塞爾柱王朝

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塞爾柱王朝
Seljuqs Eagle.svg
國家 大塞爾柱帝國
罗姆蘇丹國
頭銜

創立 10世紀 - 塞爾柱
解體

大馬士革:
1104 - Muhi ad-Din Baqtash被廢黜

大塞爾柱帝國:
1194 - 圖格魯勒三世被殺

魯姆蘇丹國:
1307 - 梅蘇德二世去世

塞爾柱王朝波斯語: آل سلجوق,Al-e Saljuq)是中世纪时期由乌古斯突厥人建立起的遜尼派穆斯林王朝[1][2][3],后期王朝成員逐渐波斯化,为中世紀时期西亚及中亞地區突厥-波斯文化的發展打下了基础[4][5]。塞爾柱王朝曾建立大塞爾柱帝國以及罗姆蘇丹國,統治區域東起波斯、西達安納托利亞高原,王朝的擴張使安納托利亞、高加索等地突厥化,也间接地引发了第一次十字軍東征

歷史[编辑]

塞爾柱人源自於突厥烏古斯人分支[6][7][8][9],他們在9世紀生活於穆斯林世界邊緣,包含中亞裏海北部和鹹海哈薩克草原英语Kazakh Steppe突厥斯坦阿姆河畔等地。他們騎術精湛,周邊勢力常來此招募傭兵。波斯散文家賈希茲英语Al-Jahiz形容他們:

10世紀中期,由於伽色尼王國僱傭他們擔任河中地區的警備,烏古斯人開始與周邊穆斯林城市密切往來。

10世紀末,塞爾柱人的領袖塞爾柱·貝格與烏古斯人頭目葉護反目後,他率領部族移居於下錫爾河西岸(Jaxartes)。西元985年左右,塞爾柱人皈依了伊斯蘭教[11]

1025年,图格鲁勒·貝格恰格勒·貝格兄弟和叔叔穆薩·優素福(Musa Yabghu)等人率領塞爾柱部族南遷進入波斯呼羅珊省,協助喀喇汗國的王族阿里特勤對抗伽色尼王族穆哈馬德英语Muhammad of Ghazni的攻擊,1029年,貝格兄弟與阿里特勤發生爭執,同盟關係緊張,不過伽色尼此時也陷入內戰,是故戰端稍歇。

1030年,穆哈馬德的雙胞胎兄長馬蘇德一世英语Mas'ud I of Ghazni結束內戰成為新蘇丹,他繼承了弟弟及父親马哈茂德攻略河中地區的方針向北方施壓。1032年,達布西耶之戰英语Battle of Dabusiyya爆發,貝格兄弟再次出兵協助阿里特勤,在喀喇汗軍與伽色尼軍互有損失的狀況下,兩軍協議各自退兵回國。

1035年,沙赫·馬立克花剌子模擊敗貝格兄弟,南逃的兄弟向舊敵馬蘇德一世求援,馬蘇德一世斷然拒絕並派遣貝脫迪英语Begtoghdik前去消滅對方,結果伽色尼軍大敗指揮官被俘,馬蘇德一世不得不割讓拿沙(Nasa)、法拉瓦(Farava)、大益等地給塞爾柱人。

1037年,图格鲁勒自封為蘇丹,並於隔年攻下伽色尼首都尼沙普爾。[12][10]

1040年,衝突再次發生,塞爾柱人在丹丹納干戰役重創伽色尼軍隊[13],稍後,大塞爾柱帝國建立。帝國各地的原住民在接下來的幾十年中受到波斯文化影響,在宗教、語言以及風俗上被強制同化。[14][15][16][17][18]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ "Turkish dynasty also spelled Seljuk ruling military family of the Oğuz (Ghuzz) Turkic tribes that invaded southwestern Asia in the 11th century and eventually founded an empire....".Encyclopedia Brittanica
  2. ^ "The Turkish groups of the greatest import in the history of Europe and W Asia were, however, the Seljuks and the Osmanli or Ottoman Turks, both members of the Oghuz confederations.".Encyclopedia Columbia 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2013-11-11.
  3. ^ Saljuqs, Andrew Peacock, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (May 25, 2010)."A dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled much of Anatolia".Encyclopedia Iranica
  4. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  5. ^ Nishapuri, Zahir al-Din Nishapuri (2001), "The History of the Seljuq Turks from the Jami’ al-Tawarikh: An Ilkhanid Adaptation of the Saljuq-nama of Zahir al-Din Nishapuri," Partial tr. K.A. Luther, ed. C.E. Bosworth, Richmond, UK. K.A. Luther: "... the Turks were illiteratre and uncultivated when they arrived in Khurasan and had to depend on Iranian scribes, poets, jurists and theologians to man the institution of the Empire"(pg 9)
  6. ^ Concise Britannica Online Seljuq Dynasty 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-01-14. article
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Definition of Seljuk
  8. ^ The History of the Seljuq Turks: From the Jami Al-Tawarikh (LINK)
  9. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey – Stanford Shaw (LINK)
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Francis Robinson( 法蘭西斯·魯賓遜 ). 劍橋插圖伊斯蘭世界史. 黃中憲譯. 臺灣: 如果出版社. 2008. ISBN 9789866702198. 
  11. ^ Michael Adas, Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History, (Temple University Press, 2001), 99.
  12. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids: 994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 242.
  13. ^ Tony Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O, (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), 476.
  14. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2012-01-22.)
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  16. ^ M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25–6 (2005), pp. 157–69
  17. ^ M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-03-11.): "... here one might bear in mind that Turco-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  18. ^ F. Daftary, Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times, in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."