夏威夷僧海豹

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夏威夷僧海豹
Monachus schauinslandi.jpg
保护状况
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 脊索動物門 Chordata
綱: 哺乳動物綱 Mammalia
目: 食肉目 Carnivora
科: 海豹科 Phocidae
屬: 僧海豹属 Neomonachus
種: 夏威夷僧海豹 N. schauinslandi
二名法
Neomonachus schauinslandi
Matschie, 1905
分佈區
分佈區

夏威夷僧海豹(學名:Neomonachus schauinslandi)是僧海豹屬下的一種瀕危物種,原產於夏威夷群島,因而得名。[2] 此外它也是夏威夷灰白蝙蝠之外當地唯一的原生哺乳動物。[3] 因為人類的過度捕殺和棲息地破壞,夏威夷僧海豹的數量現僅有1,100左右。[4][5][6]

語源學[编辑]

夏威夷僧海豹在當地語言中稱為ʻIlio-holo-i-ka-uaua,意思是“在波浪中奔跑的狗”。其學名中的種加詞則是來自1899年于在萊桑島發現了夏威夷僧海豹頭骨的德國科學家雨果·赫爾曼·绍因斯兰(Hugo Hermann Schauinsland)。[7]

描述[编辑]

夏威夷僧海豹有著灰色的毛皮、白色的腹部,身體修長;頭部扁平而較小。[8][9] 其體格使得其可以在深海珊瑚礁里尋覓魚蝦及章魚、烏賊等食物。[10] 在不捕獵時,它們會躺在西北夏威夷群島的沙灘上嗮太陽。[11] 成年夏威夷海豹重170~205公斤(375~452英磅),體長2.1~2.3米(6英尺11英寸~7英尺7英寸)。[8]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Neomonachus schauinslandi. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008年版本. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2008.  Listed as Critically Endangered (CR A3ce+4ce)
  2. ^ Hawaiian Monk Seal, Monachus schauinslandi. monachus-guardian.org. 2006 [2011-05-23]. 
  3. ^ Nitta, Eugene; Henderson JR. A review of interactions between Hawaii's fisheries and protected species (pdf). Marine Fisheries Review. 83. 1993, 55 (2) [2011-05-23]. 
  4. ^ Boland, R; Donohue, R. Marine Debris Accumulation in the Nearshore Marine Habitat of the Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal, Monachus Schauinslandi. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 11. 2003, 46 (11): 1385–139 [2011-05-23]. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00291-1. 
  5. ^ Schultz J, J. K.; Baker J; Toonen R; Bowen B. Extremely Low Genetic Diversity in the Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus Schauinslandi). Journal of Heredity. 1. 2009, 100 (1): 25–33 [2011-05-23]. PMID 18815116. doi:10.1093/jhered/esn077. 
  6. ^ Schultz, J; Baker J; Toonen R; Bowen B. Range-Wide Genetic Connectivity of the Hawaiian Monk Seal and Implications for Translocation. Conservation Biology. 1. 2011, 25 (1): 124–132. PMID 21166713. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01615.x. 
  7. ^ Reeves, RR; Stewert, BS. National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. 2002. ISBN 978-0-375-41141-0. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi). NOAA Fisheries Office of Protected Resources. [2011-03-11]. 
  9. ^ Kenyon, KW; Rice, DW. Life History Of the Hawaiian Monk Seal. Pacific Science. July 1959, 13 [2011-05-23]. 
  10. ^ Goodman-Lowe, GD. Diet of the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus Schauinslandi) from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands during 1991 to 1994 (pdf). Marine Biology. 3. 1998, 132 (3): 535–46 [2011-05-23]. doi:10.1007/s002270050419. 
  11. ^ Baker, J; Johanos, Thea C. Abundance of the Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Biological Conservation. 1. 2004, 116: 103–10. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00181-2. 

外部連結[编辑]