取消文化

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取消文化[註 1](Cancel culture),或稱指控文化[1](Call-out culture,亦譯嗆聲文化[2]),[註 2]是一種社群抵制行為,為網路時代的一種放逐形式,目的在於意圖用举报某人或某节目的内容不符合自己认同的政治正确,发动舆论讨伐將其驱逐出其所屬的社交圈或專業領域交流之線上活動、社群媒體或是現實中的活動,使之失去原有社会关系平台的公开支持(即「平臺驅逐」)而无法继续存在,最终「被取消」(cancelled)。[3][註 3]而控訴文化被視為「取消文化」的一種變異,為杯葛孤立英语Shunning的一種形式,其對象被認為做出了有問題或是有爭議的言行。[4][6][7][8][9]「取消文化」此一措辭通常於多數時候具有負面意涵且常被用於關於言論自由審查之辯論上。[10]

值得一提的是,有許多聲稱被「取消」的人們往往在他們的職涯上仍舊具有權力。此外,部分取消行為被以「行使言論自由」與「促使人們為自己言行負責」之名辯護,[11][12] [13]但亦有批評認為取消文化會製造寒蟬效應[14] 取消文化、控訴文化可能造成不合比例地公審當事人而造成當事人社會性死亡的爭議性結果。

起源[编辑]

Chic於1981年所發行的專輯《脫掉英语Take It Off (album)》中,有一首歌〈你的愛被腰斬了〉(Your Love Is Canceled),其歌詞將分手與電視節目被腰斬(cancellation;直譯為「取消」)做類比。作曲者奈爾‧羅傑斯英语Nile Rodgers曾有個不愉快的約會,因為對方試圖想濫用他的知名度。編劇貝里‧麥可‧庫柏英语Barry Michael Cooper在1991年電影《萬惡城市英语New Jack City》(New Jack City)中參考了這首歌,指一名女性被「取消」了。[15]此一詞彙之後進入了非洲裔美國人白話英語,且被普遍地使用。

至於「指控文化」[註 2]一詞則是從2014年的#MeToo運動開始使用的。[16]

描述[编辑]

根據韋氏詞典,「取消」(cancel)在此意指「對某人停止給予支持」(to stop giving support to that person)。[4]Dictionary.com的流行文化字典中,將「取消文化」定義為「不再支持做出令人不快或冒犯性之言行的公眾人物或公司」[17]

此一現象已發生在公眾人物與非公眾人物上。[18]作家理伽雅‧米珊(Ligaya Mishan)於紐約時報上表示「『取消』此一詞彙被混亂地用於各種線上與現實的活動中,包括了私法正義英语Vigilantism、具敵意之辯論、跟蹤、恐嚇威脅、騷擾……等。擁護『取消』此一概念的人們尋求的不只是即時的道歉(pat apologies)與反應,只是他們的目的並不是永遠地如此明確,可能是糾正一個特定的錯誤,或者是要求對更大的權力不平等之補償。」[10][註 4][18]

學術分析[编辑]

社會心理學家喬納森·海伊特英语Jonathan Haidt與言論自由運動家格雷格·盧嘉諾夫英语Greg Lukianoff合著的《為什麼我們製造出玻璃心世代?英语The Coddling of the American Mind[19] ,認為指控文化(call-out culture)來自校園中的「安全感」(safetyism)[20]密西根州立大學媒體研究教授基斯·漢普頓英语Keith Hampton將此歸因為美國社會的政治極化英语Political polarization in the United States,而無法帶來公眾意見的變化[21]。文化研究學者法蘭西絲·李英语Frances E. Lee認為指控文化會促成「錯誤、打壓性,或不合適」的意見自律。[22][23] 密西根大學教授中村莉莎英语Lisa Nakamura認為取消是一種「文化抵制」(cultural boycott)的形式,而取消文化是因「控制慾」而誕生之「能動者的終極表現」,因為「人們對於他們在社群媒體上所見事物的控制能力有限」,且是一種對「未中心化的問責性」之需要。[24][25][26]

一些學者認為取消文化應該有替代的方式或是做出改善,如批判式多元文化主義教授布萊特(Anita Bright)提議用「召回」(calling-in)[註 5]取代「指控」(call-out),以更為「人性、溫和與相互溝通」的方式尋求當責[27]

