原始印歐語數詞

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原始印歐語數詞已經被現代語言學家基于跨越所有印歐語系語言所找到的相似性而重構了。本文列出并討論它們的假定形式。

基數[编辑]

基數重構如下:

重構(Sihler)[1] 重構(Beekes)[2]
1 *Hoi-no-/*Hoi-wo-/*Hoi-k(ʷ)o-; *sem- *Hoi(H)nos
2 *d(u)wo- *duoh₁
3 *trei- (完全等級) / *tri- (零等級) *treies
4 *kʷetwor- (o-等級) / *kʷetur- (零等級)
(參見kʷetwóres規則)
*kʷetuōr
5 *penkʷe *penkʷe
6 *s(w)eḱs; 最初可能是 *weḱs *(s)uéks
7 *septm̥ *séptm
8 *oḱtō, *oḱtou*h₃eḱtō, *h₃eḱtou *h₃eḱteh₃
9 *(h₁)newn̥ *(h₁)néun
10 *deḱm̥(t) *déḱmt
20 *wīḱm̥t-; 最初可能是 *widḱomt- *duidḱmti
30 *trīḱomt-; 最初可能是 *tridḱomt- *trih₂dḱomth₂
40 *kʷetwr̥̄ḱomt-; 最初可能是 *kʷetwr̥dḱomt- *kʷeturdḱomth₂
50 *penkʷēḱomt-; 最初可能是 *penkʷedḱomt- *penkʷedḱomth₂
60 *s(w)eḱsḱomt-; 最初可能是 *weḱsdḱomt- *ueksdḱomth₂
70 *septm̥̄ḱomt-; 最初可能是 *septm̥dḱomt- *septmdḱomth₂
80 *oḱtō(u)ḱomt-; 最初可能是 *h₃eḱto(u)dḱomt- *h₃eḱth₃dḱomth₂
90 *(h₁)newn̥̄ḱomt-; 最初可能是 *h₁newn̥dḱomt- *h₁neundḱomth₂
100 *ḱm̥tom; 最初可能是 *dḱm̥tom *dḱmtóm
1000 *ǵʰeslo-; *tusdḱomti (最初是“巨大的數”) *ǵʰes-l-

其他重構典型的同 Beekes 和 Sihler 有輕微的差異(例如 Fortson[3])。

元素 *-dḱomt- (在數20到90中)和 *dḱm̥t- (在100中)是在假定這些數為 *deḱm̥(t)“10”的派生詞的假定上重構的。

Lehmann[4] 相信大于10的數都是在方言群組中獨立構造的而 *ḱm̥tóm 最初意味著“一個大數”而非特指100。

數的性[编辑]

數3和4有帶有后綴 *-s(o)r- 的陰性形式,分別重構為 *t(r)i-sr-*kʷetwr̥-sr-[3]

數作為前綴[编辑]

特殊形式的數被用作前綴,通常用來形成 bahuvrihi 復合(比如英語中的“five-fingered”):

前綴(Fortson)[5]
1- (together, same) *sm̥-
2- *dwi-
3- *tri-
4- *kʷ(e)tru-*kʷetwr̥-

序數[编辑]

序數是難于構造的,由于它們在后代語言中是各種各樣的。下列重構是試探性的:[6]

  • 第1”在用 *pr̥h₃-(有關於某種副詞含義“forth, forward, front”和小品詞 *prō“forth”,因此最初意味著“foremost”或類似含義)加上各種后綴如 *-wo-, *-mo- 來形成。
  • 第2”在后代語言使用了范圍廣泛的各種表達,經常無關於數2的詞,所以不能重構出 PIE 形式。
  • 第3”到“第6”被通過向基數加上后綴 *-t(ó)- 來形成: *tr̥-t(ó)- / *tri-t(ó)-“第三”等。
  • 第7”到“第10”被通過向基數增加 thematic 元音 *-ó- 來形成: *oḱtow-ó-“第八”等。

結尾於音節主音鼻音的基數(7,9,10)在 thematic 元音前插入第二個鼻音,導致了后綴 *-mó-*-nó-。這些后綴和后綴 *-t(ó)- 擴散到了臨近的序數,例如吠陀梵語 aṣṭa-“第八”和立陶宛語 deviñtas“第九”。

反映[编辑]

基數的反映[编辑]

