原始印歐語小品詞

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原始印歐語小品詞(particle:質點、粒子)已經被現代語言學家重構了,基于了跨越所有印歐語系語言所找到的相似性。本文列出并討論它們的假定形式。

副詞[编辑]

用做后置和前置的副詞[编辑]

很多小品詞可以用作副詞后置詞二者。這類似於現代語言;比較一下英語的“He is above in the attic”(副詞)和“The bird is above the house”(前置詞)。除了安納托利亞語族印度-伊朗語族薩比尼語,和退化於拉丁語古希臘語中之外,在后代語言中后置詞變成了前置詞。[1]

小品詞 意義 反映
*apo from Ved. ápa “away, forth”, Gk. apó, Lat. ab “from”, Eng. of, off[2]
*epi / *opi near, at, upon, by Ved. ápi“by, on”, Gk. epí“on”, Lat. ob“on”, Arm. ew“and”,[2] Av. aipi, Lith. api-, apie, Alb. afër“near”
*h₁ad to, by, at Lat. ad, Osc. adpúd, Umb. ař, Goth. at, ON at, Eng. æt/at, Gm. az/--, Ir. ad/ad, Welsh add, Gaul. ad, Phryg. addaket, XMK addai
*(h₁?)en in Gk. en, Lat. in, Eng. in/in, Gm. in/in, īn/ein-, Welsh yn, Arm. i, OPruss. en, OCS vŭ(n)-,[2] Luw. anda, Carian nt_a, Goth. in, ON í, Ir. in/in, Lith. į, Ltv. iekšā
*(h₁?)en-ter within, inside Ved. antár“between”, Lat. inter“between, among”, Gm. untar/unter“between, among”, Ir. eter/?“between”, Alb. ndër“between, in”[2]
*h₂en / *h₂eno on, upon Av. ana, Gk. ano, Lat. in (在某些情況下), ON á, Goth. ana, Eng. an/on, Gm. ?/an, Lith. ant
*h₂euo off, away, down from Ved. ava, Lith. nuo
*h₂n̥-bʰi / *h₂m̥-bʰi around[3](→ both) Ved. abhi, Av. aiwito, aibi, Pers. abiy/?, Gk. amphi, ON um, Eng. bi/by; ymbi/umbe (廢棄了), Gm. umbi/um; ?/bei, Gaul. ambi, Ir. imb/um, Welsh am, Toch. āmpi/?, Lith. abu, OCS oba, Russ. ob
*kata / *km̥ta down Hitt. katta“with”, Gk. katá“down”[2]
*kom with Lat. cum, Ir. co/?[2]
*n̥dʰ-er under Ved. adhás, Av. aδairi, Lat. īnfr-ā, Eng. under/under, Arm. ənd,[2] Pers. ?/zēr, ON und, Goth. undar, Gm. untar/unter, Arm. ĕndhup/ĕnthub
*ni down, under Ved. , Eng. ne-ther, Arm. ni, OCS ni-zŭ[2]
*nu now Hitt. nu, Luw. nanun, Ved. , Pers. nūra/?, Gk. , Lat. nunc, ON nū, Goth. nu, Eng. nū/now, Gm. nu/nun, Toch. nuṃ/nano, Lith. nū, Ltv. nu, OPruss. teinu, OCS nu, Arb. naní (參見后面的連詞段落)
*pe with, together Hitt. pe-
*per(i) around, through Ved. pári“around, forth”, Gk. perí“around”, Lat. per“through”, OPruss. per, Alb. për[2]
*per / *pero / *prō before, forth, in front of, ahead of Hitt. per, Ved. prā, Lat. per, prō, Eng. for/fore-, Gm. ?/vor, Lith. per, pro
*r̥ for (前接詞) Ved.
*uper above Ved. upári, Gk. hupér, Lat. s-uper, Eng. over, Ir. for/?, Arm. (i) ver "up"[2] Alb. sipër
*up / *upo under, below Ved. úpa“up to”, Gk. hupó“below”, Lat. s-ub, Ir. fo/fo,[2] Hitt. upzi, Av. upa, Pers. upa/?, Umb. sub, Osc. sup, ON upp, Goth. iup, Eng. upp/up, Gm. uf/auf, Welsh go, Gaul. voretus, Toch. ?/spe, Lith. po

未翻譯的反映和 PIE 詞有相同的意義。

在下列語言中,兩個反映用斜杠分開意味著:

否定詞[编辑]

可以重構兩個否定詞 *ne*mē,后者只用於否定性命令。所謂的否定前綴(pivative prefix) *n̥- 可能是 *ne零等級

小品詞 意義 反映
*ne 句子否定詞 Ved. , Lat. nē/ne-, Eng. ne/no, Gm. ne/nein, Lith. nè, OCS ne,[4] Hitt. natta, Luw. ni-, Lyc. ni-, Lyd. ni-, Av. na, Pers. na/?, Gk. ne-, Osc. ne, Umb. an-, ON né, Goth. ni, Ir. ní/ní, Welsh ni, Arm. an-, Toch. an-/en-, Ltv. ne, OPruss. ne, Pol. nie, Russ. ne, net, Alb. nuk
*n̥- 否定前綴 Hitt. am-, Ved. a(n)-, Gk. a(n)-, Lat. in-, Eng. un-[4]
*mē 命令否定詞 Ved. , Gk. [4] Alb. mos

從形容詞派生的副詞[编辑]

從形容詞派生出的副詞(比如英語的 bold-ly, beautiful-ly)可論證的不能歸類為小品詞。在原始印歐語中,它們簡單的是形容詞的格形式因此更好分類為名詞。例如 *meǵh₂“greatly”,是主格-賓格單數。[5]

連詞[编辑]

重構了下列連詞:[6]

小品詞 意義 反映
*kʷe and, 詞或短語連接詞 Hitt. -ku, Ved. ca, Av. ca, Gk. te, Lat. -que
*wē or, 詞或短語連接詞 Ved. , Gk. -(w)ē, Lat. -ve
*de and, 句子連接詞 Gk.
*nu and, 句子連接詞 Hitt. nu, Ved. , Gk. , Toch. ?/nu, Ir. no-/?, OCS nŭ (參見前面副詞段落)

放置在被連接的詞的后面,如拉丁語 Senatus populus-que Romanus ("Senate and people of Rome"), -que 連接起 senatuspopulus

感嘆詞[编辑]

只有第一個是可安全重構的 PIE 感嘆詞,第二個是試探性的:[6]

小品詞 意義 反映
*wai! 表達悲傷和或痛苦 Hitt. uwai, Lat. vae, Welsh gwae, Eng. woe
*ō! / *eh₃! (?) oh! Gk. ō[7], Lat. ō[8], Eng. oh!, Gm. oh!, Russ. o![9]

參見[编辑]

注釋[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  • Fortson, Benjamin W., Indo-European Language and Culture, Blackwell Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-4051-0316-7 
  • Petschenig, M, Der kleine Stowasser, Vienna: Oldenbourg Schulbuchverlag, 1994, ISBN 3486134051 (German) 
  • Schäfer, K-H; Zimmermann, B, Taschenwörterbuch Altgriechisch 3, Munich: Langenscheidt, 1990, ISBN 3-468-10031-0 (German) 
  • Schenk, W, Handwörterbuch Russisch, Munich: Langenscheidt, 1998, ISBN 3468072910 (German)