各国伊斯兰教

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世界各国穆斯林人口百分比(皮尤研究中心、2018年)
  0–1%
  1–5%
  5–25%
  25–50%
  50–75%
  75–90%
  90–100%

伊斯兰是仅次于基督教的世界第二大宗教。根据2011年发布的一项研究[1][2],伊斯兰教拥有18亿信徒,占据超过世界人口的23%[3][4]

伊斯兰教在中东萨赫勒非洲之角北非地区是主导宗教[1][5][6][7]亚洲部分地区[8]。在中国巴尔干俄罗斯也可以找到庞大的穆斯林社群[1][9]。世界上其他地区同样有着大规模的穆斯林移民社群,例如在西欧伊斯兰教是次于基督教的第二大宗教,代表了6%的总人口[10]

根据皮尤研究中心的数据,在2010年有49个穆斯林为主要群体的国家[11] 世界上62%人口的穆斯林居住在南亚东南亚,有着超过十亿的信徒[12]。拥有最多穆斯林人口的国家是印度尼西亚,一个拥有世界上12.7%穆斯林的世俗国家。其后是巴基斯坦(11.0%)、印度(10.9%)和孟加拉国(9.2%)[1][13]。20%的穆斯林生活在中东阿拉伯国家[14],而土耳其伊朗这两个非阿拉伯国家则是地区最大的穆斯林主体国家;埃及尼日利亚则在非洲有着最大的穆斯林社群[1][13]。研究也发现英国的穆斯林人口要比黎巴嫩的多,中国同样比叙利亚的多[1]

国家[编辑]

表格的前三列是基于皮尤研究中心的人口统计,《全球穆斯林人口的未来》,2011年1月27日报告。[1][2]

表格[编辑]

国家/地区[1] 總人口 穆斯林人口 穆斯林占总人口的百分比(%) 占世界穆斯林人口的百分比(%) 其他来源
阿富汗 34,940,837 34,836,014 99.6 1.8 [15]
阿尔巴尼亚 3,057,220 1,797,645 58.8 0.1 [16][17]
阿尔及利亚 41,657,488 41,240,913 99 2.7 [18]
美属萨摩亚 50,826 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [19]
安道尔 85,708 2,228 2.6 < 0.1 [20][21]
安哥拉 30,355,880 90,000 0.3 < 0.1 [22][23]
安圭拉 17,422 < 1,000 0.6 < 0.1 [24][25]
安地卡及巴布達 95,882 < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1 [26]
阿根廷 44,694,198 400,000 0.9 < 1 [27][23]
亞美尼亞 3,038,217 3,038 0.1 < 0.1 [28][29]
阿鲁巴 116,576 < 1,000 0.4 < 0.1 [30][31]
澳大利亚 25,000,000 650,000 2.6 < 0.1 [32]
奥地利 8,900,000 712,000 8 < 0.1 [33][34]
阿塞拜疆 10,046,516 9,735,074 96.9 0.5 [35]
巴哈马 332,634 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1 [36]
巴林 1,442,659 1,063,239 73.7 < 0.1 [37]
孟加拉国 170,000,000 153,700,000 90.4 9.2 [38][39]
巴巴多斯 293,131 4,396 1.5 < 0.1 [40]
白俄羅斯 9,527,543 45,000 - 100,000 0.5-1.0 < 0.1 [41][42][43]
比利時 11,570,762 879,377 7.6 < 0.1 [44][45]
伯利兹 385,854 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [46][47]
贝宁 11,340,504 3,141,319 27.7 0.14 [48]
百慕大 71,176 < 1,000 1 < 0.1 [49]
不丹 766,397 ≤ 2,000 0.2 < 0.1 [50][51]
玻利维亚 11,306,341 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [52][53]
波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那 3,849,891 1,955,084 50.7 0.1 [54]
博茨瓦纳 2,249,104 8,996 0.4 < 0.1 [55][56]
巴西 208,846,892 35,167 - 1,500,000 0.02 - 0.7 < 0.1 [57][58]
英屬維爾京群島 35,802 < 1,000 1.2 < 0.1 [59]
文莱 450,565 355,045 78.8 < 0.1 [60]
保加利亚 7,057,504 861,015 13.4 < 0.1 [61][62]
布吉納法索 19,742,715 12,141,769 61.5 0.6 [63]
緬甸 55,622,506 2,391,767 4.3 0.1 [64]
布隆迪 11,844,520 1,184,452 10 < 0.1 [65][66]
柬埔寨 16,449,519 312,5401 1.9 < 0.1 [67]
喀麦隆 25,640,965 7,692,289 30 0.4 [68][69]
加拿大 35,881,659 1,148,213 3.2 0.1 [70]
佛得角 568,373 11,367 2 < 0.1 [71][72]
開曼群島 Cayman Islands 59,613 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [73]
中非 5,745,062 861,759 15 < 0.1 [74]
乍得 15,833,116 9,183,207 58 0.4 [75][72]
智利 17,925,262 4,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [76][77]
中國 1,390,000,000 6,255,000 - 50,000,000 0.45 – 3 0.4 – 2.8 [78][79]