重構(Sihler) 反映
1 *Hoi-no- Alb. një/nji, Lith. vien-as, vienet-as, Latv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ān/one, Gk. oios, Av. aēuua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Lat. ūnus, Kamviri ev, Osc. uinus, OCS edinŭ, ON einn, OPruss. aīns, Osset. iu/ieu, Pers. aiva/yek, Pol. jeden, Roman. unu, Russ. odin, Skr. eka, Umbr. uns, Goth. ains, Welsh un
*sem- Arm. mi/mek/meg, Alb. gjithë, Lith. sa, sav-as, Eng. sum/some, Gm. saman/zusammen, Gk. heis, Hitt. san, Av. hakeret, Ir. samail/samhail, Lat. semel, Lyc. sñta, Kamviri sâ~, Pers. hama/hamin, Russ. sam, Skr. sakt, Toch. sas/e, Welsh hafal, ON sami, Goth. sama
2 *du(w)o- Luv. tuwi-, Ved. dvā(u), Av. duua, Gk. dúō, Lat. duō, Goth. twai, Welsh dau, Arm. erkow, TochA. wu, Lith. dù, OCS dŭva,[3]

Hitt. dā-, Lyc. tuwa, Pers. duva/do, Osset. dyuuæ/duuæ, Kashmiri zū', Kamviri dü, Osc. dus, Umbr. tuf, ON tveir, Eng. twā/two, Gm. zwêne/zwei, Gaul. vo, Ir. dá/dó, TochB. wi, OPruss. dwāi, Latv. divi, Pol. dwa, Russ. dva, Alb. dy/dy

3 *trei- Hitt. teriyaš (gen. pl.), Ved. tráyas, Av. θrāiiō, Gk. treĩs, Lat. trēs, Goth. þreis, Welsh tri, Arm. erek῾, TochA. tre, Lith. trỹs, OCS trije,[3]

Lyc. trei, Pers. çi/se, Osset. ærtæ/ærtæ, Kashmiri tre, Kamviri tre, Osc. trís, Umbr. trif, ON þrír, Eng. þrēo/three, Gm. drī/drei, Gaul. treis, Ir. treí/trí, TochB. trai, OPruss. tri, Latv. trīs, Pol. trzy, Russ. tri, Alb. tre/tre, Illyrian tri-, Phrygian thri-

4 *kʷetwor- Ved. catvāras, Av. caθuuārō, Gk. téttares, Lat. quattuor, Goth. fidwor, Welsh pedwar, Arm. čork῾, TochA. śtwar, Lith. keturì, OCS četyre,[3]

Lyc. teteri, Pers. /čahār, Osset. cyppar/cuppar, Kashmiri tsor, Kamviri što, Osc. petora, Umbr. petor, ON fjórir, Eng. fēower/four, Gm. feor/vier, Gaul. petor, Ir. cethir/ceathair, TochB. śtwer, OPruss. keturjāi, Latv. četri, Pol. cztery, Russ. četyre, Alb. katër/katër, Thracian ketri-

5 *pénkʷe Ved. pañca, Av. panca, Gk. pénte, Lat. quīnque, Goth. fimf, Welsh pump, Arm. hing, TochA. päñ, Lith. penkì, OCS pętĭ,[3]

Luwian panta, Pers. panča/panj, Osset. fondz/fondz, Kashmiri pā.~tsh Kamviri puč, Osc. pompe, Umbr. pumpe, ON fimm, Eng. fīf/five, Gm. fimf/fünf, Gaul. pempe, Ir. cóic/cúig, TochB. piś, OPruss. pēnkjāi, Latv. pieci, Pol. pięć, Russ. pjat', Alb. pesë/pesë, Phrygian pinke

6 *s(w)eḱs Ved. ṣáṭ, Av. xšuuaš, Gk. héks, Lat. sex, Goth. saíhs, Welsh chwech, Arm. vec῾, TochA. ṣäk, Lith. šešì, OCS šestĭ,[3]

Pers. /šeš, Osset. æxsæz/æxsæz, Kashmiri śe, Kamviri u, Osc. sehs, Umbr. sehs, ON sex, Eng. siex/six, Gm. sēhs/sechs, Gaul. suex, Ir. sé/sé, TochB. ṣkas, OPruss. usjai, Latv. seši, Pol. sześć, Russ. šest', Alb. gjashtë, Illyrian ses-

