圣库加特修道院

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修道院外观

圣库加特修道院是一座本笃会修道院,位于西班牙加泰罗尼亚圣库加特-德尔巴列斯,建立于公元9世纪。14世纪时,它成为了巴塞隆納伯國最重要的修道院。 它的主要特点是是巨大的罗曼式回廊

历史[编辑]

1878年时的修道院

修道院的起源可追溯至九世纪,当时决定团结教会,将圣Cucuphas英语Cucuphas(加泰罗尼亚语:Sant Cugat)的遗体安置在附属防御工事中。自10世纪起,修道院不断扩建。985年,它被al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir英语al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir领导的穆斯林军队所损毁,军队随后又将它修复并加建了尖塔。尖塔仍然是大教堂的最高点。

11世纪后期,巴塞罗那的拉莫·贝伦格尔二世英语Ramon Berenguer II of Barcelona规定修道院将从属于隆格多克的圣彼得大教堂(加泰罗尼亚语:Saint Pons de Thomières),而在圣库加特修道院的僧侣中引发了骚乱。圣彼得的居民搬入了加泰罗尼亚的修道院,反对规定的僧人被驱逐出境。然而,巴塞罗那主教对修道院所宣称的权限,被归还给了天主教巴塞罗那总教区。当时圣库加特正控制着圣塞西利亚-德蒙特塞拉特修道院(Santa Cecília de Montserrat)、Sant Llorenç del Munt、Sant Pau del Camp、Sant Pere de Clará和Sant Salvador de Breda英语Sant Salvador de Breda

In the mid-12th century, the construction of a new monastery was begun. It was finished in 1337. In 1350, the fortification works started. In this period, however, the monastery started to decline. The nomination of the abbot, previously belonging to the monks, was switched to the diocese. During the 西班牙王位繼承戰爭, it was occupied by troops of 查理六世 (神圣罗马帝国), causing damage to the structure. Restoration works were completed in 1789.

In 1835, the monastery was abandoned by the monks, remaining empty until 1851, when it was decided its restoration. It was declared a National Monument in 1931.

建筑架构[编辑]

修道院的回廊

修道院的主要特点是它的回廊。这座回廊是罗曼式建筑的典范之一,其历史可以追溯到12世纪。在16世纪,它又增加了一层楼、一个中庭和入口。

With a length of more than 30 metres, the cloister was designed by Arnau Cadell英语Arnau Gatell and his disciple Lluís Samaranch. It has a square plan with semicircular arches, supported by pairs of columns. Each of the latter has a finely decorated capital, with various details ranging from animals to biblical scenes.

The church is instead in Gothic style. It has a nave and two aisles. The façade has a large (8.2 diameter) 玫瑰窗, similar to those in the 巴塞罗那主教座堂 and 塔拉哥納主教座堂. The church houses a Gothic altarpiece, known as the retablo de Todos los Santos, executed in 1375 by Pere Serra英语Pere Serra.

参见[编辑]

参考书目[编辑]

  • Tomàs Bonell, Jordi. Descobrir Catalunya. Barcelona: Premsa Catalana. 1994. 

外部链接[编辑]

維基共享資源中与圣库加特修道院相關的分類

坐标41°28′25″N 2°5′6″E / 41.47361°N 2.08500°E / 41.47361; 2.08500

Category:Romanesque architecture in Catalonia英语Category:Romanesque architecture in Catalonia Category:Gothic architecture in Catalonia英语Category:Gothic architecture in Catalonia Sant Cugat英语Category:Benedictine monasteries in Catalonia Category:Christian monasteries established in the 9th century英语Category:Christian monasteries established in the 9th century