[80][81][82]

科科斯(基林)群島 596 < 1,000 80 < 0.1 [83][84]
哥伦比亚 48,168,996 96,337 0.2 < 0.1 [85][86]
科摩罗 821,164 807,204 98.3 < 0.1 [87]
刚果(金) 85,281,024 12,792,153 10 0.1 [88][89]
庫克群島 9,038 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [90]
哥斯达黎加 4,987,142 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [91]
科特迪瓦 26,260,582 11,265,789 42.9 0.5 [92]
克罗地亚 4,270,480 64,057 1.5 < 0.1 [93]
古巴 11,116,396 11,116 0.1 < 0.1 [94]
賽普勒斯 1,237,088 350,000 28.2 < 0.1 [95][96]
捷克 10,686,269 10,000 - 20,000 0.1 – 0.2 < 0.1 [97][45]
丹麦 Denmark 5,809,502 313,713 5.4 < 0.1 [98][45]
吉布提 Djibouti 884,017 857,496 97 0.1 [99][100]
多米尼克 Dominica 74,027 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [101]
多明尼加 Dominican Republic 10,298,756 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [102][103]
厄瓜多尔 Ecuador 16,498,502 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [104][105]
埃及 Egypt 95,000,000 85,000,000 - 90,000,000 90-94.7 4.9 [106][107]
萨尔瓦多 El Salvador 6,187,271 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [108][109]
赤道几内亚 Equatorial Guinea 797,457 79,745 10 < 0.1 [110][111]
厄立特里亚 Eritrea 6,000,000 2,160,000 - 3,100,000 36–51.6 0.1 [112][113][114]
爱沙尼亚 Estonia 1,244,288 1,508 < 0.1 <0.1-0.2 [115]
埃塞俄比亚 Ethiopia 105,000,000 35,600,000 33.9 1.8 [116]
法罗群岛 Faroe Islands 51,018 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [117]
福克兰群岛 Falkland Islands 3,198 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [118]
密克罗尼西亚联邦 Federated States of Micronesia 103,643 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [119]
斐濟 Fiji 926,276 58,355 6.3 < 0.1 [120]
芬兰 Finland 5,537,364 150,000 2.7 < 0.1 [121][45]
法國 France 67,000,000 5,720,000 8.8 0.3 [122]
法屬圭亞那 French Guiana 281,612 2,400 0.9 < 0.1
法屬玻里尼西亞 French Polynesia 290,373 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [123]
加蓬 Gabon 2,119,036 211,903 10 < 0.1 [124][125]
冈比亚 Gambia 2,092,731 2,002,743 95.7 0.1 [126]
格鲁吉亚 Georgia 4,926,087 527,091 10.7 < 0.1 [127]
德国 Germany 83,000,000 4,500,000 - 5,000,000 5.4 - 6 0.2 [2][128]
加纳 Ghana 28,102,471 5,058,444 18 0.2 [129][72]
直布罗陀 Gibraltar 29,461 1,150 4 < 0.1 [130][131]
希腊 Greece 10,761,523 613,406 5.7 < 0.1 [132][45]
格陵兰 Greenland 57,691 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [133]
格林纳达 Grenada 112,207 < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1 [134]
瓜德罗普 Guadeloupe 402,119 2,000 0.4 < 0.1
關島 Guam 167,772 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [135]
