单数they

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

单数they是they或它的词形变化形式(例如them或their)的用法,用于指单独一个人,作为单数形式。

典型地,这种情况出现于不确定的性别,例句:

  • "Everyone returned to their seats."[1]
  • "Somebody left their umbrella in the office. Would they please collect it."[2]
  • "If a person doesn't want to go on living, they are often very difficult to help."[2]
  • "The patient should be told at the outset how much they will be required to pay."[3]
  • "But a journalist should not be forced to reveal their sources."[3]

类似地,这种情况也可以应用于派生词,例如themself或themselves。

这种用法的一个原因是英语没有专用于不确定性别的单数人称代词。 有些情况,这种用法可以被解释为一种名义约定,因为如everyone之类的单词,虽然在语法上是单数形式,但事实上却是复数的意义。 这种用法逐渐变多的一个原因可能是20世纪的性别包容语言运动,但是它已经被有影响力的作家使用了好几个世纪。

虽然单数they的用法历史悠久,并且在日常英语中广泛使用,但是这种用法从19世纪末开始还是一直受到批评,并且大家的认可度也不同。

词形变化形式与物主代词[编辑]

第三人称代词的词形变化形式
主格 宾格 形容词性物主代词 名词性物主代词 反身代词
He He laughs. I hug him. His hair grows. I use his. He feeds himself.
She She laughs. I hug her. Her hair grows. I use hers. She feeds herself.
原型they When I tell my children a joke they laugh. Whether they win or lose, I hug them. As long as people live, their hair grows. Most of my friends have cell phones, so I use theirs. The children feed themselves.
单数they When I tell someone a joke they laugh. When I greet a friend I hug them. When someone does not get a haircut, their hair grows long. If my mobile phone runs out of power, a friend lets me borrow theirs. Each child feeds themself.(不规范)
性别通用he When I tell someone a joke he laughs. When I greet a friend I hug him. When someone does not get a haircut, his hair grows long. If my mobile phone runs out of power, a friend lets me borrow his. Each child feeds himself.

单数they与“正常”的複数they有相同的词形变化形式,即them和their。它们通常都使用相同的动词形式,也就是说“when I tell someone a joke they laughs”是不规范的。

反身代词themselves有时也被使用,但是还有一个可选的反身代词形式themself。虽然themself有历史悠久并且在20世纪80年代復活了,但是它还是依然较少使用,并且只被少数人认可。[4][5][6] 它在指代性别不明的单个人的时候有时使用,因为这时候複数形式themselves看起来不协调,例如

  • "It is not an actor pretending to be Reagan or Thatcher, it is, in grotesque form, the person themself."—Hislop (1984);[7]引自 Fowler's[8]

单数themself在加拿大联邦法律文本中被系统化地使用,用于区别于複数themselves。

  • "Where a recipient of an allowance under section 4 absents themself from Canada [...]"—War Veterans Allowance Act, section 14.[9]
  • "[...] the following conditions are imposed on a person or group of persons in respect of whom a deposit is required: [...] to present themself or themselves at the time and place that an officer or the Immigration Division requires them to appear to comply with any obligation imposed on them under the Act."—Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, section 48.[10]

用法[编辑]

知名作家的一些老旧用法[编辑]

早在14世纪的中古英语,they就一直被用于单数形式。[11][12] 在许多知名作家的著作中都能看来这种用法,包括杰弗里·乔叟威廉·莎士比亚简·奥斯丁威廉·梅克比斯·萨克雷萧伯纳