7 *septm̥ Ved. saptá, Av. hapta, Gk. heptá, Lat. septem, Goth. sibun, Welsh saith, Arm. ewt῾n, TochA. ṣpät, Lith. septynì, OCS sedmĭ,[3]

Hitt. šipta-, Pers. /haft, Osset. avd/avd, Kashmiri sath, Kamviri sut, Osc. seften, ON sjau, Eng. seofon/seven, Gm. sibun/sieben, OPruss. septīnjai, Gaul. sextan, Ir. secht/seacht, TochB. ṣukt, Latv. septiņi, Pol. siedem, Russ. sem', Alb. shtatë/shtatë

8 *h₃eḱtō Ved. aṣṭā(u), Av. ašta, Gk. oktō, Lat. octō, Goth. ahtau, Welsh wyth, Arm. owt῾, TochA. okät, Lith. aštuonì, OCS osmĭ,[3]

Lyc. aitãta-, Pers. ašta/hašt, Osset. ast/ast, Kashmiri ā.h, Kamviri u, Osc. uhto, ON átta, Eng. eahta/eight, Gm. ahto/acht, Gaul. oxtū, Ir. ocht/ocht, TochB. okt, OPruss. astōnjai, Latv. astoņi, Pol. osiem, Russ. vosem', Alb. tëte/tetë

9 *(h₁)newn̥ Ved. nava, Av. nauua, Gk. enné(w)a, Lat. novem, Goth. niun, Welsh naw, Arm. inn, TochA. ñu, Lith. devynì, OCS devętĭ,[3]

Lyc. ñuñtãta-, Pers. nava/noh, Kashmiri nav, Kamviri nu, Osc. nuven, Umbr. nuvim, ON níu, Eng. nigon/nine, Gm. niun/neun, Gaul. navan, Ir. nói/naoi, OPruss. newīnjai, Latv. deviņi, Pol. dziewięć, Russ. devjat', Alb. nëntë/nândë

10 *deḱm̥(t) Ved. dáśa, Av. dasa, Gk. déka, Lat. decem, Goth. taíhun, Welsh deg, Arm. tasn, TochA. śäk, Lith. dẽšimt, OCS desętĭ,[3]

Pers. daθa/dah, Osset. dæs/dæs, Kashmiri da.h, Kamviri duc,Osc. deken, Umbr. desem, ON tíu, Eng. tīen/ten, Gm. zēhen/zehn, Gaul. decam, Ir. deich/deich, TochB. śak, OPruss. desīmtan, Latv. desmit, Pol. dziesięć, Russ. desjat', Alb. dhjetë/dhetë, Dacian dece-

20 *wīḱm̥t- Ved. viṁśatí-, Av. vīsaiti, Doric wíkati, Lat. vīgintī, M. Welsh ugein(t), Arm. k῾san, TochA. wiki,[3]

Pers. /bēst, Kashmiri vuh, Kamviri vici, Gaul. vocontio, Ir. fiche/fiche, TochB. ikä, Lith. dvi-de-šimt, Alb. njëzet/njizet

30 *trīḱomt- Skr. triśat, Gk. triákonta, Lat. trīgintā, Ir. /tríocha, Lith. tris-de-šimt
40 *kʷetwr̥̄ḱomt- Skr. catvāriśat, Gk. tessarákonta, Lat. quadrāgintā, Lith. keturias-de-šimt
50 *penkʷēḱomt- Skr. pañcāśat, Gk. pentêkonta, Lat. quinquāgintā, Ir. /caoga, Lith. penkias-de-šimt
60 *s(w)eḱsḱomt- Skr. ṣaṣṭih, Gk. exêkonta, Lat. sexāgintā, Ir. /seasca, Lith. šešias-de-šimt, Russ. šest'desjat
70 *septm̥̄ḱomt- Skr. saptatih, Gk. heptákonta, Lat. septuāgintā, Ir. /seachtó, Lith. septynias-de-šimt, Russ. sem'desjat
80 *h₃eḱtō(u)ḱomt- Skr. aśītih, Gk. ogdôkonta, Lat. octāgintā, Ir. /ochtó, Lith. aštuonias-de-šimt, Russ. vosem'desjat
90 *(h₁)newn̥̄ḱomt- Skr. navatih, Gk. ennenêkonta, Lat. nonāgintā, Ir. /nócha, Lith. devynias-de-šimt, Russ. devjanosto
100 *ḱm̥tom Ved. śatám, Av. satəm, Gk. hekatón, Lat. centum, Goth. hund, Welsh cant, TochA. känt, Lith. šim̃tas, OCS sŭto,[3]