危地马拉 Guatemala 16,581,273 1,200 < 0.1 < 0.1 [136][137]
几内亚 Guinea 11,855,411 10,563,171 89.1 0.5 [138]
幾內亞比索 Guinea Bissau 1,833,247 826,794 45.1 < 0.1 [139]
圭亚那 Guyana 740,685 55,000 7.3 < 0.1 [140]
海地 Haiti 10,788,440 5,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [141][142]
洪都拉斯 Honduras 9,182,766 30,000 0.3 < 0.1 [143][144]
香港 Hong Kong 7,213,338 295,746 4.1 < 0.1 [145][146]
匈牙利 Hungary 9,825,704 40,000 - 60,000 0.4 – 0.6 < 0.1 [45][147][148]
冰岛 Iceland 343,518 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [149][150]
印度 India 1,370,000,000 195,000,000 14.2 10.9 [151]
印度尼西亚 Indonesia 263,000,000 229,000,000 87.2 12.7 [152]
伊朗 Iran 83,000,000 82,500,000 99.4 4.6 [153]
伊拉克 Iraq 40,194,216 38,465,864 95.7 1.9 [154][155]
愛爾蘭共和國 Ireland 5,068,050 70,952 1.4 < 0.1 [156][45]
曼島 Isle of Man 89,407 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1 [157]
以色列 Israel 8,424,904 1,516,482 18 0.1 [158][159]
義大利 Italy 62,246,674 2,987,840 4.8 0.1 [160][45]
牙买加 Jamaica 2,812,090 5,624 0.2 < 0.1 [161][162]
日本 Japan 126,168,156 185,000 0.1 < 0.1 [163][164]
约旦 Jordan 10,458,413 10,165,577 97.2 0.4 [165]
哈萨克斯坦 Kazakhstan 18,744,548 13,158,672 70.2 0.5 [166]
肯尼亚 Kenya 48,397,527 5,500,000 11.2 0.2 [167]
基里巴斯 Kiribati 109,367 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [168]
科索沃 Kosovo 1,907,592 1,823,657 95.6 0.1 [169]
科威特 Kuwait 2,916,467 2,175,684 74.6 0.2 [170]
吉尔吉斯斯坦 Kyrgyzstan 5,849,296 4,679,436 80 0.3 [171][172]
老挝 Laos 7,234,171 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [173][174]
拉脫維亞 Latvia 1,923,559 2,000 0.1-0.2 < 0.1 [175][176]
黎巴嫩 Lebanon 6,100,075 3,519,743 57.7 0.2 [177]
莱索托 Lesotho 1,962,461 3,000 0.1 < 0.1 [178]
利比里亚 Liberia 4,809,768 961,953 20 < 0.1 [179][180]
利比亚 Libya 6,754,507 6,551,871 97 0.4 [181][182]
列支敦斯登 Liechtenstein 38,000 2,050 5.4 < 0.1 [183]
立陶宛 Lithuania 2,793,284 3,000 0.1 < 0.1 [184][185]
卢森堡 Luxembourg 605,764 18,172 3 < 0.1 [186][187]
澳門 Macau 606,340 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1 [188][189]
马达加斯加 Madagascar 25,683,610 2,568,361 10 < 0.1 [190][191]
马拉维 Malawi 19,842,560 3,968,512 20 0.1 [192][193]
马来西亚 Malaysia 31,809,660 16,318,355 61.3 1.1 [194]
马尔代夫 Maldives 392,473 386,193 98.4 < 0.1 [195][196]
马里 Mali 18,429,893 17,508,398 95 0.8 [197][72]
马耳他 Malta 449,043 11,675 2.6 < 0.1 [198][199]
馬紹爾群島 Marshall Islands 75,684 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [200]
馬提尼克 Martinique 385,551 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