  • "And whoso fyndeth hym out of swich blame,
They wol come up . . ."
—Chaucer, The Pardoner's Prologue (c. 1395);[13] 引用自Jespersen在《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[14]
  • " 'Tis meet that some more audience than a mother, since nature makes them partial, should o'erhear the speech."— Shakespeare, Hamlet (1599);[15]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[16]
  • "If a person is born of a . . . gloomy temper . . . they cannot help it."— Chesterfield, 《Letter to his son》 (1759);[17]引用自《Fowler's》。[18]
  • "Now nobody does anything well that they cannot help doing"— Ruskin, 《The Crown of Wild Olive》 (1866);[19]引用自《Fowler's》。[18]
  • "Nobody in their senses would give sixpence on the strength of a promissory note of the kind."— Bagehot, 《The Liberal Magazine》 (1910);[20]引用自《Fowler's》。[21]
  • "I would have every body marry if they can do it properly."— Austen, 《Mansfield Park》 (1814);[22]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[14]
  • Caesar: "No, Cleopatra. No man goes to battle to be killed."
Cleopatra: "But they do get killed"
Shaw, Caesar and Cleopatra (1901);[23]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[16]
  • "A person can't help their birth."— W. M. Thackeray, Vanity Fair (1848);[24]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[14]

同时,除了使用they,使用代词he作为(据称的)性别中性代词也被认可[25],如下所述:

  • "Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess."— Thomas Huxley, A Liberal Education (1868);[26]引自Baskervill.[27]
  • "If any one did not know it, it was his own fault."— George Washington Cable, Old Creole Days (1879);[28]引自Baskervill.[27]
  • "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality."— Article 15, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).[29]

在威廉·梅克比斯·萨克雷的著作中,两个都出现过:

  • "A person can't help their birth."—Rosalind in W. M. Thackeray, Vanity Fair (1848);[24]引用自《牛津英语词典》于Curzan在《Gender Shifts in the History of English》。[30]

  • "Every person who turns this page has his own little diary."— W. M. Thackeray, On Lett's Diary (1869);[31]引用自Baskervill, 《An English Grammar》。[32]

并且威廉·卡克斯顿写道:

  • "Eche of theym sholde . . . make theymselfe redy."— Caxton, 《Sonnes of Aymon》 (c. 1489)[33]

alongside

  • "Who of thise wormes shall be byten, He must have triacle; Yf not that, he shall deye."— Caxton, 《Dialogues in French and English》 (c. 1483).[34]

19世纪的性别通用he的趋势[编辑]

在非正式英语中使用he而非they的用法的倡导,可以在18世纪中叶找到,在Ann Fisher英语Ann Fisher的《A New Grammar》中写道:

性别通用名使用阳性,可以理解为男性与女性,正如any Person who knows what he says [35] (引自Ostade[36])

1895年的语法(Baskervill, W.M.与Sewell, J.W.的《An English Grammar for the Use of High School, Academy and College Class》)标记了单数they的通用的用法,但是推荐用性别通用he,基于数协议:

指代前面出现过的泛指代词[例如everybody]或者被泛指形容词修饰的名词的另一种方法,是在后面使用复数代词。这并不是最好的用法,逻辑上显然需要使用单数代词,但是这种结构经常出现于前面说的包括或隐射两个性别。阳性词并不能表示阴性,并且应该避免 his or her 的表示法,因为很笨重.

——Baskervill,An English Grammar[37]

Baskervill给出了知名作家的使用单数they的一些例子,包括

  • "Every one must judge according to their own feelings."— Byron, Werner (1823),[38] quoted as "Every one must judge of [sic] their own feelings."[37]
  • "Had the Doctor been contented to take my dining tables as any body in their senses would have done . . ."— Austen, Mansfield Park (1814);[39] [37]
  • "If the part deserve any comment, every considering Christian will make it to themselves as they go . . ."— Defoe, The Family Instructor (1816);[40] [37]
  • "Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world . . ."— Paley,[41] [37]

但是他更喜欢使用he:

[. . .] 当前面说的包括男性与女性的时候,或者是一个泛指性的单词的时候,最好的方法是后续代词使用阳性单数代词 [. . .]

