反文化

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Mother Centre Meeting at Nambassa, 1979

反文化(或反主流文化逆主流文化非主流文化)是亞文化的一種, 這種文化所倡導的行為規範與價值觀通常與主流文化所規範的習俗大相徑庭, 有時甚至相反.[1][2]

一項反文化運動可以在一個特定的時代表達一群特定的人的社會思潮, 願景及夢想. 當這種力量達到臨界點時, 反文化就能造成主流文化的劇烈震動.

反文化在歐洲北美的傑出例子有浪漫主義 (1790-1840)還有波希米亞主義 (1850-1910). 較不健全的例子包括垮掉的一代 (1944-1964)和嬉皮士文化 (1964-1974).[3]

定義及特徵[编辑]

反文化一詞最先由希歐多爾·羅扎克英语Theodore Roszak (scholar)發明,[3][4][5] 他著有反文化的形成英语The Making of a Counter Culture一書.[6]這一詞彙在20世紀60至70年代的社會革命英语social revolution中藉由新聞媒體橫掃南北美, 西歐, 日本, 澳大利亞新西蘭.[1][3][5]

各路學者在分析反文化的特點和特殊性時見解不一。當然主流文化本身定義起來也很困難,且某種程度上靠著反文化的陪襯才能被很好地理解。反文化有別於大眾文化(或傳媒文化), [7]或中產階級文化價值觀。 [8]反文化有時被概念地認為是一種代溝和不認同父輩價值觀的表現。[9]

反文化可能是也可能不是一個確切的政治層面上的事物。典型的反文化常激起其時代主流力量的批評和反對。[10]它在黨派政治或權力主義中並不討好。[11]

通常,當一種「邊緣文化」將自己的價值觀與主流文化對立起來,它便可能擴展為「反文化」。[來源請求] 反文化趨向於先達到頂峰,再在淡出社會的道路上給主流文化留下深遠的影響。整個歷程大致包括如下階段:受排擠、自身成長、部分被接受及融入主流文化。[來源請求] 在20世紀60年代末,嬉皮士成為了美國最大最搶眼的反文化團體。[12] 由浪漫主義者、波希米亞人、垮掉的一代和嬉皮士留下的「文化陰影」直到當代仍在西方文化中依稀可辨。[來源請求]

希拉·惠特莉認為,當代社會學理論的發展使得20世紀60年代發展起來的理論變得複雜且問題重重。例如,電子科技就提供了一種促成對其產生新見解的推動力。[13]安迪·班尼特寫到, 「儘管有理論爭端能用以反對把反文化當作一個像亞文化一樣含義豐富的富社會學價值的術語來對社會性行為進行描述和分類,這個術語仍然被用於表述社會和文化理論英语cultural theory概念。」[14] 然而, 「反文化涉及到的層面不僅有烏托邦, 還有反烏托邦, 儘管在蒙特里伍德斯托克所慶祝的節日看上去圍繞前者展開,但如布莱恩·琼斯, 吉米·亨德里克斯, 吉姆·莫里森珍妮絲·賈普林等標誌性人物的死,en:Altamont Free Concert的莫須有的中傷 和查理·曼森這樣朦朧的人物給它的實際意圖蒙上了一層更深的陰影,這提示著我們,當今的世界仍顯得過於畸形。」[15][16]

西方的反文化 (20世紀60至70年代)[编辑]

美國,20世紀60年代的反文化的象徵是抵制符合習俗的50年代的社會規範。反文化青年拒絕接受父輩的文化標準,尤其是種族隔離和支持越戰方面的。[2][17] 而且,較委婉地,他們還抵製冷戰 — 年輕人們擔心美國和蘇聯核武競賽及其在越南的動作會招致核子浩劫英语nuclear holocaust

英國,20世紀60年代的反文化也主要表現在對40至50年代的社會規範的對抗行為上。儘管「核裁軍運動」主要致力于反對核武器,但這場運動也催生了後來的20世紀60年代的和平標誌英语peace symbol

