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卡拉胶

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卡拉胶Carrageenanscarrageenins/ˌkærəˈɡnənz/ karr-ə-gee-nənzCAS 9000-07-1),又称鹿角菜胶角叉菜胶爱尔兰苔菜胶,是一組从海洋可食用英语edible seaweed红藻(包括角叉菜属麒麟菜属杉藻属沙菜属等)中提取的線性硫酸化英语sulfation多糖的统称。這些多糖體由於能夠與食物中的蛋白質穩定結合,所以被廣泛應用於食品产业,例如:作为凝固剂增稠剂稳定剂,用於奶類及肉類產品。

卡拉胶的名字来源于爱尔兰苔菜Chondrus crispus,也称角叉菜)在愛爾蘭語的称呼carraigín,原來的意思是指「小石塊」。這種植物作為食品添加劑使用早於15世紀已經開始[1]。卡拉膠是素食主義維根主義支持者對明膠使用的另類選擇,因為在甜品中經常使用的明膠是動物製品。

当用于食品时,在包装的卡拉胶以欧洲联盟E編碼E407(藻酸盐)表示。

性质[编辑]

卡拉胶是一種无臭、无味的大型(分子量在10万道尔顿以上)的高度彈性分子,相互卷曲在一起形成双螺旋结构。卡拉胶具有亲水性粘性稳定性,溶于80摄氏度热水形成粘性透明液体,并能在室温下形成不同形式的凝胶。這使食品工業及其他產業亦廣泛使用卡拉胶作增稠劑英语Thickening agent稳定剂

All carrageenans are high-molecular-weight polysaccharides made up of repeating galactose units and 3,6 anhydrogalactose (3,6-AG), both sulfated and nonsulfated. The units are joined by alternating α-1,3 and β-1,4 糖苷键

类型[编辑]

不同類型角叉菜膠的結構

商業應用的卡拉胶以下列三个类型為主:

影響到這三個類型卡拉膠在其特質上的主要差異在於其硫酸酯在重複性半乳糖單位的位置與數量。

應用[编辑]

食物及其他家居用途[编辑]

下面是卡拉胶应用的一些例子:

規管準則[编辑]

在美國,卡拉膠於FDA規制下視為安全,容許於必要份量上,被使用為直接食品添加劑,作為乳化劑、穩定劑或增稠劑用途,除了在一般標準食品上未作如此用途的情況下。FDA亦評估卡拉膠為嬰兒奶粉配方的安全添加劑。歐盟食品安全局亦總結「無證據顯示人體接觸食品級卡拉膠或從其已降解的卡拉膠會有負面反應」;加上FAO/WHO食品添加劑聯合專家委員會於2014年4月的一份評核報告顯示「嬰兒奶粉配方或其特殊用途配方中使用卡拉膠達至1000 mg/L含量不會引起危險」。

縱然國家有機計劃組織(NOP)於2003年將卡拉膠列入國家有機食品准許添加劑名單之中,以及於2008年再評核及批准,標示為「有機食品製作及加工程序的重要部份」,但於2016年11月18日,NOP在國家有機食品標準大會(NOSB)議會中投票通過,將卡拉膠從國家有機食品准許添加劑名單中除名。

2018年4月4日,美國農業部轄下的農業市場署(AMS)刊登一份文件宣佈更新批核卡拉膠於國家名單之中,繼續容許使用於食品中。文件列明「NOSB建議從名單移除卡拉膠的原因是他們決定替代原料可使用於有機食品之中,例如結蘭膠、關華豆膠、或黃原膠等等,」「AMS於NSOB公眾反應中,發現有足夠證據顯示卡拉膠應用於一系列農產品中,是因為缺乏全天然替代物供應(§ 6517(c)(1)(ii))。卡拉膠的特殊應用以及公眾反應中提及的替代物料,在廣泛應用上並不充分重現卡拉膠的功效。因此,卡拉膠仍維持達至OFPA的準則,得以列入國家名單之中。」

於2015年的評審中,世界衛生組織食品添加劑專案組及聯合國糧食及農業組織的共同專家會議中發表的報告,指出卡拉膠於嬰兒奶粉配方或其特殊用途配方中使用,於1000 mg/L含量以內不視為風險。在歐盟,因預防措施上,卡拉膠於不論是否有機的嬰兒奶粉配方,都被禁止使用,但容許使用於其他食品中。2018年,歐洲食品安全局發表指引,指出食品中的卡拉膠的安全用量,為每日每公斤體重75毫克(基於ADI準則)。

在英國,英國食品標準局指令回收含有卡拉膠的糖果,指出卡拉膠「因有嗆喉危險而沒有被准許添加在作為果凍糖果產品。」

<#--In the U.S., carrageenan is allowed under FDA regulations[3] as a direct food additive and is considered 公认安全[4] when used in the amount necessary as an emulsifier, stabilizer, or thickener in foods, except those standardized foods that do not provide for such use. FDA also reviewed carrageenan safety for infant formula.[5] The European Food Safety Authority concluded "there is no evidence of any adverse effects in humans from exposure to food-grade carrageenan, or that exposure to degraded carrageenan from use of food-grade carrageenan is occurring",[6] Furthermore, the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives英语Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives stated in a July 2014 review of carrageenan "that the use of carrageenan in infant formula or formula for special medical purposes at concentrations up to 1000 mg/L is not of concern".[7]