毛里塔尼亚 Mauritania 3,840,429 3,840,429 100 0.2 [201]
毛里求斯 Mauritius 1,364,283 236,020 17.3 < 0.1 [202]
马约特 Mayotte 256,518 253,439 97 < 0.1 [203]
墨西哥 Mexico 131,959,205 5,500 0.01 < 0.01 [204][205]
摩尔多瓦 Moldova 3,437,720 15,000 0.4 < 0.1 [206][207]
摩纳哥 Monaco 30,727 < 1,000 0.8 < 0.1 [208][209]
蒙古国 Mongolia 3,103,428 150,000 5 < 0.1 [210][211]
蒙特內哥羅 Montenegro 614,249 122,849 19.1 < 0.1 [212]
蒙塞拉特島 Montserrat 5,315 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1 [213]
摩洛哥 Morocco 38,314,130 37,930,989 99 2 [214]
莫桑比克 Mozambique 27,233,789 3,830,063 17.9 0.3 [215][216]
纳米比亚 Namibia 2,413,643 9,654 0.4 < 0.1
諾魯 Nauru 10,084 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
尼泊尔 Nepal 29,218,867 1,292,909 4.2 0.1 [217]
荷兰 Netherlands 17,254,300 880,000 5.1 0.1 [218]
荷属安的列斯 Netherlands Antilles 304,759 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
新喀里多尼亞 New Caledonia 278,500 7,000 2.8 < 0.1
新西兰 New Zealand 4,903,800 41,000 0.9 < 0.1
尼加拉瓜 Nicaragua 6,284,757 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
尼日尔 Niger 21,466,863 21,101,926 98.3 1 [219]
奈及利亞 Nigeria 200,000,000 95,000,000 - 103,000,000 47.6-51.6 5.3 [2][220]
紐埃 Niue 1,611 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
朝鲜民主主义人民共和国 North Korea 25,610,672 3,000 0.1 < 0.1
北馬其頓共和國 North Macedonia 2,118,945 705,608 33.3 < 0.1 [221]
北马里亚纳群岛 Northern Mariana Islands 56,200 < 1,000 0.7 < 0.1
挪威 Norway 5,312,343 100,000 - 185,000 5.7 < 0.1 [45]
阿曼 Oman 4,633,752 2,427,000 85.9 0.2 [222]
巴基斯坦 Pakistan 207,774,520 200,400,000 96.5 11.1 [223][224]
帛琉 Palau 17,900 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
巴勒斯坦 Palestinian Territories 4,780,978 4,298,000 97.5 0.3
巴拿马 Panama 4,158,783 25,000 0.7 < 0.1
巴布亚新几内亚 Papua New Guinea 8,558,800 2,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
巴拉圭 Paraguay 7,052,983 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
秘鲁 Peru 31,237,385 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
菲律宾 Philippines 106,463,000 5,127,084 - 10,700,000 5 - 11 0.3 - 0.6 [225][226]
波兰 Poland 38,430,000 6,796[227] 0.02 < 0.1
葡萄牙 Portugal 10,291,027 65,000 0.4 < 0.1
波多黎各 Puerto Rico 3,337,177 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
卡塔尔 Qatar 2,450,285 1,566,786 77.5 0.1 [228]
刚果共和国 Republic of Congo 5,399,895 107,997 2 < 0.1 [229]
留尼汪 Reunion 865,826 36,364 4.2 < 0.1 [230]
羅馬尼亞 Romania 19,524,000 73,000 - 200,000 0.3-1.0 < 0.1 [231]
俄罗斯 Russia 146,877,088 15,000,000 - 25,000,000 10 - 17 1 [232][233]