在20世紀60年代的美國社會,醞釀著普遍的緊張氣氛,並有著隨越戰,種族關係英语race relations性革命,女權運動,傳統權利架構運動等事物的發展,而在代與代之間激化的趨勢。[18]作為西方反文化的中流砥柱的白人和中產階級青年因為當時普遍的經濟繁榮,得以有充分的空閒時間將精力著眼於社會問題[19]這些社會問題囊括了支持公民權女權同性戀者權益及對越戰的反對。反文化也遇到了熱心於幫忙將他們的觀點呈現給大眾的媒體。為捍衛社會正義的示威遊行產生了深遠廣泛的影響,並從很多方面改變了社會。嬉皮士成了美國最大的反文化團體。[12]

"The 60s were a leap in human consciousness. Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Che Guevara, Mother Teresa, they led a revolution of conscience. The Beatles, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix created revolution and evolution themes. The music was like Dalí, with many colors and revolutionary ways. The youth of today must go there to find themselves."

Carlos Santana[20]

对主流文化的反抗在新体裁的致幻英语psychedelic摇滚乐流行艺术和对灵魂的探索中体现的最淋漓尽致. 见证了这一年代的音乐家有甲殼蟲樂隊, 感恩而死英语The Grateful Dead樂隊, en:Jefferson Airplane, en:Jimi Hendrix, en:The Doors, Cream, en:The Rolling Stones, en:Neil Young, en:Bob Dylan, en:Janis Joplin, en:Pink Floyd, en:Joni Mitchell, 以及早期的芝加哥樂隊。演唱會的發明也在傳播反文化中起到了關鍵性作用,其中大型露天搖滾演唱會最為功不可沒。其中最登峰造极的一次是在1969年8月15日至18日在纽约貝瑟(Bethel)举行的伍德斯托克音樂節。共有32名摇滚乐与迷幻摇滚音乐家冒着周末的阵雨对着近50万人现场演奏。(Michael Lang (producer)称听众有40万,而其中没买票的占了一半)[21]这被公认为流行音乐史上的转折点,滾石雜誌更将其列为“改变摇滚历史的50个瞬间”之一。[22] Bill Mankin说,“‘伍德斯托克的一代’这个词用来描述那个年代中被摇滚演唱会改变的整整一代人,看上去正合适。[23]

Sentiments were expressed in song lyrics and popular sayings of the period, such as "do your own thing", "turn on, tune in, drop out", "whatever turns you on", "Eight miles high", "sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll", and "light my fire". Spiritually, the counterculture included interest in astrology, the term "Age of Aquarius" and knowing people's signs. This led Theodore Roszak to state "A [sic] eclectic taste for mystic, occult, and magical phenomena has been a marked characteristic of our postwar youth culture since the days of the beatniks."[5] In the United States, even actor Charlton Heston contributed to the movement, with the statement, "Don't trust anyone over thirty," in the 1968 film Planet of the Apes; the same year, actress and social activist Jane Fonda starred in the sexually-themed Barbarella. Both actors opposed the Vietnam War during its duration, and Fonda would eventually become controversially active in the peace movement.

The counterculture in the United States has been interpreted as lasting roughly from 1964 to 1972[24] — coincident with America's involvement in Vietnam — and reached its peak in 1967, the "summer of love".[25] Unconventional appearance, music, political activism, public protests, drugs, communitarian experiments, and sexual liberation were hallmarks of the sixties counterculture — most of whose members were young, white and middle-class.