Although the National Organic Program英语National Organic Program (NOP) had added carrageenan to its National List of additives allowed to be included in organic foods in 2003,[8] and reviewed and reauthorized it in 2008,[9] noting it as "critical to organic production and handling operations",[10] on November 18, 2016 the NOP's National Organic Standards Board英语National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) voted to recommend carrageenan be removed from the National List of additives allowed in organic food production.[11]

On April 4, 2018 the Agricultural Marketing Service英语Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) (美国农业部) published a document to announce the renewal of carrageenan on the National List, allowing its continued use in food products. The document states, “The NOSB recommended removing carrageenan because they determined that alternative materials, such as gellan gum, guar gum, or xanthan gum, are available for use in organic products” continuing, “AMS found sufficient evidence in public comments to the NOSB that carrageenan continues to be necessary for handling agricultural products because of the unavailability of wholly natural substitutes (§ 6517(c)(1)(ii)). Carrageenan has specific uses in an array of agricultural products, and public comments reported that potential substitutes do not adequately replicate the functions of carrageenan across the broad scope of use. Therefore, carrageenan continues to meet the OFPA criteria for inclusion on the National List.” [12] The rule went into effect May 29, 2018.

In the most recent review by an independent panel, the Joint Expert Committee of the 联合国粮食及农业组织 of the 联合国 and 世界卫生组织 on Food Additives released a technical report in 2015 on the use of carrageenan in 配方奶粉 and found that the additive was ‘not of concern’ in infant formula as food for special medical purposes at concentrations up to 1000 千克s per 公升.[13] The use of carrageenan in infant formula, organic or otherwise, is prohibited in the EU for precautionary reasons, but is permitted in other food items.[14]

In the UK, the Food Standards Agency英语Food Standards Agency issued a product recall for sweets containing carrageenan, stating that carrageenan “is not permitted as an ingredient in jelly confectionery products as it presents a choking hazard”.[15] -->

毒性研究[编辑]

研究發現降解性卡拉膠英语poligeenan會引起腸道炎症,改變微生物群,並被發現是潰瘍性結腸炎克羅恩病等炎症性腸病的觸發因素。食品性卡拉膠和降解性卡拉膠是完全不同的產品,引發了食品添加劑安全性的爭議。食品級卡拉膠的安全性已通過各種研究得到證實。[16][17][18][19][20]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ FAO Agar and Carrageenan Manual. Fao.org. 1965-01-01 [2011-12-10]. (原始内容存档于2009-11-18) (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 McHugh, Dennis J. A guide to the seaweed industry: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 441. www.fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations. 2003 [2017-07-29]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-06) (英语). 
  3. ^ 21 Code of Federal Regulations 172.620
  4. ^ Generally Recognized As Safe 21 CRF §182.7255 GRAS ID Code 9000-07-1 (1973)
  5. ^ Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 21 U.S.C. 350(a) §412
  6. ^ Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Carrageenan (2003) [1]页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) p. 5
  7. ^ Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Who.int. Retrieved on 2014-8-11.
  8. ^ 68 FR 61993 (2003)
  9. ^ 65 FR 80548
  10. ^ 73 FR 59481
  11. ^ Sunset 2018 Review Summary NOSB Final Review (PDF). USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. 2016-11-30 [2017-02-15]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2020-07-29). 
  12. ^ 83 FR 14347. USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. 2018-04-04 [2018-04-21]. (原始内容存档于2020-11-24). 
  13. ^ Safety Evaluation of Certain Food Additives, 3. Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives, WHO Food Additive Series: 70. 2015. ISBN 9789241660709. hdl:10665/171781. 
  14. ^ Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Carrageenan (PDF). European Commission, Scientific Committee on Food. 2003 [2020-05-26]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2016-10-17). 
  15. ^ Tees Ltd recalls Sweetworld Yummys Jelly Cones because of a choking hazard. [2020-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-21). 
  16. ^ Martino, John Vincent; Van Limbergen, Johan; Cahill, Leah E. The Role of Carrageenan and Carboxymethylcellulose in the Development of Intestinal Inflammation. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 1 May 2017, 5: 96. PMC 5410598可免费查阅. PMID 28507982. doi:10.3389/fped.2017.00096. 
  17. ^ Shang, Qingsen; Sun, Weixia; Shan, Xindi; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Chao; Hao, Jiejie; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli. Carrageenan-induced colitis is associated with decreased population of anti-inflammatory bacterium, Akkermansia muciniphila , in the gut microbiota of C57BL/6J mice. Toxicology Letters. September 2017, 279: 87–95. PMID 28778519. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.07.904. 
  18. ^ Moyana, TN; Lalonde, JM. Carrageenan-induced intestinal injury in the rat--a model for inflammatory bowel disease.. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. 1990, 20 (6): 420–6. PMID 2073092. 
  19. ^ McKim JM. 2014. “Food additive carrageenan: Part I: A critical review of carrageenan in vitro studies, potential pitfalls, and implications for human health and safety
  20. ^ Weiner ML. 2014. “Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

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延伸閱讀[编辑]

相關條目[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]