外貌吸引力

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外貌吸引力,或稱外表吸引力體征美身體吸引力等,是一個人的身體特徵(或外貌)被認為在美學上令人愉悅或美麗的程度。該術語通常暗示性吸引力等,但也可以指涉其他方面。有很多因素會影響一個人對另一個人的吸引力,身體方面就是其中之一。身體吸引力本身包括所有人類文化共有的普遍看法,例如面部對稱性(英語:Facial symmetry)[1]、社會文化相關屬性和特定個體獨有的個人偏好[2]

在許多情況下,人類下意識地將積極的特徵,如智力誠實,歸因於外表有吸引力的人。[3] 在美國和英國的研究發現,男性的智力和外表吸引力之間的關聯比女性更強。[4] 演化心理學者試圖回答為什麼身體上更有吸引力的人平均也應該更聰明,並提出了一般智力和身體吸引力都可能是潛在適應度的概念。[4] 一個人的身體特徵可以發出生育能力和健康狀態的信號[5][6]統計模型研究表明,反映生理健康方面的面部形狀變量,包括身體脂肪和血壓,也會影響觀察者對健康的看法。[7] 關注這些因素會增加繁殖成功率,進一步提高一個人的基因在人群中的代表性[8]

平均而言,異性戀男性往往會被外表年輕且具有對稱面孔[9]、豐滿乳房和低腰臀比等特徵的女性所吸引。[10][11] 平均而言,異性戀女性經常會被身高比自己高的男性所吸引,這些男性表現出高度的面部對稱性、男性化的面部異形、上半身力量、寬肩、相對較窄的腰部和 V 形軀幹。[12][13][14][15]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Grammer K, Thornhill R. Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness and sexual selection: the role of symmetry and averageness. Journal of Comparative Psychology. October 1994, 108 (3): 233–42 [4 May 2019]. PMID 7924253. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.108.3.233. 
  2. ^ Zeigler-Hill V, L M Welling L, Shackelford TK. Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology. United States: Springer Science+Business Media. 2015: 329. ISBN 978-3-319-12697-5. ...why, despite broad agreement, we see a wide variety of personal preferences. 
  3. ^ Dion K, Berscheid E, Walster E. What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. December 1972, 24 (3): 285–90. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.521.9955可免费查阅. PMID 4655540. doi:10.1037/h0033731. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Kanazawa S. Intelligence and physical attractiveness. Intelligence. 2011, 39 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2010.11.003. 
  5. ^ Stephen ID, Tan KW. Healthy body, healthy face? Evolutionary approaches to health perception.. Sheppard E, Haque S (编). Culture and Cognition: A Collection of Critical Essays.. Peter Lang International Publishers. 2015. 
  6. ^ Brown WM, Price ME, Kang J, Pound N, Zhao Y, Yu H. Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. September 2008, 105 (35): 12938–43. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10512938B. PMC 2529114可免费查阅. PMID 18711125. doi:10.1073/pnas.0710420105可免费查阅. 
  7. ^ Stephen ID, Hiew V, Coetzee V, Tiddeman BP, Perrett DI. Facial Shape Analysis Identifies Valid Cues to Aspects of Physiological Health in Caucasian, Asian, and African Populations. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017, 8: 1883. PMC 5670498可免费查阅. PMID 29163270. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01883可免费查阅 (英语). 
  8. ^ Barelds-Dijkstra P, Barelds DP. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness. Body Image. March 2008, 5 (1): 99–108. PMID 18405868. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.07.004. 
  9. ^ Briscoe J. Haven't I seen you somewhere before?. The Guardian (London). January 17, 2004 [July 15, 2011]. (原始内容存档于2022-04-19). Evolutionary psychologists claim there is an underlying standard script for beauty – a foundation for what we find appealing that transcends culture and ethnicity. There are various absolutes. For instance, to judge someone beautiful, the eye requires symmetry 
  10. ^ Fisher, Maryanne L. The Oxford Handbook of Women and Competition. Oxford University Press. 2017: 603 [2021-12-20]. ISBN 978-0-19-937639-1. (原始内容存档于2022-04-19) (英语). 
  11. ^ Nettle D. Women's height, reproductive success and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in modern humans (PDF). Proceedings. Biological Sciences. September 2002, 269 (1503): 1919–23 [2021-12-06]. PMC 1691114可免费查阅. PMID 12350254. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2111. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2008-12-30). 
  12. ^ Glassenberg AN, Feinberg DR, Jones BC, Little AC, Debruine LM. Sex-dimorphic face shape preference in heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior. December 2010, 39 (6): 1289–96. PMID 19830539. S2CID 25066289. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9559-6. 
  13. ^ Perrett DI, Lee KJ, Penton-Voak I, Rowland D, Yoshikawa S, Burt DM, Henzi SP, Castles DL, Akamatsu S. Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness. Nature. August 1998, 394 (6696): 884–87. Bibcode:1998Natur.394..884P. PMID 9732869. S2CID 204999982. doi:10.1038/29772. 
  14. ^ Sell A, Lukazsweski AW, Townsley M. Cues of upper body strength account for most of the variance in men's bodily attractiveness. Proceedings. Biological Sciences. December 2017, 284 (1869): 20171819. PMC 5745404可免费查阅. PMID 29237852. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.1819. 
  15. ^ Mautz BS, Wong BB, Peters RA, Jennions MD. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. April 2013, 110 (17): 6925–30. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.6925M. PMC 3637716可免费查阅. PMID 23569234. doi:10.1073/pnas.1219361110可免费查阅.