Alt text
圖爲一名嬉皮士 Ken Westerfield 正幫手推廣飛盤作為一項休閒運動。

In 1967 thousands of young people flocked to the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. The counterculture lifestyle integrated many of the ideals and indulgences of the time: peace, love, harmony, music, and mysticism. Meditation, yoga, and psychedelic drugs were embraced as routes to expanding one's consciousness. In Toronto, Canada, the Yorkville district served as a kind of Haight-Ashbury North, serving as another major hippie and musical crossroads.[26] In Quebec, the Front de libération du Québec was in a quest for an independent socialist Quebec during the 1960s to early 1970s. The group, an example of some of the countercultures seeking to disrupt society, resorted to bombings, kidnappings and murder in order to try achieve their quest.[27]

In the United States, the movement divided the population. To some Americans, these attributes reflected American ideals of free speech, equality, world peace, and the pursuit of happiness; to others, they reflected a self-indulgent, pointlessly rebellious, unpatriotic, and destructive assault on the country's traditional moral order. Authorities banned the psychedelic drug LSD, restricted political gatherings, and tried to enforce bans on what they considered obscenity in books, music, theater, and other media. Parents argued with their children and worried about their children's personal safety, while the children worried about the world's future. Some adults accepted elements of the counterculture, while others became estranged from sons and daughters.

The counterculture has been argued to have diminished in the early 1970s, and some have attributed two reasons for this. First, it has been suggested that the most popular of its political goals — civil rights, civil liberties, gender equality, environmentalism, and the end of the Vietnam War — were accomplished ( to at least some degree ) ; and also that its most popular social attributes — particularly a "live and let live" mentality in personal lifestyles (the "sexual revolution") — were co-opted by mainstream society.[19][25] Second, a decline of idealism and hedonism occurred as many notable counterculture figures died, the rest settled into mainstream society and started their own families, and the "magic economy" of the 1960s gave way to the stagflation of the 1970s[19] — the latter costing many in the middle-classes the luxury of being able to live outside conventional social institutions. The counterculture, however, continues to influence social movements, art, music, and society in general, and the post-1973 mainstream society has been in many ways a hybrid of the 1960s establishment and counterculture.[25]

反文化文學作品[编辑]

20世纪60年代至70年代早期的反文化文学作品独树一帜。有时,他们会被叫做地下刊物英语Underground press。在美国,这类作品有Mr. Natural; Keep on Truckin'; en:Fritz the Cat; en:Fat Freddy's Cat; en:Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers; the album cover art for Cheap Thrills; and in several countries contributions to en:International Times, en:The Village Voice, and Oz magazine,另有en:Robert Crumb and en:Gilbert Shelton的一些作品也在此列。在20世纪60年代末和70年代初,这些漫画和杂志能在迷幻品店英语head shop里和诸如弹珠、香、香烟、扎染织物和书本之类的货物一起买到。

在20世紀60至70年代,有些買這種東西的商店發展成為了咖啡廳,而嬉皮士們則在此進行小聚、聊天、吸食大麻、讀書等活動。例子有國王街的Gandalf's Garden、倫敦的Chelsea(這家店還出版過同名雜誌)。[28]這種嬉皮士和無政府主義風格的書店還有坐落于Lace Market area of NottinghamMushroom Books。[29][30]

同性戀反文化(LGBT)[编辑]

LGBT社群,尤其是北美、南锥地区、西欧、澳大利亚和南非的LGBT社群,称得上真正的“与当时主流的价值观和行为准则背道而驰的文化团体”。

在二十世紀初的這些國家和地區中,同性戀是有罪的。主流觀點認為同性戀是道德的敗壞,而理應受到懲戒。奥斯卡·王尔德在1985年因「與其他男性進行有傷風化的行為」受到審判和鋃鐺入獄便是一証。但即使在當時,也是有不同的聲音的。西格蒙德·弗洛伊德曾公開宣稱道,他認為同性戀對於一部分人來說是完全正常的。[Freud, 1905] According to Charles Kaiser’s The Gay Metropolis, there were already semi-public gay-themed gatherings by the mid-1930s in the United States (such as the annual drag balls held during the Harlem Renaissance). There were also bars and bathhouses that catered to gay clientele and adopted warning procedures (similar to those used by Prohibition-era speakeasies) to warn customers of police raids. But homosexuality was typically subsumed into bohemian culture, and was not a significant movement in itself.[31]