耶魯大學的實驗哲學家約書亞·諾布英语Joshua Knobe認為此種公然性的譴責是沒有效率的,而且社會總是太快做出評斷而將某些人當成公敵(public offender)或不受歡迎人物。諾布認為這些行動會對個人帶來相反的效果,而最好將注意力放在多數社會參與者的正面行動。[28]

流行文化[编辑]

美國影集《南方公園》在第22季(2018)的宣傳活動中藉由發起了「取消南方公園」(#CancelSouthPark)活動來嘲弄取消文化。[29]。該季第三集「阿糞的問題」(The Problem with a Poo)劇情中參考了紀錄片《阿普的問題英语The Problem with Apu》、《蘿絲安英语Roseanne》因女主角演員發了爭議推文而被腰斬一事,以及布雷特·卡瓦諾提名為大法官英语Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court nomination的事情。

戴夫·查普爾將取消文化當作2019年單人脫口秀一笑置之英语Sticks & Stones (2019 film)》的主題。

狄克西女子合唱團(因大力批評小布希的伊拉克戰爭)[30]比爾·馬厄(因多次爭議行為)[31]都表示自己是取消文化的受害者。

參見[编辑]

註記[编辑]

  1. ^ 意譯為「腰斬文化」,參照起源項。
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 原文「Call-out culture」照字面意義可譯為扣帽子文化。在英文中,callout意思是「(idiomatic) A form of verbal abuse with the intention to make the victim feel guilty.」,意指一種言詞上的辱罵且意圖使對方有罪惡感。
  3. ^ 根據韋氏詞典,「取消」(cancel)在此意指「對某人停止給予支持」(to stop giving support to that person)。[4]
    Dictionary.com的流行文化字典中,將「取消文化」定義為「不再支持做出令人不快或冒犯性之言行的公眾人物或公司」(withdrawing support for (canceling) public figures and companies after they have done or said something considered objectionable or offensive)。[5]
  4. ^ 原文:"The term is shambolically applied to incidents both online and off that range from vigilante justice to hostile debate to stalking, intimidation and harassment....Those who embrace the idea (if not the precise language) of canceling seek more than pat apologies and retractions, although it's not always clear whether the goal is to right a specific wrong and redress a larger imbalance of power."[10]
  5. ^ 在英文中,call in意思是「(transitive) To withdraw something from sale or circulation.」,為recall的同義字,意指「召回」(將某樣東西從銷售或某種循環中收回);亦可指「(transitive) To summon someone, especially for help or advice.」,意指找人來協助或給予建議。

