Charles Albert Gobat
夏尔·阿尔贝·戈巴（法語：Charles Albert Gobat，法语发音：[ʃaʁl albɛʁ ɡɔba]；1843年5月21日—1914年3月16日），瑞士法律博士和政治家。
Charles Albert Gobat (21 May 1843 – 16 March 1914) was a 瑞士 律師, educational administrator, and 政治人物 who jointly received the 诺贝尔和平奖 with 埃利·迪科门 in 1902 for their leadership of the 国际和平局.
Birth and education[编辑]
Gobat was born on 21 May 1843 at 特拉姆朗, 瑞士. He was the son of a Protestant pastor and the nephew of Samuel Gobat, a missionary who became bishop of Jerusalem. He was educated at the 巴塞尔大学, 海德堡大学, 伯尔尼大学, and 巴黎大学. He received his doctorate in law, summa cum laude, from the 海德堡大学 in 1867.
Career in law and politics[编辑]
After completing his Ph.D, Gobat began his practicing law in Bern and also lectured on French civil law at Bern University. He then opened an office in Delémont in the canton of Bern, which soon became the leading legal firm of the district.
After practicing law for fifteen years, he became involved in politics and education. In 1882, he was appointed superintendent of public instruction for the canton of Bern, a position he held for thirty years. He was a progressive in educational philosophy and he made many important reforms in the education system. He reformed the system of primary training, obtained increased budgetary support to improve the teacher-pupil ratio, supported the study of living languages, and provided pupils with an alternative to the traditionally narrow classical education by establishing curricula in vocational & professional training.
He won acclaim for his erudite République de Berne et la France pendant les guerres de religion, which was published in 1891 and also widespread recognition for A People's History of Switzerland, which was published in 1900.
He also pursued a career in politics. He was elected to many important positions. He was elected to the Grand Council of Bern in 1882. From 1884 to 1890, he was a member of the Council of States of Switzerland and from 1890 until his death in 1914, he was a member of the National Council, the other chamber of the central Swiss legislative body. In both politics and education, he was a liberal reformer. In 1902, he sponsored several legislation which applied the principle of arbitration to commercial treaties. Gobat worked with the 各国议会联盟, which was founded by 兰德尔·克里默, the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1903, in 1889. In 1892 he became the president of the union's fourth conference, which was held in Bern and which founded the Bureau Interparlementaire. He served as general secretary of the bureau, an information office dealing with peace movements, international conciliation, and communication among national parliamentary bodies. The third conference of the union, held in Rome in 1891, established the 国际和平局, of which Gobat was director when it was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1910.
In 1902, Gobat jointly received the 诺贝尔和平奖 in 1902 with 埃利·迪科门 for their leadership of the 国际和平局.
After the death of Élie Ducommun in 1906, Gobat took over the direction of the 国际和平局.
Gobat died on 16 March 1914 in 伯尔尼, 瑞士. While attending meeting of the peace conference at Bern, he arose as if to speak but collapsed, dying about an hour later.
- Template:Nobelprize including the Nobel Lecture, July 18, 1906 The Development of the Hague Conventions of July 29, 1899