—Baskervill, An English Grammar[32]

1850年,英国议会通过了一个法案,其中说了,在议会的法案中使用的时候“阳性词必须被视为包括女性”。[42][43]

据称的性别中性的he的用法直到至少20世纪60年代还能用[25],虽然有一些he的用法后来因笨拙或愚蠢而被批评,例如指代:[16]

  • 两性的不确定的人:
    • "the ideal that every boy and girl should be so equipped that he shall not be handicapped in his struggle for social progress . . ."— C.C. Fries, American English Grammar, (1940).[44]
  • 两性的已知的人:
    • "She and Louis had a game—who could find the ugliest photograph of himself."— Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin (1971)[45]
  • 或者明显可以假设为女人的不确定的人:
    • ". . . everyone will be entitled to decide for himself whether or not to have an abortion."— Albert Bleumenthal, N.Y. State Assembly (1975).[46]

据称的性别中性的he的当代用法[编辑]

当代著作在指代性别通用或不确定的前面出现的词的时候,有时还是可以看到使用he。 有时指代的人几乎可以确定为男的,例如

  • "The patient should be informed of his therapeutic options."— 关于前列腺癌的文本 (2004)[47]

有时前面出现的词指代的人很可能只是男的或者这种职业传统上只有男性人员:

  • "It wouldn't be as if the lone astronaut would be completely by himself." (2008)[48]
  • "Kitchen table issues . . . are ones the next president can actually do something about if he actually cares about it. More likely if she cares about it!"— Hillary Rodham Clinton (2008)[49]

还有其它情况,前面的词可能指代:

  • 一个不确定的人,两个性别都有可能:
    • "Now, a writer is entitled to have a Roget on his desk."—Barzun (1985);[50] quoted in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage[14]
    • "They ‧ re going to appoint a new manager. Well I hope he does a better job than the present one."[51]
    • "A Member of Parliament should always live in his constituency."[51]

甚至在2010年,还是可以发现性别通用he的建议:

" . . . 当不定代词在前面使用时,需要一个单数的主格、宾格与物主代词 . . ."
  • "Everyone did as he pleased" . . .
"在非正式口语中,复数代词经常被用于当前面的词不确定的时候。但是这种结构现在一般不合适用于正式发言或者书面上。
非正式: Somebody should let you borrow their book.
正式: Somebody should let you borrow his book."
 —Choy, Basic Grammar and Usage[52]

20世纪开始趋于使用性别中性语言[编辑]

在20世纪的下半个世纪,女权主义者关注“性别歧视主义”的男性导向式语言。[53]不但包括man性别通用,而且包括he作为性别通用代词。[54]

争论点是he不能明智地作为性别通用代词,包括男人与女人。 William Safire在他的《纽约时报》的 On Language 专栏上赞同了性别通用he,提及口诀“男性包罗女性”。[55] Brooklyn的C. Adendyck对《纽约时报》写了一个回复:

"The average American needs the small routines of getting ready for work. As he shaves or blow-dries his hair or pulls on his panty-hose, he is easing himself by small stages into the demands of the day."

——C. Badendyck [sic],New York Times (1985)
[56] 引自 Miller 和 Swift.[57]

1980年,运动受到广泛支持,许多组织,包括绝大多数出版社,都发行了性别中性语言的使用指南。[53]

用于特定的知名人士[编辑]

在一些情况,可能知道个体但却用they来指代,因为性别未知或者因为他偏爱使用they,例如社会媒体应用,可能允许账号持有者来选择非常规性别例如性别酷儿双性别和一个代词,包括他们可能愿意使用的they/them。[58]

当代用法[编辑]

自从20世纪60年代以来,在书面语和口语中使用阳性通用名词和代词的频率就在一减少。[59]20世纪90年代在澳大利亚收集的自发讲话语料库中,单数they变最频繁使用的通用代词。[59]单数they的使用上升的原因,至少是部分原因,是性别中性语言的使用的增长。一百年前的作者用he作为不确定性别的指代时可能没有顾虑,但是如今的作者经常会感觉这么用不自在。在正式场合的一种方案通常是写he or she或者其它类似的,但是过度使用这种方式感觉很别扭,或者感觉很政治正确,或者都有。[60]

当代用法中,单数they常被用于指定性别不确定的先行词,至少有一些人这么用,例如当先行词的性别或数量不确定、未知或未揭露的时候。 例子包括不同类型的用法。

用作指代代词先行词[编辑]

