基奈半島狼

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基奈半島狼
化石时期:0.81–0 Ma
更新世至1915年
The Wolves of North America (1944) C. l. alces ♂.jpg
保护状况
科学分类 编
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 哺乳纲 Mammalia
目: 食肉目 Carnivora
科: 犬科 Canidae
属: 犬屬 Canis
种: C. lupus
亚种: 基奈半島狼 C. l. alces
三名法
Canis lupus alces
Goldman, 1941[1][2]
North American gray wolf subspecies distribution according to Goldman (1944) & MSW3 (2005).png
灰狼亚种在北美洲的分布

基奈半島狼學名Canis lupus alces)是一个灰狼亚种。原分布在阿拉斯加州基奈半島,因人类捕杀而于1925年灭绝[3]

特徵[编辑]

爱德华·阿方索·戈德曼英语Edward Alphonso Goldman提出,基奈半岛狼体型庞大可能是自然选择的结果,因其主要依赖驼鹿为食[4][5]

史密森尼学会收藏有基奈半岛狼的一块头骨标本,编号为「USNM 147471」[6]

历史[编辑]

1941年,基奈半島狼被戈德曼划分为阿拉斯加州四个灰狼亚种之一[1]。2005年出版的《世界哺乳動物英语Mammal Species of the World》也將其認定為灰狼的一個亚种[7]

20世纪前,牠们在基奈半岛上很常见。然而,1895年,基奈半岛开采出金矿,引发淘金热。惧怕狂犬病的矿工随即开始滥杀狼群。至1915年,狼群绝迹[8][9][10]。1925年,基奈半岛狼被宣布灭绝[11]

基奈半島狼绝迹五十年后,1960年代,基奈半岛被发现有狼群重新定居[12]。尽管如此,基因组学研究表明,现有狼群与原基奈半岛狼的遗传相似性很小。因此,可以认为该亚种已经绝灭[13]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Goldman, E. A. 1941 Sep 30. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 54: 109.
  2. ^ Canis lupus alces Goldman, 1941. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  3. ^ Weckworth, Byron V.; Talbot, Sandra; Sage, George K.; Person, David K.; Cook, Joseph. A Signal for Independent Coastal and Continental histories among North American wolves (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 2005, 14 (4): 917–31. PMID 15773925. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02461.x. 
  4. ^ Goldman EA. 1944. Classification of wolves: part II. Pages 389– 636 in Young SP, Goldman EA, editors. The wolves of North America. Washington, D.C.: The American Wildlife Institute.
  5. ^ L. David Mech, The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species, The Natural History Press, 1970, Appendix A page 2
  6. ^ Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Canis lupus alces Goldman, 1941. 
  7. ^ Wozencraft, W.C英语W. Chris Wozencraft. Order Carnivora. Wilson, D.E.英语Don E. Wilson & Reeder, D.M (编). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2005: 575–577. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  url=https://books.google.com/books?id=JgAMbNSt8ikC&pg=PA576
  8. ^ Peterson, R.O. and J.D. Woolington. 1982. The apparent extirpation and reappearance of wolves on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Pages 334-344 in Harrington, F.H. and P.C. Paquet (eds.). Wolves of the world. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey. 474 pp
  9. ^ Palmer, L. J. 1938. Kenai Peninsula moose. Research Project Report, Bureau of Biological Survey-Sept.-Oct. 1938. Unpubl. report, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge files, 24 pp,typewritten
  10. ^ Effects of Increased Human Populations on. Wildlife Resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Edward E. Bangs. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1982 [1]
  11. ^ Charles Bergman. Wild Echoes: Encounters With the Most Endangered Animals in North America. University of Illinois Press. 2003: 256–. ISBN 978-0-252-07125-6. 
  12. ^ Peterson, Rolf O., et al. “Wolves of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.” Wildlife Monographs, no. 88, 1984, pp. 3–52. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3830728. Accessed 3 Feb. 2021.
  13. ^ Sand Håkan, Wikenros Camilla, Wabakken Petter and Liberg Olof 2006Cross-continental differences in patterns of predation: will naive moose in Scandinavia ever learn?Proc. R. Soc. B.2731421–1427 http://doi.org.wikipedialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3447