多邊戀

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多元之愛遊行
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多元之愛符號

多元之愛希臘語πολύ英語Polyamory),又稱多愛多邊戀多重伴侶關係,指關係中人數大於「兩人一對一」且參與者皆知情同意的浪漫、戀愛、交往、伴侶等關係[1][2]。例如一人同時與兩人或以上交往,在此親密關係中多方知情同意與其他交往者的關係。有些多元之愛屬於开放式关系,反對長久、深入、忠誠的關係奠基于排他性的觀點[3][4];而有些多元之愛關係閉合而排他,稱爲多忠多角忠誠多角忠貞(Polyfidelity),將性活動及情感親密局限於其組合内部[5][6]

多元之愛有時被擴大化用作統稱非一對一伴侶關係的各類型親密關係[7][8][9]。其用法反映言説者的個人旨趣,然而爱、亲密、诚实、正直、平等、沟通、承诺是其中常有的主題或價值觀[10][2]

多角忠貞[编辑]

多角忠貞英语Polyfidelity(Polyfidelity)是多元之愛的樣式之一。若為婚姻,亦屬多配偶制的樣式之一。多角忠貞的組合之中,人人平等,可以與組合内任何其他成員同時存有亲密关系,並承諾浪漫性關係僅限於組合内部,不允許與外人保持親密、浪漫或性關係。惟經所有成員一致同意,才能加入新成員。因此,多角忠貞與一般的單配偶制都屬於排他性關係,而有別於人數。

1848年成立於紐約州奧奈達奧奈達公社英语Oneida Community被視爲多角忠貞的起源。英語詞“多角忠貞(Polyfidelity)”則首創于1956年在紐約成立的Kerista英语Kerista公社的“新部落(New Tribe)”[11][12]

概念辨析[编辑]

开放式关系(Open relationship)”一词有时被用作“多元之爱”的同义词,但二者实质不同。开放式关系以既有的亲密关系為中心“开放”關係浪漫關係;而多元之爱著重在,且可愛戀不止一人。[13]二者实例有交集,但互不包含。一个多元之爱组合可能是开放式关系,也可能是排他性关系,后者又稱多角忠貞,不容许组合以外的人介入亲密关系。有些开放式关系仅許愛一人,即僅容性關係或浪漫關係開放;有些开放式关系可以愛多人,后者即属多元之爱。

非一對一伴侶關係(Non-monogamy)或與多元之愛混淆。非一對一伴侶關係是涵蓋一切不嚴格遵循單一伴侶關係的親密關係的雨傘術語,無論有無知情合意,故而包含合意的非一對一伴侶關係,即包括多元之愛。

多配偶制(Polygamy)時與多元之愛混淆。多配偶制則屬配偶制度,配偶是正式或事實上的結合;而多元之愛著重在愛,不論結合與否。因此二者不同。

實況[编辑]

截至2019年,逾二成美國人在人生中嘗試過合意的非一對一的伴侶關係[14]。据引心理學家Jessica Fern,截至2020年9月,約有4%即近1600萬美國人正在實踐非一對一的伴侶關係[15]金賽性、性別與生殖研究中心估計2009年7月在美國有五十萬公開的多元之愛家庭[16][17]

2017年,加利福尼亚州首度有三位男子在其嬰孩的出生證明上一并登記為父親[18]。2018年6月,紐芬蘭與拉布拉多省一個法庭承認三位未婚的成年人是他們所組成的多元之愛家庭的孩子的合法父母;据信是爲加拿大司法首例。此三成年人包括孩子的生母與兩位男子[19]。2021年4月,不列颠哥伦比亚省最高法院宣判一位女子是一個三角家庭的第三合法父母[20]

2020年6月,麻薩諸塞州萨默维尔市議會票決承認該市的多元家庭伴侶英语Domestic partnership關係,為全美第一[21][22][23][24]。2021年3月,麻薩諸塞州剑桥市議會修改該市法律,規定家庭伴侶關係不必僅限於二位伴侶[25][26][27],次月該州阿靈頓鎮亦作同樣的批准[28]