[234]

卢旺达 Rwanda 12,001,136 576,054 4.8 < 0.1 [235]
聖赫勒拿 St. Helena 4,534 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
聖克里斯多福及尼維斯 St. Kitts and Nevis 46,204 < 1,000 0.3 < 0.1
圣卢西亚 St. Lucia 178,844 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
圣皮埃尔和密克隆 St. Pierre and Miquelon 6,286 < 1,000 0.2 < 0.1
圣文森特和格林纳丁斯 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 109,557 2,000 1.7 < 0.1
萨摩亚 Samoa 199,052 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
圣马力诺 San Marino 33,344 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
圣多美和普林西比 São Tomé and Príncipe 199,910 5,931 3 < 0.1 [236]
沙特阿拉伯 Saudi Arabia 33,413,660 31,878,000 97.1 1.6
塞内加尔 Senegal 15,726,037 15,112,721 96.1 0.8 [237]
塞尔维亚 Serbia 7,001,444 221,460 3.1 < 0.1 [238]
塞舌尔 Seychelles 94,205 1,036 1.1 < 0.1 [239]
塞拉利昂 Sierra Leone 7,719,729 6,067,706 78.6 0.3 [240]
新加坡 Singapore 5,612,253 721,000 - 842,116 14.7 < 0.1 [241][242]
斯洛伐克 Slovakia 5,443,120 10,866 0.1-0.2 < 0.1 [45]
斯洛文尼亚 Slovenia 2,066,880 73,568 3.6 < 0.1 [45]
所罗门群岛 Solomon Islands 667,044 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
索马里 Somalia 11,000,000 10,978,000 99.8 0.6 [243]
南非 South Africa 57,725,600 1,050,000 1.9 < 0.1 [244][245]
大韩民国 South Korea 51,635,256 35,000 0.1 < 0.1
南蘇丹 South Sudan 12,323,419 2,464,683 20 < 0.1 [246]
西班牙 Spain 46,659,302 1,180,000 2.6 0.1 [45]
斯里蘭卡 Sri Lanka 21,700,000 2,105,000 9.7 0.1 [247]
苏丹 Sudan 40,825,770 39,585,777 97 1.9 [248]
蘇利南 Suriname 600,000 83,400 13.9 < 0.1 .[249]
斯威士兰 Swaziland 1,159,250 129,230 10 < 0.1 [250]
瑞典 Sweden 10,182,291 800,000 8.1 < 0.1 [2][45]
瑞士 Switzerland 8,492,956 440,000 5.2 < 0.1 [251]
叙利亚 Syria 18,000,000 16,700,000 93 1 [252]
中華民國 Taiwan 23,576,705 60,000 0.3 < 0.1 [253][254]
塔吉克斯坦 Tajikistan 8,931,000 7,621,700 96.7 0.4 [255][256][257]
坦桑尼亚 Tanzania 54,199,163 19,426,814 35.2 0.8 [258]
泰国 Thailand 70,000,000 3,000,000 4.3 0.2 [259]}}
东帝汶 1,261,407 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
多哥 7,352,000 1,593,011 20 0.1 [260]
托克勞 1,499 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
汤加 100,651 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
千里達及托巴哥 1,356,633 78,000 5.8 < 0.1
突尼西亞 11,446,300 11,190,000 99.8 0.6
土耳其 80,810,525 79,000,000 - 80,700,000 98.6 – 99.8 4.6 [261][262]
土库曼斯坦 5,851,466 4,830,000 93.3 0.3
特克斯和凯科斯群岛 37,910 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
图瓦卢 10,640 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
乌干达 38,823,100 5,435,234 14 0.3 [263]
烏克蘭 42,263,873 390,000 - 1,000,000 0.9 - 2.5 < 0.1 [264][265]
阿联酋 9,541,615 4,615,081 76 0.2 [266]

[267]