Eventually, a genuine gay culture began to take root, albeit very discreetly, with its own styles, attitudes and behaviors and industries began catering to this growing demographic group. For example, publishing houses cranked out pulp novels like The Velvet Underground that were targeted directly at gay people. By the early 1960s, openly gay political organizations such as the Mattachine Society were formally protesting abusive treatment toward gay people, challenging the entrenched idea that homosexuality was an aberrant condition, and calling for the decriminalization of homosexuality. Despite very limited sympathy, American society began at least to acknowledge the existence of a sizable population of gays. The film The Boys in the Band, for example, featured negative portrayals of gay men, but at least recognized that they did in fact fraternize with each other (as opposed to being isolated, solitary predators who "victimized" straight men).

Disco music in large part rose out of the New York gay club scene of the early 1970s as a reaction to the stigmatization of gays and other outside groups such as blacks by the counterculture of that era.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] By later in the decade Disco was dominating the pop charts.[40] The popular Village People and the critically acclaimed Sylvester had gay themed lyrics and presentation.[41][42]

Another element of LGBT counter-culture that began in the 1970’s - and continues today - is the lesbian land, or Landdyke movement.[43] Radical feminists inspired by the back-to-the-land initiative abandoned their traditional roles and migrated to rural areas to create female-only lesbian communes.[44] “Free Spaces” are defined by Sociologist Francesca Polletta as “small-scale settings within a community or movement that are removed from the direct control of dominant groups, are voluntarily participated in, and generate the cultural challenge that precedes or accompanies political mobilization.[45] Women came together in Free Spaces like music festivals, activist groups and collectives to share ideas with like-minded people and to explore the idea of the lesbian land movement. The movement is closely tied to eco-feminism[46]

The four tenants of the Landdyke Movement are relationship with the land, liberation and transformation, living the politics, and bodily Freedoms.[47] Most importantly, members of these communities seek to live outside of a patriarchal society that puts emphasis on “beauty ideals that discipline the female body, compulsive heterosexuality, competitiveness with other women, and dependence.” [48] Instead of adhering typical female gender roles, the women of Landdyke communities value “self-sufficiency, bodily strength, autonomy from men and patriarchal systems, and the development of lesbian-centered community.” [48] Members of the Landdyke movement enjoy bodily freedoms that have been deemed unacceptable in the modern Western world – such as the freedom to expose their breasts, or to go without any clothing at all.[49] An awareness of their impact on the Earth, and connection to nature is essential members of the Landdyke Movement's way of life.[50]

The watershed event in the American gay rights movement was the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City. Following this event, gays and lesbians began adopting the militant protest tactics used by anti-war and black power radicals to confront anti-gay ideology. Another major turning point was the 1973 decision by the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the official list of mental disorders.[51] Although gay radicals used pressure to force the decision, Kaiser notes that this had been an issue of some debate for many years in the psychiatric community, and that one of the chief obstacles to normalizing homosexuality was that therapists were profiting from offering dubious, unproven "cures".[31]

The AIDS epidemic was initially an unexpected blow to the movement, especially in North America. There was speculation that the disease would permanently drive gay life underground. Ironically, the tables were turned. Many of the early victims of the disease had been openly gay only within the confines of insular "gay ghettos" such as New York City’s Greenwich Village and San Francisco’s Castro; they remained closeted in their professional lives and to their families. Many heterosexuals who thought they didn't know any gay people were confronted by friends and loved ones dying of "the gay plague" (which soon began to infect "straight" people also). LGBT communities were increasingly seen not only as victims of a disease, but as victims of ostracism and hatred. Most importantly, the disease became a rallying point for a previously complacent gay community. AIDS invigorated the community politically to fight not only for a medical response to the disease, but also for wider acceptance of homosexuality in mainstream America. Ultimately, coming out became an important step for many LGBT people.

