同步加速器

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同步加速器是一種環形的粒子加速器,使用磁場(讓帶電粒子在運行中可以改變方向)及電場(加速帶電粒子)與運行中的帶電粒子束同步化操作。本是由阿爾瓦雷茨發展用以研究高能粒子之裝置。 粒子迴旋加速器使用均勻的磁場及固定頻率變化的電場加速帶電粒子,如果改變其中一項則為同步粒子迴旋加速器,兩者都改變則為同步加速器。粒子在粒子迴旋加速器中,從中心以螺旋軌道運行到腔壁時,粒子迴旋加速器的最大半徑限制了粒子最後所獲得的全部能量。另一方面若以增加磁場強度的方式來提高加速能量,也有其極限。所以有同步加速器的出現。同步加速器中的粒子束具有固定軌道,藉著改變參數使帶電粒子獲得能量,在真空的環境(儲存環)中不斷的運行。同步加速器中的儲存環包含了直線段與彎曲的部分,前後相連在一起。因此在結構上和粒子迴旋加速器有很大的不同。而儲存環中彎曲的部分會有許多磁鐵設施使粒子束改變運行方向;直線段的部分則設置高頻共振腔使用高能量的微波提供粒子加速所需的電場。

同步加速器可以克服粒子迴旋加速器所遇到的問題,可以使用一個較小的管子來傳送粒子束,管子旁可裝設許多聚焦用的磁鐵或其他設施。

各國同步加速器[编辑]

  • Advanced Light Source (ALS), Berkeley, California
  • Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne, Illinois
  • ANKA Synchrotron Strahlungsquelle, Karlsruhe, Germany (See also the English version)
  • Australian Synchrotron, Melbourne, Victoria (Under construction)
  • 北京同步辐射装置(BSRF),北京
  • Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung (BESSY), Berlin
  • Canadian Light Source (CLS), Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
  • Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), Baton Rouge, Louisiana
  • Center for Advanced Technology (INDUS-1 and INDUS-2), Indore, India
  • Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Ithaca, New York
  • diamond, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, England
  • Dortmund Electron Test Accelerator (DELTA), Dortmund, Germany
  • Electron Stretcher Accelerator (ELSA), Bonn, Germany (See also the German version)
  • Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) Electron Accelerator Facility (NIJI-II, NIJI-IV, TERAS), *Tsukuba, Japan (See also the English version)
  • Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Trieste, Italy
  • European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France
  • Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) at DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • Institute for Storage Ring Facilities (ISA, ASTRID), Aarhus, Denmark
  • Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnétique (LURE), Orsay, France (See also the English version)
  • Laboratorio de Luz Sincrotrón, Vallés, Spain
  • Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) Sao Paolo, Brazil
  • MAX-lab, Lund, Sweden
  • Nano-hana Project, Ichihara, Japan (See also the Japanese version)
  • National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven, New York
  • 中国科学技术大学国家同步辐射实验室(NSRL),中国安徽合肥
  • National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C (國家同步輻射研究中心)
  • National Synchrotron Research Center (NSRC), Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
  • Photon Factory (PF) at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan (高能加速器研究機構)
  • Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Korea (See also the Korean version)
  • Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF), Shanghai, China (上海光源)
  • Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Centre (SSRC), Novosibirsk, Russia
  • Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), Singapore
  • SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint-Aubin, France (See also the French version)
  • Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), Menlo Park, California
  • Super Photon Ring - 8 GeV (SPring-8), Nishi-Harima, Japan (See also the Japanese version)
  • Swiss Light Source (SLS), Villigen, Switzerland
  • Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LLS), Barcelona, Spain
  • Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC), Madison, Wisconsin
  • Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Daresbury, U.K.
  • Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facilty (SURF III) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland
  • UVSOR Facility, Okazaki, Japan (See also the English version)
  • VSX Light Source, Kashiwa, Japan (See also the Japanese version)

外部連結[编辑]