英國 66,040,229 4,130,000 6.3 0.2 [45]
美國 327,827,000 3,450,000 1.1 0.2 [268]
美屬維爾京群島 104,914 < 1,000 0.1 < 0.1
乌拉圭 3,505,985 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
乌兹别克斯坦 32,653,900 26,550,000 96.5 1.7 [252]
瓦努阿圖 304,500 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1
梵蒂冈 800 0 0 0
委內瑞拉 31,304,016 125,216 0.4 < 0.1 [269]
越南 96,160,163 96,160 0.1 < 0.1 [270][270]
瓦利斯和富圖納 15,714 < 1,000 < 0.1 < 0.1 [271]
西撒哈拉 603,253 599,633 99.4 < 0.1 [272][273]
葉門 28,036,829 27,784,498 99.1 1.5 [274][275]
尚比亞 16,887,720 168,877 1 < 0.1 [72]
辛巴威 14,000,000 100,000 0.7 < 0.1 [276]

洲分[编辑]

區域 穆斯林人口 穆斯林占总人口的百分比(%) 占世界穆斯林人口的百分比(%)
亞洲 1,200,000,000 24.3 66.7
中亞 54,000,000[277] 81[278] 3.0
南亞 600,000,000[279][280] 31.4[281][282] 30.6[283][284]
東南亞 240,000,000[285] 40.0 13.3
東亞 50,000,000[286] 3.1 2.8
中東-北非 315,322,000[287] - 488,603,838 91.2 27.1
非洲 550,000,000 47 30.6
撒哈拉以南非洲 283,302,393 29.6 15.7
北美洲 3,500,000 - 7,000,000[288] 1.0[289] 0.4
南美洲 791,000 0.2 0.04
歐洲 44,138,000 6.0 2.7
大洋洲 650,000 1.6 0.04
世界 1,800,000,000[290] 24.1 100.0

参见[编辑]

其他信仰

总体

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Muslim Population by Country. The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. [22 December 2011]. (原始内容存档于2011年2月9日). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Preface, The Future of the Global Muslim Population (Pew Research Center) 
  3. ^ Executive Summary. The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. [22 December 2011]. 
  4. ^ Christian Population as Percentages of Total Population by Country. Global Christianity. Pew Research Center. [22 December 2011]. (原始内容存档于2012年1月7日). 
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  7. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p.306
    According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham, (A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total population. These numbers are estimates, and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam and Pentecostal Christianity are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007.
  8. ^ Britannica 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-12-14., Think Quest 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2013-06-18., Wadsworth.com
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  12. ^ Region: Asia-Pacific. The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. [22 December 2011]. 
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  14. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2002b), p.21
    • Esposito (2004), pp.2,43
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  169. ^ Europe :: Kosovo — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  170. ^ Middle East :: Kuwait — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  175. ^ Europe :: Latvia — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  177. ^ Middle East :: Lebanon — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  178. ^ Africa :: Lesotho — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  179. ^ Africa :: Liberia — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  181. ^ Africa :: Libya — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  184. ^ Europe :: Lithuania — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  185. ^ Sunni Islam in Lithuania | True Lithuania. www.truelithuania.com. [14 December 2018]. 
  186. ^ Europe :: Luxembourg — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  187. ^ Luxembourg (PDF). 
  188. ^ East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Macau — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  189. ^ Mosques in Macau. www.muslim2china.com. [14 December 2018]. 
  190. ^ Africa :: Madagascar — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  191. ^ Madagascar. U.S. Department of State. [13 December 2018]. 
  192. ^ Africa :: Malawi — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  193. ^ Malawi Facts and Figures | RIPPLE Africa. [13 December 2018]. 
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  195. ^ South Asia :: Maldives — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  197. ^ Africa :: Mali — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  198. ^ Europe :: Malta — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  201. ^ Africa :: Mauritania — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  202. ^ Africa :: Mauritius — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  207. ^ Moldova Religion Facts & Stats. www.nationmaster.com. [14 December 2018]. 
  208. ^ Europe :: Monaco — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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  210. ^ East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Mongolia — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  211. ^ Mongolia. U.S. Department of State. [14 December 2018]. 
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  213. ^ Central America :: Montserrat — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
  214. ^ Africa :: Morocco — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. [14 December 2018]. 
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