Pers. /sad, Osset. sædæ, Kashmiri śath, ON hundrað, Eng. hundred/hundred, Gm. hunt/hundert, Gaul. cantam, Ir. cét/céad, TochB. kante, Latv. simts, Pol. sto, Russ. sto/sotnja

1000 *(sm̥-)ǵʰéslo- Skr. sahasram, Av. hazarəm, Pers. /hāzar, Gk. khilioi, Lat. mīlle, Toch. wälts/yaltse
*tusdḱomti ON þúsund, Goth. þusundi, Eng. þusend/thousand, Gm. þūsunt/tausend, Toch. tumane/tmām, Lith. tūkst-ant-is, stūks-ant-is, Latv. tūkstots, OCS tysǫšti, Pol. tysiąc, Russ. tysjača

在下列語言中,用斜杠分隔的兩個反映意味著:

陰性數的反映[编辑]

重構 反映[3]
3 *t(r)i-sr- Ved. tisrás, Av. tišrō, Gaul. tidres, Ir. teoir/?
4 *kʷetwr̥-sr- Ved. cátasras, Av. cataŋrō, Ir. cetheoir/?

數前綴的反映[编辑]

重構 反映(通過例子)[5][7]
1- (together, same) *sm̥- Ved. sa-kŕ̥t "once", Gk. há-ploos "one-fold, simple", Lat. sim-plex "one-fold"
2- *dwi- Ved. dvi-pád- "two-footed", Gk. dí-pod- "two-footed", Archaic Lat. dui-dent "a sacrifical animal with two teeth"
3- *tri- Ved. tri-pád- "three-footed", Gk. trí-pod- "three-footed (table)", Lat. tri-ped- "three-footed", Gaul. tri-garanus "having three cranes"
4- *kʷ(e)tru- Ved. cátuṣ-pád- "four-footed", Av. caθru-gaoša- "four-eared", Gk. tetrá-pod- "four-footed", Lat. quadru-ped- "four-footed"

序數的反映[编辑]

重構 反映
第1 *pr̥h₃-wó- Ved. pūrviyá-, OCS prĭvŭ[6]
*pr̥h₃-mó- Goth. fruma, Lith. pìrmas[6]
其他形式 Lat. prīmus, Eng. fyrst/first,[6]

Hitt. para, Lyc. pri, Av. pairi, vienet-as, paoiriia, Osset. fyccag, farast/farast, Kamviri pürük, Gk. prōtos, Osc. perum, Umbr. pert, Roman. primul, ON fyrstr, Gm. furist/Fürst "prince, ruler"; fruo/früh "early", Ir. er/air, Welsh ar, Toch. parwät/parwe, OPruss. pariy, Latv. pirmais, Pol. pierwszy, Russ. pervyj, Alb. i parë

第2 *dwo-teró- Skr. dvitīya, Gk. deúteros, Lith. ant(a)ras Russ. vtoroj
第3 *tri-tó- Ved. tr̥tīya-, Gk. trítos, Lat. tertius[6]

Lith. trečias < *tretias Russ. tretij

第4 *kʷetwr̥-tó- Gk. tétartos, Eng. feorþa/fourth, OCS četvirĭtŭ[6]

Lat. quartus, Lith. ketvirtas, Russ. chetvjortyj

第5 *penkʷ-tó- Av. puxδa-, Gk. pémptos[6]

Lat. quintus, Lith. penktas, Russ. pjatyj

第6 *sweḱs-tó- Gk. héktos, Lat. sextus,[6]

Lith. šeštas, Russ. šestoj

第7 *septm̥-(m)ó- Gk. hébdomos, Lat. septimus, OCS sedmŭ,[6]

Lith. septintas, sekmas, Russ. sed'moj

第8 *h₃eḱtōw-ó- Gk. ógdo(w)os, Lat. octāvus,[6]

Russ. vos'moj, Lith. aštuntas, ašmas

第9 *(h₁)newn̥-(n)ó- Lat. nonus,[6]

Gk. énatos, Russ. devjatyj, Lith. devintas

第10 *dekm̥-(m)ó- Ved. daśamá-, Av. dasəma-, Lat. decimus,[6]

Gk. dékatos, Lith. dešimtas, Russ. desjatyj

注釋[编辑]

引用[编辑]