fouad Zakharia, Eran Halperin (Principal Investigator), Yael Baran, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Alexis Christoforides, Nils Homer, Tyler Izatt, Ahmet A. Kurdoglu, Shripad A. Sinari, Kevin Squire, Stephen T. Sherry (Principal Investigator), Chunlin Xiao, Jonathan Sebat (Principal Investigator), Vineet Bafna, Kenny Ye, Esteban G. Burchard (Principal Investigator), Ryan D. Hernandez (Principal Investigator), Christopher R. Gignoux, David Haussler (Principal Investigator), Sol J. Katzman, W. James Kent, Bryan Howie, Andres Ruiz-Linares (Principal Investigator), Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis (Principal Investigator), Tuuli Lappalainen, Scott E. Devine (Principal Investigator), Xinyue Liu, Ankit Maroo, Luke J. Tallon, Jeffrey A. Rosenfeld (Principal Investigator), Leslie P. Michelson, Gonçalo R. Abecasis (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Hyun Min Kang (Project Leader), Paul Anderson, Andrea Angius, Abigail Bigham, Tom Blackwell, Fabio Busonero, Francesco Cucca, Christian Fuchsberger, Chris Jones, Goo Jun, Yun Li, Robert Lyons, Andrea Maschio, Eleonora Porcu, Fred Reinier, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, Carlo Sidore, Adrian Tan, Mary Kate Trost, Philip Awadalla (Principal Investigator), Alan Hodgkinson, Gerton Lunter (Principal Investigator), Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Jonathan L. Marchini (Principal Investigator), Simon Myers (Principal Investigator), Claire Churchhouse, Olivier Delaneau, Anjali Gupta-Hinch, Zamin Iqbal, Iain Mathieson, Andy Rimmer, Dionysia K. Xifara, Taras K. Oleksyk (Principal Investigator), Yunxin Fu (Principal Investigator), Xiaoming Liu, Momiao Xiong, Lynn Jorde (Principal Investigator), David Witherspoon, Jinchuan Xing, Evan E. Eichler (Principal Investigator), Brian L. Browning (Principal Investigator), Can Alkan, Iman Hajirasouliha, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Arthur Ko, Peter H. Sudmant, Elaine R. Mardis (Co-Principal Investigator), Ken Chen, Asif Chinwalla, Li Ding, David Dooling, Daniel C. Koboldt, Michael D. McLellan, John W. Wallis, Michael C. Wendl, Qunyuan Zhang, Richard M. Durbin (Principal Investigator), Matthew E. Hurles (Principal Investigator), Cornelis A. Albers, Qasim Ayub, Senduran Balasubramaniam, Yuan Chen, Alison J. Coffey, Vincenza Colonna, Petr Danecek, Ni Huang, Luke Jostins, Thomas M. Keane, Heng Li, Shane McCarthy, Aylwyn Scally, James Stalker, Klaudia Walter, Yali Xue, Yujun Zhang, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator), Alexej Abyzov, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Jieming Chen, Declan Clarke, Yao Fu, Lukas Habegger, Arif O. Harmanci, Mike Jin, Ekta Khurana, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Cristina Sisu, Yingrui Li, Ruibang Luo, Hongmei Zhu, Charles Lee (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Lauren Griffin, Chih-Heng Hsieh, Ryan E. Mills, Xinghua Shi, Marcin von Grotthuss, Chengsheng Zhang, Gabor T. Marth (Principal Investigator), Erik P. Garrison, Deniz Kural, Wan-Ping Lee, Alistair N. Ward, Jiantao Wu, Mengyao Zhang, Steven A. McCarroll (Project Leader), David M. Altshuler, Eric Banks, Guillermo del Angel, Giulio Genovese, Robert E. Handsaker, Chris Hartl, James C. Nemesh, Khalid Shakir, Seungtai C. Yoon (Principal Investigator), Jayon Lihm, Vladimir Makarov, Jeremiah Degenhardt, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Laura