During the early 1980s what was dubbed "New Music", New wave, "New pop" popularized by MTV and associated with gender bending Second British Music Invasion stars such as Boy George and Annie Lennox became an what was described by Newsweek at the time as an alternate mainstream to the traditional masculine/heterosexual rock music in the United States.[52][53][54]

In 2003, the United States Supreme Court officially declared all sodomy laws unconstitutional.[55]

俄羅斯及蘇維埃的反文化[编辑]

Although not exactly equivalent to the English definition, the term "Контркультура" (Kontrkul'tura, "Counterculture") became common in Russian to define a 1990s cultural movement that promoted acting outside of cultural conventions: the use of explicit language; graphical descriptions of sex, violence and illicit activities; and uncopyrighted use of "safe" characters involved in such activities.

During the early 1970s, the Soviet government rigidly promoted optimism in Russian culture. Even mild topics, such as divorce and alcohol abuse, were viewed as taboo by the media. However, Russian society grew weary of the gap between real life and the creative world [來源請求], and underground culture became "forbidden fruit." General satisfaction with the quality of existing works led to parody, such as how the Russian anecdotal joke tradition turned the setting of War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy into a grotesque world of sexual excess. Another well-known example is black humor (mostly in the form of short poems) that dealt exclusively with funny deaths and/or other mishaps of small, innocent children.

In the mid-1980s, the Glasnost policy permitted the production of less optimistic works. As a consequence, Russian cinema during the late 1980s and the early 1990s was dominated by crime-packed action movies with explicit (but not necessarily graphic) scenes of ruthless violence and social dramas about drug abuse, prostitution and failing relationships. Although Russian movies of the time would be rated "R" in the United States due to violence, the use of explicit language was much milder than in American cinema.

In the late 1990s, Russian counterculture became increasingly popular on the Internet. Several websites appeared that posted user-created short stories dealing with sex, drugs and violence. The following features are considered the most popular topics in such works:

  • Wide use of explicit language;
  • Deliberate misspelling;
  • Descriptions of drug use and consequences of abuse;
  • Negative portrayals of alcohol use;
  • Sex and violence: Nothing is a taboo — in general, violence is rarely advocated, while all types of sex are considered good;
  • Parody: Media advertising, classic movies, pop culture and children's books are considered fair game;
  • Non-conformance; and,
  • Politically incorrect topics: Mostly racism, xenophobia and homophobia.

A notable aspect of counterculture at the time was the influence of contra-cultural developments on Russian pop culture. In addition to traditional Russian styles of music, such as songs with jail-related lyrics, new music styles with explicit language were developed.

亞洲反文化[编辑]

In the recent past Dr. Sebastian Kappen, an Indian theologian, has tried to redefine counterculture in the Asian context. In March 1990, at a seminar in Bangalore, he presented his countercultural perspectives (Chapter 4 in S. Kappen, Tradition, modernity, counterculture: an Asian perspective, Visthar, Bangalore, 1994). Dr. Kappen envisages counterculture as a new culture that has to negate the two opposing cultural phenomena in Asian countries:

  1. invasion by Western capitalist culture, and
  2. the emergence of revivalist movements.

Kappen writes, "Were we to succumb to the first, we should be losing our identity; if to the second, ours would be a false, obsolete identity in a mental universe of dead symbols and delayed myths".

The most important countercultural movement in India had taken place in the state of West Bengal during the 1960s by a group of poets and artists who called themselves Hungryalists.

