升糖负荷

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升糖负荷(GL)是描述食物摄入后将如何升高人的血糖水平,1个单位的升糖负荷约相当于吃1克葡萄糖的效果。[1]对于1份食物,升糖负荷大于20被认为是高的;在11-19为中等的;低于10为低负荷。[2]

升糖负荷利用升糖指数"加权"食物中可吸收碳水化合物的量,计算公式为:


食物中可吸收碳水化合物数 × 升糖指数 ÷ 100


計算例子如:西瓜的升糖指数很高为72;但是西瓜的含糖量较低(约5%),因此西瓜的升糖负荷较低,100克西瓜的升糖负荷为5 x 72/100=3.6。

升糖负荷与升糖指数的数据可参见悉尼大学人类营养GI数据库。[3]升糖负荷对于糖尿病饮食、代谢综合症、胰岛素抵抗、减肥等,比升糖指数较有价值;研究表明餐后的血糖与胰岛素保持高峰值水平将增加患糖尿病风险。[4][5][6][7]

食物的升糖负荷, 每100克[编辑]

食物 升糖指数 碳水化合物
含量
(% by 重量)
升糖负荷 胰岛素指数
法式长棍面包, 白色 95 (高) 50 48.0
香蕉, 10项研究的平均值 52 (low)–55.3±7 (低)[8] 20 10–11.06±1.4[9] 56.7±3.5[8]
胡萝卜, 4项研究的平均值 47 (低) 7.5 3.5
墨西哥薄饼 52 (低) 48 25.0
马铃薯, 5项研究平均值 50 (低)–98.7±24.5 (高)[8] 18.6 9.3–18.3582±4.557[9] 84.7±7.7[8]
大米, 12项研究平均值 64±9 (中等)[10]–77±10.5 (高)[8]–83±13 (high)[10]–93±11 (高)[10] 77.5[10] –79.9[10] –79.6[10] 49.6±6.975[11] –60.83±8.295[9] –66.317±10.387[11] –74.028±8.756[11] 40±10[10] –55.3±8.4[8] –67±15[10] -67±11[10]
西瓜 72 (高) 5 3.6

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Glycemic Load Defined. Glycemic Research Institute. [8 February 2013]. (原始内容存档于2018-09-27). 
  2. ^ Das, Sai Krupa; et al. Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: a 1-y randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. April 2007, 85 (4): 1023–1030 [8 February 2013]. PMC 2920502. PMID 17413101. (原始内容存档于2017-07-19). 
  3. ^ Glycemic Index Database. University of Sydney. [8 February 2013]. (原始内容存档于2014-05-06). 
  4. ^ Ludwig, Daniel S. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American Medical Association. May 2002, 287 (18): 2414–2423. PMID 11988062. doi:10.1001/jama.287.18.2414. 
  5. ^ Villegas, Raquel; Liu, Simin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou. Prospective Study of Dietary Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-aged Chinese Women. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007, 6167 (21): 2310–2316 [8 February 2013]. PMID 18039989. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.21.2310. (原始内容存档于2014-04-17). 
  6. ^ Krishnan, Supriya; Rosenberg, Lynn; Singer, Martha; Hu, Frank B.; Djoussé, Luc; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Palmer, Julie R. Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Black Women. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007, 167 (21): 2304–2309 [8 February 2013]. PMID 18039988. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.21.2304. (原始内容存档于2014-05-09). 
  7. ^ Simple Steps to Preventing Diabetes. The Nutrition Source. Harvard School of Public Health. [8 February 2013]. (原始内容存档于2014-05-08). 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Holt, Susanne H. A.; Miller, Janette C. Brand; Petocz, Peter. An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods (PDF). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. November 1997, 66 (5): 1264–1276 [8 February 2013]. PMID 9356547. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2012-12-24). Lay summaryDavid Mendosa (14 October 2009). 
    Note: Glucose Score & Insulin Score multiplied by 0.7 for Glycemic index & Insulin index respectively.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Calculation using data already tabulated and data from Holt, 1997.
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Miller, Janette Brand; Pang, Edna; Bramall, Lindsay. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food? (PDF). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. December 1992, 56 (6): 1034–1036 [8 February 2013]. PMID 1442654. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2014-02-11). 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Calculation based on Miller, 1992

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