Clarke, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Jan O. Korbel (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Tobias Rausch, Adrian M. Stütz, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Bret Barnes, R. Keira Cheetham, Michael Eberle, Sean Humphray, Scott Kahn, Lisa Murray, Richard Shaw, Kai Ye (Principal Investigator), Mark A. Batzer (Principal Investigator), Miriam K. Konkel, Jerilyn A. Walker, Phil Lacroute, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Nils Homer, Deanna Church, Chunlin Xiao, Jonathan Sebat (Principal Investigator), Vineet Bafna, Jacob J. Michaelson, Kenny Ye, Scott E. Devine (Principal Investigator), Xinyue Liu, Ankit Maroo, Luke J. Tallon, Gerton Lunter (Principal Investigator), Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Zamin Iqbal, David Witherspoon, Jinchuan Xing, Evan E. Eichler (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Can Alkan, Iman Hajirasouliha, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Arthur Ko, Peter H. Sudmant, Ken Chen, Asif Chinwalla, Li Ding, Michael D. McLellan, John W. Wallis, Matthew E. Hurles (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Ben Blackburne, Heng Li, Sarah J. Lindsay, Zemin Ning, Aylwyn Scally, Klaudia Walter, Yujun Zhang, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator), Alexej Abyzov, Jieming Chen, Declan Clarke, Ekta Khurana, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Cristina Sisu, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Fuli Yu (Project Leader), Matthew Bainbridge, Danny Challis, Uday S. Evani, Christie Kovar, Lora Lewis, James Lu, Donna Muzny, Uma Nagaswamy, Jeff Reid, Aniko Sabo, Jin Yu, Xiaosen Guo, Yingrui Li, Renhua Wu, Gabor T. Marth (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Erik P. Garrison, Wen Fung Leong, Alistair N. Ward, Guillermo del Angel, Mark A. DePristo, Stacey B. Gabriel, Namrata Gupta, Chris Hartl, Ryan E. Poplin, Andrew G. Clark (Principal Investigator), Juan L. Rodriguez-Flores, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Laura Clarke, Richard E. Smith, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Daniel G. MacArthur (Principal Investigator), Carlos D. Bustamante (Principal Investigator), Simon Gravel, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Alexis Christoforides, Nils Homer, Tyler Izatt, Stephen T. Sherry (Principal Investigator), Chunlin Xiao, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis (Principal Investigator), Gonçalo R. Abecasis (Principal Investigator), Hyun Min Kang, Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Elaine R. Mardis (Principal Investigator), David Dooling, Lucinda Fulton, Robert Fulton, Daniel C. Koboldt, Richard M. Durbin (Principal Investigator), Senduran Balasubramaniam, Thomas M. Keane, Shane McCarthy, James Stalker, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator), Suganthi Balasubramanian, Lukas Habegger, Erik P. Garrison, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Matthew Bainbridge, Donna Muzny, Fuli Yu, Jin Yu, Guillermo del Angel, Robert E. Handsaker, Vladimir Makarov, Juan L. Rodriguez-Flores, Hanjun Jin (Principal Investigator), Wook Kim, Ki Cheol Kim, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator), Kathryn Beal, Laura Clarke, Fiona Cunningham, Javier Herrero, William M. McLaren, Graham R. S. Ritchie, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, Shervin Tabrizi, Daniel G. MacArthur (Principal Investigator), Monkol