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 當取消無所不在 我們可以保留什麼?, 中央社, 2021-02-17 [2021-08-15], (原始内容存档于2021-08-15) 
  2. ^ 《為什麼我們製造出玻璃心世代?》:看起來很會嗆,其實很玻璃(我講的不是小粉紅哦), The News Lens 關鍵評論網, 2020-06-20 [2021-08-15], (原始内容存档于2021-08-15) 
  3. ^ McDermott, John. Those People We Tried to Cancel? They're All Hanging Out Together. The New York Times. November 2, 2019 [August 3, 2020]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-15). 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 What It Means to Get 'Canceled'. www.merriam-webster.com. [July 4, 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-06-18) (英语). 
  5. ^ What Does Cancel Culture Mean?. dictionary.com. [August 19, 2020]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-02). 
  6. ^ Sills, Sophie; Pickens, Chelsea; Beach, Karishma; Jones, Lloyd; Calder-Dawe, Octavia; Benton-Greig, Paulette; Gavey, Nicola. Rape culture and social media: young critics and a feminist counterpublic. Feminist Media Studies. March 23, 2016, 16 (6): 935–951. S2CID 147023782. doi:10.1080/14680777.2015.1137962. 
  7. ^ Munro, Ealasaid. Feminism: A Fourth Wave?. Political Insight. August 23, 2013, 4 (2): 22–25 [April 29, 2020]. S2CID 142990260. doi:10.1111/2041-9066.12021. (原始内容存档于2019-12-10). 
  8. ^ Yar, Sanam; Bromwich, Jonah Engel. Tales From the Teenage Cancel Culture. The New York Times. October 31, 2019 [July 4, 2020]. ISSN 0362-4331. (原始内容存档于2020-06-01). 
  9. ^ Bromwich, Jonah Engel. Everyone Is Canceled. The New York Times. June 28, 2018 [July 24, 2020]. ISSN 0362-4331. (原始内容存档于2019-08-13). 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Mishan, Ligaya. The Long and Tortured History of Cancel Culture. T: The New York Times Style Magazine. December 3, 2020 [2021-08-06]. (原始内容存档于2020-12-04). 
  11. ^ Manavis, Sarah. "Cancel culture" does not exist. NewStatesman. July 16, 2020 [2021-08-06]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-02). 
  12. ^ The entitlement of Canadian politicians - Macleans.ca. www.macleans.ca. [January 6, 2021]. (原始内容存档于2021-03-17). 
  13. ^ 'Cancel culture' is not the preserve of the left. Just ask our historians | David Olusoga. The Guardian. January 3, 2021 [2021-08-06]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-10). 
  14. ^ McWhorter, John. Academics Are Really, Really Worried About Their Freedom. [30 July 2021]. (原始内容存档于2021-08-13). 
  15. ^ McGrady, Clyde. The strange journey of 'cancel,' from a Black-culture punchline to a White-grievance watchword. The Washington Post. April 2, 2021 [April 10, 2021]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-02). 
  16. ^ Mendes, Kaitlynn; Ringrose, Jessica; Keller, Jessalynn. #MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism. European Journal of Women's Studies. May 1, 2018, 25 (2): 236–246. ISSN 1350-5068. doi:10.1177/1350506818765318. hdl:2381/41541可免费查阅 (英语). 
  17. ^ What does cancel culture mean?. [2021-09-07]. Cancel culture refers to the popular practice of withdrawing support for (canceling) public figures and companies after they have done or said something considered objectionable or offensive. Cancel culture is generally discussed as being performed on social media in the form of group shaming. 
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 Cancel culture: Have any two words become more weaponised?. BBC News. February 18, 2021 [March 22, 2021]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-04) (英国英语). 
  19. ^ 美國大學生的玻璃心:The Coddling of the American Mind. [2021-09-07]. 
  20. ^ Haidt, Jonathan; Lukianoff, Greg (2018). The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure.英语The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure New York City: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-7352-2489-6. OCLC 1007552624.; For safetyism, see Lukianoff, Greg; Haidt, Jonathan (September 4, 2018). The Coddling of the American Mind. pp. 30, 158, 235, 268, 329. ISBN 978-0-7352-2490-2.
  21. ^ Agence France Presse (July 22, 2020). "La "cancel culture", nouvelle arme des anonymes et facteur de polarisation". Le Journal de Montréal (in French). Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  22. ^ Lee, Frances (September 17, 2017). "'Excommunicate me from the church of social justice': an activist's plea for change". The Sunday Magazine. CBC Radio.
  23. ^ "Why I've Started to Fear My Fellow Social Justice Activists". Yes!. Retrieved July 28, 2020
  24. ^ Bromwich, Jonah Engel (June 28, 2018). "Everyone Is Canceled". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  25. ^ Velasco, Joseph (October 2020). You are Cancelled: Virtual Collective Consciousness and the Emergence of Cancel Culture as Ideological Purging. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities 12(5). 12. Conference: 1st Rupkatha International Open Conference on Recent Advances in Interdisciplinary Humanities. doi:10.21659/rupkatha.v12n5.rioc1s21n2.
  26. ^ Wei, M. L.; Bunjun, Benita (October 21, 2020). "'We are not the shoes of white supremacists': a critical race perspective of consumer responses to brand attempts at countering racist associations". Journal of Marketing Management. 36 (13–14): 1252–1279. doi:10.1080/0267257X.2020.1806907. ISSN 0267-257X. S2CID 226315082.
  27. ^ Bright, Anita; Gambrell, James (2017). "Calling In, Not Calling Out: A Critical Race Framework for Nurturing Cross-Cultural Alliances in Teacher Candidates". Handbook of Research on Promoting Cross-Cultural Competence and Social Justice in Teacher Education. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-0897-7.ch011. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  28. ^ Stein, J. (August 13, 2015). "I'm making the case for public shaming-unless you publicly shame me for doing so". Time. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  29. ^ Andrews, Travis M. (October 17, 2018). "How 'South Park' became the ultimate #bothsides show". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  30. ^ Dixie Chicks talk cancel culture 17 years after being blacklisted. Good Morning America (ABC). March 16, 2020. 
  31. ^ Ali, Rasha. Bill Maher talks cancel culture and John Lewis with authors of Harper's open 'letter on justice'. USA Today. August 1, 2020.