參見[编辑]

參考書目[编辑]

參考來源[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 "counterculture," Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, 2008, MWCCul.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Eric Donald Hirsch. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-65597-8. (1993) p 419. "Members of a cultural protest that began in the U.S. in the 1960s and Europe before fading in the 1970s... fundamentally a cultural rather than a political protest."
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 F.X. Shea, S.J., "Reason and the Religion of the Counter-Culture", Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 66/1 (1973), pp. 95-111, JSTOR-3B2-X.
  4. ^ Andrea Gollin. Social critic Theodore Roszak *58 explores intolerance in new novel about gay Jewish writer. PAW Online. 2003-04-23 [2008-06-21]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Roszak, Theodore, The Making of a Counter Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition, 1968/1969, Doubleday, New York, ISBN 0-385-07329-1; ISBN 978-0-385-07329-5.
  6. ^ His conception of the counterculture is discussed in Whiteley, 2012 and Bennett, 2012.
  7. ^ Gelder, Subcultures (2007) p. 4. "...to the banalities of mass cultural forms".
  8. ^ Hodkinson and Deicke, Youth Cultures (2007), p. 205. "...opposition to, the middle-class establishment of adults."
  9. ^ Hebdige, Subculture (1979), p.127. "defining themselves against the parent culture."
  10. ^ Hall & Jefferson, Resistance Through Rituals (1991), p.61. "They make articulate their opposition to dominant values and institutions—even when, as frequently occurred, this does not take the form of an overtly political response."
  11. ^ Hazlehurst & Hazlehurst, Gangs and Youth Subcultures (1998), p.59. "There does seem to be some general commitment towards antiauthoritarianism, a rejection of the traditional party political system which is considered irrelevant."
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Yablonsky, Lewis (1968), The Hippie Trip, New York: Western Publishing, Inc., ISBN 13: 978-0595001163, pp 21-37.
  13. ^ Cf. Whiteley, 2012.
  14. ^ 原文如下:"Despite the theoretical arguments that can be raised against the sociological value of counterculture as a meaningful term for categorising social action, like subculture, the term lives on as a concept in social and cultural theory… [to] become part of a received, mediated memory".
  15. ^ 原文如下: "this involved not simply the utopian but also the dystopian and that while festivals such as those held at Monterey and Woodstock might appear to embrace the former, the deaths of such iconic figures as Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin, the nihilistic mayhem at Altamont, and the shadowy figure of en:Charlie Manson cast a darker light on its underlying agenda, one that reminds us that ‘pathological issues [are] still very much at large in today’s world".
  16. ^ Cf. Andy Bennett, 2012.
  17. ^ Mary Works Covington, Rockin' At the Red Dog: The Dawn of Psychedelic Rock, 2005.
  18. ^ 翻譯時,此處有小的省略,原文如下:In the United States, widespread tensions developed in the 1960s in American society that tended to flow along generational lines regarding the war in Vietnam, race relations, sexual mores, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, and a materialist interpretation of the American Dream.
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 19.2 Krugman, Paul. The Conscience of a Liberal. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2007. ISBN ISBN 0-393-06069-1.  Chapter 5. Economist Paul Krugman comments on the effects of the economy on the counterculture: "In fact," he argues, "you have to wonder whether the Nixon recession of 1969-1971 [which nearly doubled the unemployment rate] didn't do more to end the hippie movement than the killings at Altamont."
  20. ^ Carlos Santana: I’m Immortal interview by Punto Digital, October 13, 2010
  21. ^ State Investigating Handling of Tickets At Woodstock Fair. New York Times. August 27, 1969: (45). 
  22. ^ Woodstock in 1969. Rolling Stone. 2004-06-24 [2008-04-17]. 
  23. ^ Mankin, Bill. We Can All Join In: How Rock Festivals Helped Change America. Like the Dew. 2012.
  24. ^ Riech, Robert. Reason: Why Liberals Will Win the Battle for America. Alfred A. Knopf. 2004. ISBN 1-4000-4221-6.  Chapter 1, pp. 13-14