Lek, Carlos D. Bustamante (Principal Investigator), Francisco M. De La Vega, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Ahmet A. Kurdoglu, Tuuli Lappalainen, Jeffrey A. Rosenfeld (Principal Investigator), Leslie P. Michelson, Philip Awadalla (Principal Investigator), Alan Hodgkinson, Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Ken Chen, Yuan Chen, Vincenza Colonna, Adam Frankish, Jennifer Harrow, Yali Xue, Mark B. Gerstein (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Alexej Abyzov, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Jieming Chen, Declan Clarke, Yao Fu, Arif O. Harmanci, Mike Jin, Ekta Khurana, Xinmeng Jasmine Mu, Cristina Sisu, Richard A. Gibbs (Principal Investigator), Gerald Fowler, Walker Hale, Divya Kalra, Christie Kovar, Donna Muzny, Jeff Reid, Jun Wang (Principal Investigator), Xiaosen Guo, Guoqing Li, Yingrui Li, Xiaole Zheng, David M. Altshuler, Paul Flicek (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Laura Clarke (Project Leader), Jonathan Barker, Gavin Kelman, Eugene Kulesha, Rasko Leinonen, William M. McLaren, Rajesh Radhakrishnan, Asier Roa, Dmitriy Smirnov, Richard E. Smith, Ian Streeter, Iliana Toneva, Brendan Vaughan, Xiangqun Zheng-Bradley, David R. Bentley (Principal Investigator), Tony Cox, Sean Humphray, Scott Kahn, Ralf Sudbrak (Project Leader), Marcus W. Albrecht, Matthias Lienhard, David W. Craig (Principal Investigator), Tyler Izatt, Ahmet A. Kurdoglu, Stephen T. Sherry (Principal Investigator) (Co-Chair), Victor Ananiev, Zinaida Belaia, Dimitriy Beloslyudtsev, Nathan Bouk, Chao Chen, Deanna Church, Robert Cohen, Charles Cook, John Garner, Timothy Hefferon, Mikhail Kimelman, Chunlei Liu, John Lopez, Peter Meric, Chris O’Sullivan, Yuri Ostapchuk, Lon Phan, Sergiy Ponomarov, Valerie Schneider, Eugene Shekhtman, Karl Sirotkin, Douglas Slotta, Chunlin Xiao, Hua Zhang, David Haussler (Principal Investigator), Gonçalo R. Abecasis (Principal Investigator), Gil A. McVean (Principal Investigator), Can Alkan, Arthur Ko, David Dooling, Richard M. Durbin (Principal Investigator), Senduran Balasubramaniam, Thomas M. Keane, Shane McCarthy, James Stalker, Aravinda Chakravarti (Co-Chair), Bartha M. Knoppers (Co-Chair), Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Kathleen C. Barnes, Christine Beiswanger, Esteban G. Burchard, Carlos D. Bustamante, Hongyu Cai, Hongzhi Cao, Richard M. Durbin, Neda Gharani, Richard A. Gibbs, Christopher R. Gignoux, Simon Gravel, Brenna Henn, Danielle Jones, Lynn Jorde, Jane S. Kaye, Alon Keinan, Alastair Kent, Angeliki Kerasidou, Yingrui Li, Rasika Mathias, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Pilar N. Ossorio, Michael Parker, David Reich, Charles N. Rotimi, Charmaine D. Royal, Karla Sandoval, Yeyang Su, Ralf Sudbrak, Zhongming Tian, Bernd Timmermann, Sarah Tishkoff, Lorraine H. Toji, Chris Tyler Smith, Marc Via, Yuhong Wang, Huanming Yang, Ling Yang, Jiayong Zhu, Walter Bodmer, Gabriel Bedoya, Andres Ruiz-Linares, Cai Zhi Ming, Gao Yang, Chu Jia You, Leena Peltonen, Andres Garcia-Montero, Alberto Orfao, Julie Dutil, Juan C. Martinez-Cruzado, Taras K. Oleksyk, Lisa D. Brooks, Adam L. Felsenfeld, Jean E. McEwen, Nicholas C. Clemm, Audrey Duncanson, Michael Dunn, Eric D. Green, Mark S. Guyer, Jane L. Peterson, Goncalo R. Abecasis, Adam Auton, Lisa D. Brooks, Mark A. DePristo, Richard M. Durbin, Robert E. Handsaker, Hyun Min Kang, Gabor T. Marth. 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