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埃迪爾內

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Edirne
City
Edirne mosque outside.jpg
Meriç Köprüsü ve Meriç Nehri.jpg Nagymecset - Edirne, 2014.10.22 (6).JPG
TreatyOfLausanneMonumentEdirne (2).JPG KaraağaçRailwayStation.JPG
Nagymecset - Edirne, 2014.10.22 (13).JPG Edirne - 2014.10.22 (4).JPG Orientexpresstrain.jpg
From top down, left to right: Selimiye Mosque, Meriç Bridge, Ali Pasha Bazaar, Treaty of Lausanne Monument and Museum, Trakya University (formerly Railway Station), Old Mosque, Town Hall, Historical Express
埃迪爾內在土耳其的位置
Edirne
Edirne
Location of Edirne within Turkey.
經緯度: 41°40′37″N 26°33′20″E / 41.67694°N 26.55556°E / 41.67694; 26.55556
Country Turkey
Region Marmara
Province Edirne
政府
 • Mayor Recep GürkanCHP
面积[1]
 • Province 6,098 平方公里(2,354 平方英里)
 • City 844 平方公里(326 平方英里)
海拔 42 米(138 英尺)
人口[2]
 • 密度 196.7/平方公里(509/平方英里)
 • Province 400,280
 • City 165,979
時區 EETUTC+2
 • 夏令時 EESTUTC+3
Licence plate 22

埃迪爾內Edirne),舊稱哈德良堡阿德里安堡Hadrianopolis),因羅馬皇帝哈德良所建而得名。是土耳其埃迪爾內省省會,位於鄰近希臘保加利亞的邊境。2002年人口为128,400人。

378年,羅馬帝國皇帝瓦倫斯在此处同哥特人的战役中陣亡,史称阿德里安堡戰役。另外,1365至1453年这里是鄂圖曼帝國的首都。

當地最著名的活動是克爾克普那爾摔跤大會Kırkpınar)。 Edirne (土耳其語發音:[eˈdiɾne]), historically known as Adrianople, is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne, in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1363 to 1453,[3] before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital. At present, Edirne is the capital of Edirne Province in Turkish Thrace. The city's estimated population in 2014 was 165,979.[4]

Etymology[编辑]

The city was founded as Hadrianopolis (Aδριανούπολις in Greek), named for the Roman Emperor Hadrian. This name is still used in the Modern Greek (Αδριανούπολη). The name Adrianople was used in English, until the Turkish adoption of Latin alphabet in 1928 made Edirne the internationally recognized name. The 土耳其语:Edirne, 保加利亚语Одрин (Odrin, ['odrin]), 阿尔巴尼亚语Edrêne, 马其顿语Одрин (Odrin) and 塞爾維亞語Једрене / Jedrene are adapted forms of the name Hadrianopolis or of its Turkish version; see also its other names.

History[编辑]

历史人口
年份 人口  %±
1400s 70,000
1700s 35,000 −50.0%
1800s 33,000 −5.7%
1900s 68,661 108.1%
1927 34,528 −49.7%
1965 78,161 126.4%
1970 84,531 8.1%
1975 94,449 11.7%
1980 105,503 11.7%
1985 120,663 14.4%
1990 124,361 3.1%
2000 140,830 13.2%
2010 152,993 8.6%
2014 165,979 8.5%
[5]

The area around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 16 major battles or sieges, from the days of the ancient Greeks. Military historian John Keegan identifies it as "the most contested spot on the globe" and attributes this to its geographical location.

Antiquity[编辑]

According to Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza). The city was (re)founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama or Uskodama or Uscudama. It was the capital of the Bessi,[6] or of the Odrysians. Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name to Hadrianopolis after himself (which would be corrupted into Adrianopolis and Anglicized to Adrianople), and made it the capital of the Roman province of Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, and Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople (378).

Medieval period[编辑]

Historical image of Cihannüma Kasrı (Panoramic Pavilion), part of Edirne Palace complex

In 813, the city was seized by Khan Krum of Bulgaria who moved its inhabitants to the Bulgarian lands towards the north of the Danube.[來源請求]

During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople (1205). Later Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, but three years later was defeated at Klokotnitsa by Asen, Emperor of the Bulgarians.

In 1362, the city was conquered by the Ottoman sultan Murad I. He renamed it "Edirne" and made it his new capital in 1363.[7]

The city remained the Ottoman capital for 90 years until 1453, when Mehmed II moved the capital to Constantinople (present-day Istanbul). Edirne is famed for its many mosques, domes, minarets, and palaces from the Ottoman period.

Modern period[编辑]

Edirne in the first quarter of the 20th century. In the background is the Selimiye Mosque
Edirne Municipality

Under Ottoman rule, Edirne was the principal city of the administrative unit, the eponymous Eyalet of Edirne, and after land reforms in 1867, the Vilayet of Edirne. Sultan Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, was born in Edirne. It was here that he fell under the influence of

  1. ^ HGK (PDF). General Command of Mapping. [2014]. 
  2. ^ TUIK. TUIK. [2014]. 
  3. ^ "In 1363 the Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Edirne, although Bursa retained its spiritual and economic importance." Ottoman Capital Bursa. Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  4. ^ 2014 Census. TUIK. [2014]. 
  5. ^ Cencuses by Years. TUIK. 
  6. ^ The History of Rome, Volume 4 by Theodor Mommsen , 2009, page 53: "... defeated the Bessi in their mountains, took their capital Uscudama (Adrianople), and compelled them to submit to the Roman supremacy
  7. ^ "It served as the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1413 until 1453 and flourished as an administrative, commercial, and cultural centre." "Edirne" Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 December 2014