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 25.2 Yenne, Bill. The Beatles. Longmeadow Press. 1989. ISBN 0-681-00576-9.  pp. 46-55
  26. ^ Henderson, Stuart. Making the Scene: Yorkville and Hip Toronto in the 1960s and the year was. University of Toronto Press. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4426-1071-2. 
  27. ^ Macionis, Gerber, John, Linda (2010). Sociology 7th Canadian Ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc. pp. 71
  28. ^ London a Map of the Underground
  29. ^ Mushroom Books, Nottingham
  30. ^ Founder of radical bookshop dies
  31. ^ 31.0 31.1 Kaiser, C. The Gay Metropolis. New York: Harcourt Brace. 1997. ISBN 0-15-600617-0. 
  32. ^ (2007) The 1970s, ISBN 978-0-313-33919-6, p.203–204: "During the late 1960s various male counterculture groups, most notably gay, but also heterosexual black and Latino, created an alternative to rock'n'roll, which was dominated by white—and presumably heterosexual—men. This alternative was disco"
  33. ^ Disco Double Take: New York Parties Like It's 1975. Village Voice.com. Retrieved on August 9, 2009.
  34. ^ What's That Sound? · W. W. Norton and Company, Inc.. What's That Sound? · W. W. Norton and Company, Inc. wwnorton.com. Retrieved on August 4, 2009
  35. ^ MacArthur's Disco : Disco Clubs at DiscoMusic.com. Discotheques and Clubs of the 1970s/80s: "MacArthur's Disco". DiscoMusic.com. Retrieved on August 4, 2009.
  36. ^ (1998) "The Cambridge History of American Music", ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2, p.372: "Initially, disco musicians and audiences alike belonged to marginalized communities: women, gay, black, and Latinos"
  37. ^ (2002) "Traces of the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions of Popular Music", ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, ISBN 978-0-8147-9809-6, p.117: "New York City was the primary center of disco, and the original audience was primarily gay African Americans and Latinos."
  38. ^ (1976) "Stereo Review", University of Michigan, p.75: "[..] and the result—what has come to be called disco—was clearly the most compelling and influential form of black commercial pop music since the halcyon days of the "Motown Sound" of the middle Sixties."
  39. ^ Shapiro, Peter. "Turn the Beat Around: The Rise and Fall of Disco", Macmillan, 2006. p.204–206: " 'Broadly speaking, the typical New York discotheque DJ is young (between 18 and 30), Italian, and gay,' journalist Vince Aletti declared in 1975...Remarkably, almost all of the important early DJs were of Italian extraction...Italian Americans have played a significant role in America's dance music culture...While Italian Americans mostly from Brooklyn largely created disco from scratch..." [1].
  40. ^ Allmusic Disco genre
  41. ^ Allmusic bio The Village People
  42. ^ Allmusic bio Sylvester
  43. ^ Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):719.
  44. ^ Lord, A., and Zajicek, A. M. "The history of the contemporary grassroots women’s movement in northwest Arkansas, 1970–2000." Fayetteville, AR
  45. ^ Polletta, Francesca. "Free Spaces in Collective Action" Theory and Society, 28/1. (Feb 1999):1.
  46. ^ Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):720-722.
  47. ^ Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):720-719.
  48. ^ 48.0 48.1 Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):729.
  49. ^ Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):734.
  50. ^ Anahita, Sine. "Nestled Into Niches: Prefigurative Communities on Lesbian Land." Journal of Homosexuality, 56 (2009):732.
  51. ^ Conger, J. J. (1975) "Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the Annual meeting of the Council of Representatives." American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
  52. ^ Triumph of the New Newsweek on Campus reprinted by the Michigan Daily March 2, 1984
  53. ^ Rip it Up and Start Again Post Punk 1978-1984 by Simon Reynolds United States Edition pp. 332-352
  54. ^ Cateforis, Theo. Are We Not New Wave Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. The University of Michigan Press, 2011. ISBN=0-472-03470-7.
  55. ^ LAWRENCE ET AL. v. TEXAS, June 26, 2003 http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/02pdf/02-102.pdf[失效連結]

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