单数先行词可以是一个代词,例如everybody、someone、anybody或者疑问代词例如who:

  • 先行词为everybodyeveryone等等:
    • "Everybody was crouched behind the furniture to surprise me, and they tried to. But I already knew they were there." Garner提供的例子。[61]
    • "Everyone promised to behave themselves." Huddleston等人提供的例子。[3]
    • "Everyone returned to their seats." Pinker提供的例子。[1]
  • 先行词为nobodyno one
    • "Nobody was late, were they?" Swan提供的例子。[2]
    • "No one put their hand up." Huddleston等人提供的例子。[62]
    • "No one felt they had been misled." Huddleston等人提供的例子。[3]
  • 先行词为somebodysomeone
    • "I feel that if someone is not doing their job it should be called to their attention." —— 一份美国的报纸(1984),Fowler引用。[63]
  • 先行词为anybodyanyone:
    • "If anyone tells you that America's best days are behind her, then they're looking the wrong way." 乔治·布什总统, 1991年国情咨文;[64] quoted by Garner[65]
    • "Anyone can set themselves up as an acupuncturist."——Sarah Lonsdale "Sharp Practice Pricks Reputation of Acupuncture." 《观察者》1991年12月15日,Garner引用。[65]
    • "If anybody calls, take their name and ask them to call again later." Swan提供的例子。[2]
  • 甚至在性别已知或者可以假定的情况下:
    • "Under new rules to be announced tomorrow, it will be illegal for anyone to donate an organ to their wife." Ballantyne, "Transplant Jury to Vet Live Donors", 《星期日泰晤士报》(伦敦)1990年3月25日,Garner引用。[65] (1990年,妻子可以假定为女性)
  • 先行词为疑问代词:
    • "Who thinks they can solve the problem?". Huddleston等人提供的例子, 《剑桥英语语法》(The Cambridge Grammar of the English language)。[66]

用作指代通用名词先行词[编辑]

单数先行词也可以是一个名词,例如person(个人)、patient(病人)或student(学生):

  • 先词先为名词(例如person、student或patient),泛称使用(例如表示这个类型中的任意一位成员的含义的时候,或者笔者不知道指定的某一个成员)
    • ". . . if the child possesses the nationality or citizenship of another country, they may lose this when they get a British passport." 来自英国护照申请表,Swan引用。[2]
    • "cognitive dissonance: "a concept in psychology [that] describes the condition in which a person's attitudes conflict with their behaviour"——《麦克米伦商业管理学词典》(Macmillan Dictionary of Business and management) (1988年版), Garner引用。[65]
    • "A starting point would be to give more support to the company secretary. They are, or should be, privy to the confidential deliberations and secrets of the board and the company.— Ronald Severn. "Protecting the Secretary Bird". 《金融时报》,1992年1月6日,Garner引用。[65]
  • 先行词代表前面提及的一类人的泛称,并且是单数形式
    • "I had to decide: Is this person being irrational or is he right? Of course, they were often right."——Robert Burchfield,《美国新闻与世界报道》(U.S. News & World Report),1986年8月11日,《韦氏简明英语用法词典》(Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage)引用[14]
  • 甚至指代的一类人是已知性别的,有时也用they[67]
    • "I swear more when I'm talking to a boy, because I'm not afraid of shocking them" 引自一个访谈[2]
    • "No mother should be forced to testify against their child".
  • They也可以用于混合性别的先行词:
    • "Let me know if your father or your mother changes their mind." Huddleston提供的例子。[3]
    • "Either the husband or the wife has perjured themself."这里themself被部分人接受,themselves似乎不那么被接受,himself是不可接受的。Huddleston等人提供的例子。[3]
  • 甚至对于确定的已知性别的已知的人,they也可以用于忽略或隐藏性别。
    • "I had a friend in Paris, and they had to go to hospital for a month."(确定的人,但没指明身份)[2]
  • themself一词有时也被使用:
    • "Someone has apparently locked themself in the office."[接受度值得怀疑][3]

