反民族主义

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反民族主義是指反對视自己民族最高尚的思想或認為自己民族特殊和優越于其他民族的狹隘民族身分認同思想。

反民族主義是一種反對对民族、種族、與國家等概念狭隘认同、極端捍衛的意識形態,该主义主张“人類都是一家人”的「基本思想」。通俗地说,反民族主义主張:人類都是同一物種,不應該刻意地以文化認同來作為國家存亡的基礎,以及「各民族有平等行使義務之權」。類似的思想有世界政府地球聯邦之類的提議,以“人類共榮”而非“民族兴盛”作為基礎的思想。[1]

發展[编辑]

反民族主義現在為止還沒有一個特殊的組織或倡導者以及團體。然而,二戰后對於民族身分的認同以及極端地将自己民族作為大民族,并希望民族能富強的思想變得非常激進。

聖經》和《古蘭經》的人祖觀都反對了這種“血統民族論”,早期也有類似的反民族主義的政體,例如:政教合一梵蒂岡阿拉伯帝國哈里發時期等等,也是以多民族共榮的主權政體。

爭議[编辑]

有些民族主義者认为:「一個國家的富強是需要國民對自己的文化身分認同作為基礎來發展。」如果缺少這種民族身份強烈的認同,便會很難使一個國家富強。

有些人区分定義了民族主義和極端民族主義,认为主要应该反对极端民族主义而非一般的民族主义。香港高級程度會考的歷史書對極端民族主義定義为人們會因為「過份」追求「民族優越」或不同原因而對其他民族進行侵略。

著名人物[编辑]

相关[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ The Return of the National Question by Chris Harman, a Trotskyist analysis and critique of nationalism.
  2. ^ Ronald Beiner. Hannah Arendt as a Critic of Nationalism. Liberalism, Nationalism, Citizenship: Essays on the problem of political community. UBC Press. 2003: 129–147. 
  3. ^ " Capek not only mocks his fellow-countrymen for wallowing in past sufferings but shrewdly shows how this kind of pride in humiliation can be fostered in others...He is opposed to nationalism, yet he argues for the importance of culture; he writes in Czech, yet he wields his language as a weapon against the whole of his contemporary world." Elizabeth Maslen, "Proper Words in Proper Places: The Challenge of Čapek's "War with the Newts". Science Fiction Studies March 1987.
  4. ^ Pride and Blessing. youtube.com. It's Bad for Ya. 
  5. ^ Viereck, George Sylvester, What Life Means to Einstein: An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck (PDF), The Saturday Evening Post, October 26, 1929: 117 [19 May 2013] 
  6. ^ "Forster was famously a "little Englander". But this meant that he disliked the Imperialist enterprise, distrusted patriotism, and anxiously celebrated internationalism." John Lucas, The Radical Twenties : aspects of writing, politics and culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves, 1997. ISBN 0907123171 (p. 212)
  7. ^ "We dedicate ourselves to a relentless fight against Fascism and War, Imperialism, nationalism, humanism, liberalism, idealism, anarchist individualism, the doctrine of art for art's sake, religious fideism and dogmas emanating in general from any party or person capable of exploitation by capitalism to justify its perpetuation".David Gascoyne,"A First English Surrealist Manifesto",(1935) in Robert Fraser, Night Thoughts : the surreal life of the poet David Gascoyne.Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780199558148 (p.79).
  8. ^ "Conceit, arrogance and egotism are the essentials of patriotism. Let me illustrate. Patriotism assumes that our globe is divided into little spots, each one surrounded by an iron gate." What is Patriotism?
  9. ^ A New Flag (Patriotism). youtube.com. Rant in E-Minor. 
  10. ^ World Book Encyclopedia, 1990 ed., s.v. "Iqbal, Sir Muhammad"
  11. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Christian的参考文献提供内容
  12. ^ "A large part of Vernon Lee's writing is a sustained and at times bitter attack on what she regarded as serious evils-waste, the position of woman, vivisection, art for art's sake, nationalism, war." Peter Gunn, Vernon Lee: Violet Paget, 1856-1935. London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1964.(p.149)
  13. ^ "[Vernon] Lee's absolute rejection of patriotism isolated her from many even in the UDC circle."Patrick Wright,Iron Curtain: From Stage to Cold War. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780199231508.
  14. ^ Lenin: Corrupting the Workers with Refined Nationalism
  15. ^ "Rosa Luxemburg remained steadfastly anti-war and anti-nationalist" Jan Jindy Pettman, Worlding Women: A Feminist International Politics New York: Routledge, 2005 ISBN 1134744900 (p. 110).
  16. ^ "Marxism postulated the formation of the proletariat as a force that transcended national identities and that operated on a supranational. Because of this, from its earliest beginnings, Marxism viewed nationalism as a rival and an enemy". Roman Szporluk, Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx Versus Friedrich List, Oxford University Press, 1988, pg. 14.
  17. ^ "Of course he [Mumford] opposed militarism and nationalism in all its forms and later condemned the Nazi ideology that justified a totalitarian social order by attaching place-"the soil"- to race". Mark Luccarelli,Lewis Mumford and The Ecological Region : The Politics Of Planning. New York : Guilford Press, 1995. ISBN 1572300019 (p.24.)
  18. ^ 存档副本. [2017-01-27]. (原始内容存档于2017-01-07). 
  19. ^ Who Speaks for Earth. Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. 1980-12-21. 
  20. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为morality的参考文献提供内容
  21. ^ "Nationalism does nothing but teach you how to hate people that you never met." No Refunds
  22. ^ Landscapes of Hope: Anti-Colonial Utopianism in America by Dohra Ahmad. Oxford University Press, 2009 (pp. 94-6)
  23. ^ "Patriotism in its simplest, clearest and most indubitable signification is nothing else but a means of obtaining for the rulers their ambitions and covetous desires, and for the ruled the abdication of human dignity, reason and conscience, and a slavish enthrallment to those in power. And as such it is recommended wherever it may be preached.
    Patriotism is slavery." Patriotism and Christianity, Leo Tolstoy.
  24. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NDYrZKLc1s
  25. ^ "Veblen was against nationalism because it involves wasteful, honorific, and hence barbaric rituals, ceremonies, and related phenomena". Quoted in "Introduction" by Stjepan G. Mestrovic to Thorstein Veblen by 大卫·理斯曼. Transaction Publishers, 1953 (p. xvi)
  26. ^ "If I am opposed to nationalism and war, it is not merely because these things represent an immense waste of energy, but because they sustain a cant of blind discipline and loyalty ..." H.G. Wells, interview in Living Philosophies, edited by Clifton Fadiman. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1931. (p.91
  27. ^ "H.G. Wells rejects patriotism and nationalism in this intentionally provocative talk, speaking of his great desire for a future 'world unity' where barriers between countries are dissolved. While acknowledging his own great pride in being an Englishman, Wells decries both the increasing nationalism that is plaguing the world and the march towards war, a catastrophe that many believe is now inevitable, while still hoping for peace and co-operation if the courage and imagination can be found." HG Wells challenges the idea of 'Britain for the British'
  28. ^ "Woolf deeply distrusted patriotism and nationalism, believing they cwars; such feelings were particularly ill-suited to women living in a patriarchy, whose stake in society was significantly different from that of men." Julia Briggs, Reading Virginia Woolf. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2006. ISBN 9780748624348 (p. 15).