哥德堡变奏曲

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郭德堡变奏第一版本书皮

哥德堡变奏曲》(BWV988),是约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫晚期的一部键盘作品,1741年出版。全曲32段,全部演出40-80分钟。

这部作品长期不受人们重视,直到20世纪前半叶。女大键琴家兰多夫斯卡(Landowska)的公开演奏及录音。之后,1955年加拿大钢琴家格伦·古尔德将其选作自己的第一张录音作品。而现在,哥德堡变奏被视为巴赫作品中最重要的变奏曲之一。全作品包括主题,30个变奏,主题反复。每三个变奏为一组,每组最后一曲为卡农曲(从一度至十度卡农),如V1-V2-V3(V3是一度卡农曲),V4-V-5V6(V6 二度卡农曲),V7-V8-V9(V9 三度卡农曲),V10-V11-V12(V12 四度卡农曲)等等。

  • 无序列表项

创作[编辑]

故事来自一个由约翰·尼古劳斯Forkel巴赫早期传记:

[For this work] we have to thank the instigation of the former Russian ambassador to the electoral court of Saxony, Count Kaiserling, who often stopped in Leipzig and brought there with him the aforementioned Goldberg, in order to have him given musical instruction by Bach. The Count was often ill and had sleepless nights. At such times, Goldberg, who lived in his house, had to spend the night in an antechamber, so as to play for him during his insomnia. ... Once the Count mentioned in Bach's presence that he would like to have some clavier pieces for Goldberg, which should be of such a smooth and somewhat lively character that he might be a little cheered up by them in his sleepless nights. Bach thought himself best able to fulfill this wish by means of Variations, the writing of which he had until then considered an ungrateful task on account of the repeatedly similar harmonic foundation. But since at this time all his works were already models of art, such also these variations became under his hand. Yet he produced only a single work of this kind. Thereafter the Count always called them his variations. He never tired of them, and for a long time sleepless nights meant: 'Dear Goldberg, do play me one of my variations.' Bach was perhaps never so rewarded for one of his works as for this. The Count presented him with a golden goblet filled with 100 louis-d'or. Nevertheless, even had the gift been a thousand times larger, their artistic value would not yet have been paid for.

Forkel写在1802年他的传记,在事发超过60年后,它的准确性受到质疑。奉献上了“具有不同变奏曲咏叹调”扉页上的缺乏也使得佣金故事的可能性不大。戈德堡的年龄在出版时(14岁)也被列为了怀疑Forkel的故事理由,但必须说,他被称为是一个多才多艺的键盘和视奏好手,在最近的研究中,[2]键盘和巴赫学者彼得威廉斯声称,Forkel故事完全是虚假的。

在其上的变化是基于咏叹调就是由阿诺德先灵不被巴赫写的。最近的学术文献(如由Christoph沃尔夫版)认为,没有这种怀疑的依据。

主题[编辑]

哥德堡变奏曲主题是3/4拍,典型的薩拉班德舞曲風格。之后30个变奏是从这个主题的低音声部的和声进行而来。主题旋律可能不是巴赫所写,而是他听过的旋律,但此说法有争议。

变奏1[编辑]

变奏1轻便活泼,和开头缓慢沉思的气氛很不一样。

變奏2[编辑]

變奏2為一卡农风格的變奏(為變奏3做準備),以Baroque時期常見的室內樂形式trio sonata(三重奏鳴曲)的風格與織體而寫。

变奏3[编辑]

变奏3是一度对位的卡农曲(高音與中音聲部),主題與答題同樣音高,先后相隔一個小節,所以這兩個聲部要彈出不同,有所區分,很難。低音聲部自由式。12/8拍。曲子包括许多三音组(非三连音),像舞曲。多数钢琴家用一般速度,但也有演奏家弹得很慢,如Hans PischnerCharles Rosen

变奏4[编辑]

一個新鮮的風格,非常復調化的變奏,一個簡單的動機發展出的嚴格的四聲部對位,每小節換一次和聲而產生動力感。

变奏5[编辑]

变奏5的前四个小节

变奏5使用意大利式手法,一只手在高音键和低音键来回换,另一只手在键盘中间,演奏很快的曲调。

变奏6[编辑]

变奏6是卡农曲,3/8拍。

变奏7[编辑]

第一、二层键盘交替表达,西西里舞曲风格。

变奏8[编辑]

变奏9[编辑]

变奏10 Fughetta[编辑]

变奏11[编辑]

变奏12[编辑]


变奏13[编辑]

变奏13是较慢的3/4拍。

变奏13第一部分的最后两节


变奏14[编辑]

变奏15 Andante[编辑]

变奏16 Ouverture[编辑]

变奏17[编辑]

变奏18[编辑]

变奏19[编辑]

变奏20[编辑]

变奏20的前两个小节

变奏21[编辑]

变奏21的前三个小节

变奏22 Alla breve[编辑]

变奏23[编辑]

变奏23的前四个小节

变奏24[编辑]

变奏25[编辑]

变奏26[编辑]

变奏27[编辑]

变奏28[编辑]

变奏28第一部分的最后四个小节

变奏29[编辑]

变奏30 Quodlibet[编辑]

哥德堡变奏曲原本的书页

根据音乐学上的考证,变奏30的旋律是根据两首德国民歌改写(拼合)的:“我离开你很久了”("I Have So Long Been Away From You")和 “桌上只有白菜和萝卜,我要走人了”("Cabbage and Turnips Have Driven Me Away")。

主题反复[编辑]

虽然乐谱和最先的主调一模一样,演奏的方式可以不同。