有些人比其他人有更大的被接受度,在某些情况下尝试用(形态上)单数代词来替换they会得到荒唐的结果,可以用上面的例子验证。

可接受性和​​规范性指导[编辑]

虽然性别通用he和性别通用they作为单数代词使用有很长的一段历史了,并且它们至今都依然还在使用中,但是它们还是一直被部分人群系统化地避免使用。[68] 防止表述偏袒任何一方的风格指引有时建议把这些通用的表达重新表述为复数形式来避免被任何一方指责。

单数they的使用在英国英语中比在美国英语中更加被广泛接受[69] or vice versa. [70]

一性用法指引我们接受被建议they的单数用法并不是仅仅是用于语义复数的单数词例如everyone,而且也用于前面指代的不确定的“个人”,这些用法的例子甚至常出现在正式演讲中。例如,Casey Miller和Kate Swift,在《无性别歧视写作手册》(The Handbook of Non-Sexist Writing), Ronald Reagan引用:

  • "You must identify the person who has the power to hire you and show them how your skills can help them with their problems."[71]


美国使用指南[编辑]

英国使用指南[编辑]

澳大利亚使用指南[编辑]

英语语法使用指南[编辑]

语法和逻辑分析[编辑]

分布[编辑]

引用和非引用照应语[编辑]

认知效率[编辑]

复数代词they用于指代单数先行词的用法逐渐增多,一些研究尝试断定这种用法会不会让理解变得更“困难”。 此研究之一是,《性别中性搜寻:单数they是对性别通用he在认识上的一个高效替代吗?》Foertsch与Gernsbacher著,他们发现“单数they是对性别通用he或she在认识上的一个高效替代,尤其是当先行词没有明确所指的时候”(例如anybody或者a nurse),而很少用于指代确定的一个人的时候(例如a runner I knew或者my nurse)。单数they的语句读起来“就像包含了先行词具有常规性别映像对应的有性代词的语句一样快”(例如护士用she,卡车司机用he),并且“比包含了与先行词常规性别映像的性别相反有性代词语句更快”(例如护士用he,卡车司机用she)。[94]

与其它代词的对比[编辑]

代词they的单数用法和复数用法可以与代词you作比较。曾经you只能作为复数使用,对应的单数形式为thou。但是在大约1700年左右,you取代了thou,作为单数形式使用,[85]并且动词依然使用复数形式。

另见[编辑]

[编辑]

  1. ^ "Either the plural or the singular may be acceptable for a true bound pronoun. . . .": "Every student thinks she / they is / are smart."[91]
  2. ^ The more usual case, where the pronoun follows the antecedent, it is called a retrospective anaphor. The less usual case, where the pronoun precedes the antecedent (as in the sentence "When he saw the damage, the headmaster called the police.") [example from cited source] is called an anticipatory anaphor. Some writers use the term anaphor only for retrospective anaphors and use the term cataphor for anticipatory anaphors. The word endophor may also be used for both.