参见[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Sheff, Elisabeth. When Someone You Love Is Polyamorous: Understanding Poly People and Relationships. Portland, Oregon: Thorntree Press. 2016. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Haritaworn, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Klesse, C. Poly/logue: A Critical Introduction to Polyamory. Sexualities. 2016-08-15, 9 (5): 515–29. S2CID 145274479. doi:10.1177/1363460706069963. Polyamory describes a form of relationship where it is possible, valid and worthwhile to maintain (usually long-term) intimate and sexual relationships with multiple partners simultaneously. 
  3. ^ Klesse, C. Notions of love in polyamory: Elements in a discourse on multiple loving. Laboratorium. 2011, 3 (2): 4–25 [December 27, 2016]. (原始内容存档于March 17, 2017). 
  4. ^ What Does It Mean to Be Polyamorous?. Healthline. March 14, 2019 [May 4, 2020]. (原始内容存档于May 28, 2020). 
  5. ^ Miller, Timothy. The 60s communes: hippies and beyond. Syracuse University Press. 1999: 135 [12 March 2011]. ISBN 978-0-8156-0601-7. (原始内容存档于November 7, 2013). 
  6. ^ Pines, Ayala; Aronson, Elliot. Polyfidelity: An alternative lifestyle without jealousy?. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 1981, 4 (3): 373–392. doi:10.1007/BF01257945. 
  7. ^ Poly glossary. PolyMatchMaker.com. [24 June 2017]. (原始内容存档于July 6, 2017). 
  8. ^ Helen Echlin. When two just won't do. The Guardian. November 14, 2003 [March 27, 2007]. (原始内容存档于August 27, 2013). 
  9. ^ Schippers, Mimi. Beyond Monogamy: Polyamory and the Future of Polyqueer Sexualities. NYU Press. 2017 [August 6, 2017]. (原始内容存档于August 7, 2017). 
  10. ^ Klesse, C. Polyamory and its 'Others': Contesting the Terms of Non-Monogamy. Sexualities. 2016-08-15, 9 (5): 565–583 [January 14, 2020]. S2CID 143812369. doi:10.1177/1363460706069986. (原始内容存档于March 10, 2022). 
  11. ^ Miller, Timothy. The 60s communes: hippies and beyond. Syracuse University Press. 1999: 135 [12 March 2011]. ISBN 978-0-8156-0601-7. (原始内容存档于7 November 2013). 
  12. ^ Pines, Ayala; Aronson, Elliot. Polyfidelity: An alternative lifestyle without jealousy?. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 1981, 4 (3): 373–392. doi:10.1007/BF01257945. 
  13. ^ Gaal, Anna Gyulai. The many shades of open love. EXBERLINER.com. 21 February 2019 [4 July 2019]. (原始内容存档于2019-12-06) (美国英语). 
  14. ^ Haupert, M. L.; Gesselman, Amanda N.; Moors, Amy C.; Fisher, Helen E.; Garcia, Justin R. Prevalence of Experiences With Consensual Nonmonogamous Relationships: Findings From Two National Samples of Single Americans. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 2017-07-04, 43 (5): 424–440. ISSN 0092-623X. PMID 27096488. S2CID 6855648. doi:10.1080/0092623X.2016.1178675. 
  15. ^ Kavanagh, Jess. Building bridges: How polyamory made me a better friend, lover and person. Irish Times. September 19, 2020 [December 24, 2020]. (原始内容存档于October 3, 2020). 
  16. ^ Bennett, Jessica. Polyamory: The Next Sexual Revolution?. Newsweek. July 29, 2009 [December 23, 2020]. (原始内容存档于November 4, 2020). 
  17. ^ Newitz, Annalee. Love Unlimited: The Polyamorists. New Scientist. July 7, 2006 [December 23, 2020]. (原始内容存档于November 9, 2020). 
  18. ^ Feldman, Jamie. This Throuple Made History With Their First Child. Here's What Their Lives Are Like.. HuffPost. December 23, 2020 [March 13, 2021]. (原始内容存档于March 2, 2021). 
  19. ^ MacDonald, Michael. 3 adults in polyamorous relationship declared legal parents by N. L. court. CBC News. June 14, 2018 [December 24, 2020]. (原始内容存档于December 24, 2020). 
  20. ^ Labbé, Stefan. B.C. judge declares woman third legal parent in polyamorous 'triad'. Times Colonist. 2021-04-28 [2021-08-28]. (原始内容存档于August 28, 2021). 
  21. ^ Stening, Tanner. Somerville City Council passes ordinance recognizing polyamorous domestic partnerships. masslive. July 1, 2020 [December 24, 2020]. (原始内容存档于July 2, 2020). 
  22. ^ Taliesin, Julia. Somerville votes to recognize polyamorous domestic partnerships. It is one of the first in nation.. MetroWest Daily News, Framingham, MA. [December 24, 2020]. (原始内容存档于July 1, 2020). 
  23. ^ McNamara, Audrey. Massachusetts city officially recognizes polyamorous relationships. CBS News. July 3, 2020 [December 14, 2020]. (原始内容存档于December 3, 2020). 
  24. ^ Greenberg, Zoe. Somerville's new polyamory-friendly policy a 'turning point'. Boston Globe. July 2, 2020 [December 14, 2020]. (原始内容存档于December 3, 2020). 
  25. ^ Brown, Elizabeth Nolan. Cambridge Will Recognize Polyamorous Partnerships and Other Domestic Arrangements With More Than 2 Adults. Reason.com. March 10, 2021 [March 13, 2021]. (原始内容存档于March 10, 2021). 
  26. ^ Cambridge City Council meeting - March 8, 2021 - AGENDA. Cambridge Civic Journal. March 8, 2021 [March 13, 2021]. (原始内容存档于March 8, 2021).  This is a publication run by a man named Robert Winters, who is a civic watcher of the Cambridge, MA government.
  27. ^ Adams, Diana; Chen, Alexander. Cambridge Becomes 2nd US City to Legalize Polyamorous Domestic Partnerships (PDF) (新闻稿). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Polyamory Legal Advocacy Coalition. March 9, 2021 [March 13, 2021]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于March 9, 2021). 
  28. ^ Collings, Jesse. Town Meeting approves domestic partnership for relationships with more than two people. Wicked Local. [May 13, 2021]. (原始内容存档于May 13, 2021).