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Pinker 1995, p. 378.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Swan 2009, §528.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 493.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 494.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Huddleston 2005, p. 104.
  6. ^ Fowler 1996, p. 777.
  7. ^ Hislop 1984, p. 23.
  8. ^ Fowler 1996, p. 776, themself.
  9. ^ Canadian government 2013, p. 18.
  10. ^ Canadian government 2014, p. 48.
  11. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 493–494.
  12. ^ American Heritage Dictionaries 1996, p. 178.
  13. ^ Chaucer 1395, p. 195.
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Merriam-Webster 2002, p. 734.
  15. ^ Shakespeare 1599, p. 105.
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Merriam-Webster 2002, p. 735.
  17. ^ Chesterfield 1759, p. 568.
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 18.2 Fowler 1996, p. 779.
  19. ^ Ruskin 1866, p. 44.
  20. ^ Bagehot 1910.
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 Fowler 1926, p. 648.
  22. ^ Austen 1814, p. 37.
  23. ^ Shaw 1901, p. 67.
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Thackeray 1868, p. 66.
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 Fowler 1996, p. 358.
  26. ^ Huxley 1868.
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 Baskervill 1895, §409.
  28. ^ Cable 1879.
  29. ^ UNO 1948.
  30. ^ Curzan 2003, p. 77.
  31. ^ Thackeray 1869, p. 189.
  32. ^ 32.0 32.1 Baskervill 1895, §410.
  33. ^ Caxton 1489, p. 39.
  34. ^ Caxton 1483, p. 11.
  35. ^ Fisher 1750.
  36. ^ Ostade 2000.
  37. ^ 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 Baskervill 1895, §411.
  38. ^ Byron 1823, p. vi.
  39. ^ Austen 1860, p. 195.
  40. ^ Defoe 1816, p. 200.
  41. ^ Paley 1825, p. 200.
  42. ^ Miller & Swift 1995, p. 46.
  43. ^ Warenda 1993, p. 101.
  44. ^ Fries 1969, p. 215.
  45. ^ Lash 1981, p. 454.
  46. ^ Bleumenthal 1975.
  47. ^ Weiss, Kaplan & Fair 2004, p. 147.
  48. ^ Atkinson 2008.
  49. ^ Spillius 2008.
  50. ^ Barzun 1985.
  51. ^ 51.0 51.1 Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 492.
  52. ^ Choy & Clark 2010, p. 213.
  53. ^ 53.0 53.1 Miller & Swift 1995, pp. 1–9.
  54. ^ Miller & Swift 1995, pp. 11–61.
  55. ^ Safire 1985, pp. 46–47.
  56. ^ Adendyck 1985.
  57. ^ Miller & Swift 1995, pp. 46–47.
  58. ^ CNN 2014.
  59. ^ 59.0 59.1 Pauwels 2003, p. 563.
  60. ^ Matossian 1997.
  61. ^ Garner 2003, p. 643.
  62. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 1458.
  63. ^ Fowler 1996, p. 776.
  64. ^ Bush 1991, p. 101.
  65. ^ 65.0 65.1 65.2 65.3 65.4 Garner 2003, p. 175.
  66. ^ Huddleston & Pullum 2002, p. 1473.
  67. ^ Newman 1998.
  68. ^ 68.0 68.1 Chicago 2010, §5.222.
  69. ^ 69.0 69.1 69.2 Garner 2003, p. 718.
  70. ^ 70.0 70.1 Quirk et al. 1985, p. 770.
  71. ^ Miller & Swift 1995, p. 50.
  72. ^ Garner 2003, p. 174.
  73. ^ Garner 2003, pp. 643–644.
  74. ^ Chicago 1993, pp. 76–77.
  75. ^ Chicago 2010, §5.46.
  76. ^ American Heritage Dictionaries 1996, pp. 178–179.
  77. ^ APA 2001, p. 47.
  78. ^ Strunk & White 1979, p. 60.
  79. ^ Williams 2008, pp. 23–25.
  80. ^ Fowler 1992, p. 354.
  81. ^ PurdueOWL.
  82. ^ Fowler 1965, p. 635.
  83. ^ Gowers 1973, p. 140.
  84. ^ Gowers 2014, pp. 210–213.
  85. ^ 85.0 85.1 85.2 Peters 2004, p. 538.
  86. ^ Economist 2010, p. 117.
  87. ^ OUP 2012, p. 27.
  88. ^ Washington Post 2011.
  89. ^ Federation Press 2014.
  90. ^ Pinker 1995, pp. 370–403.
  91. ^ Huang 2009, p. 144.
  92. ^ 92.0 92.1 92.2 92.3 Huddleston & Pullum 2002, pp. 1455–1456.
  93. ^ Merriam-Webster 2002, p. 736.
  94. ^ Foertsch & Gernsbacher 1997.

原例子的源头[编辑]

quoted in Reader' Digest, 1983, as an example of its awkwardness when referring to both sexes.

参考书目[编辑]

  • Economist. Economist Style Guide. Studies in English Language 10th. Profile Books. 2010. ISBN 9781846686061. 
  • Edzard, Dietz Otto. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Brill. 2003. 

外部链接[编辑]