娱乐是一种吸引受众的注意与兴趣，让受众感到愉悦与满足的活动形式。它可以是一个理念或任务，但历经数千年的发展，为了保有受众的兴趣，它更多是以活动和比赛的形式进行的。 尽管由于对娱乐形式的偏好有所不同而使人们的注意力放在了不同的东西上，大部分的娱乐形式却能被认出来是如此相似。像讲 故事，音乐，戏剧，舞蹈，还有各种不同的表演等存在于所有文化中的娱乐形式，首先都是表现为宫廷文学，随后向复杂化的形式纵深发展，又一段时间之后，就对全体公民开放了。现时代，这一过程又被制售娱乐产品的娱乐产业加速了。娱乐发展到可以被各种不同的标准所接受，范围从可以从现在巨大的预制产品库中挑选一份私人的娱乐服务的个人，再到可容二人的小型宴会，还有用合适的音乐和舞蹈的任何规模和类型的聚会，再就是为数千人而进行的表演，直至全球受众。
- 1 心理学与哲学
- 2 历史
- 3 儿童
- 4 沿革
- 5 安全问题 (未润色)
- 6 娱乐产业
- 7 建筑
- 8 电子媒体发展的影响
- 9 参见
- 10 参考文献
心理学家将传媒娱乐的功能称为“达到愉悦” 。在娱乐中再没有别的结果或重大利益被如此期望（很可能要除去体育竞技类娱乐项目的最后比分）。这和教育（把增进理解和帮助人们学习当作目标）与市场营销（鼓励人们买入商业产品）形成了对比。不过，但教育力图变得更加“娱乐”，而娱乐与市场营销也在寻找教育意义的时候，这些目的就都变得模糊不清了。这类混合体常以新词“教育娱乐”或是“资讯娱乐”闻名。娱乐还有学习的心理学理论被所有这些领域运用。 某些教育娱乐是对结合两者最佳特点的严肃尝试 有些人也会为别人的创痛和不开心的想法取乐（创痛乐感）。
讲故事中所使用的大多仍是如用言语，图像，声音和手势来传达事物和经历的古老手法。并且，讲故事不仅是人们将文化价值观、传统和历史从一代传递给另一代人的手段，而且一直是娱乐形式的重要组成部分。尽管岁月变迁，但是讲故事的形式仍然没有发生太大变化, 例如露营时围坐一起听故事，旅游中游人倾听另外一种文化的故事。我们现在拥有的最早的故事系列，毫无疑问是最初口耳相传的说法。他们的娱乐源自于这些元素，我们今天欣赏的电影和小说同样也是如此。 讲故事渐渐演变和发展成为一种多样性的活动。 许多包括讲故事在内的娱乐活动，尤其是音乐和戏剧，虽然有着熟悉的面孔，但已经发展成各种各样的形式来适应广泛的个人喜好和文化表现。很多类型则需要其他类型的融合和支持。例如，戏剧、故事和宴会通常需要音乐来加强氛围；运动和游戏可以纳入其他活动来增加吸引力。有些已经演变成为严肃和必要的竞争活动（例如跑步和跳）。据说，撑杆跳高可能起源于荷兰，荷兰人使用长杆跨过宽阔的河流，这样就不用磨损木底鞋走几英里以到达最近的桥梁。另一些人认为撑竿可能被用于战争中使用撑杆来跳过堡垒墙壁。 这种运动设备变得越来越复杂。例如，最初的撑竿是由梣树、山核桃属或者榛属的木头制成的，到19世纪时使用竹子，到了21世纪时则使用碳纤维制成。 其他活动，例如踩高跷，在21世纪的马戏团表演中仍然可以看到。角斗士站斗流行于罗马时代，同时也被称为“角斗士游戏”，这也提供了一个很好的将体育，惩罚和娱乐相结合的的活动的例子。
帝国皇室和宫廷为专业艺人提供培训的场地和支持，不同的文化以不同的方式使用宫殿和城堡。例如，在玛雅文明城市，舞台往往就在宫殿前面的大型广场上，人群会聚集在那里或者在远处指定的地点观看。宫廷娱乐也会横跨不同的文化，例如，杜尔巴被莫卧儿人引入印度，然后传入大英帝国, 并遵循着印度传统：机构、头衔、风俗习惯、摩诃罗阇和納瓦卜的仪式等等。 在韩国，宫廷舞蹈作为一种娱乐最开始在宫廷宴会上演出。
朝堂仪式、宫廷聚会还有与之相关联的大场面不仅被用来娱乐, 还有就是去展示财富与权力。这样的事件可以加强统治者与被统治者的关系；在有权者与无权者间, 以去将普通家庭与统治者之间的种种差别戏剧化。无论是在传统宫廷还是在现代意识中，这种情况都是差不多的，像是1997年的香港回归仪式中，宴会，嘉年华，烟火，节日表演和艺术展被服务于突出政权的更迭。宫廷仪式就是服务于皇室和大臣的典型，像是“为了主人和来访高官的愉悦”。像是高丽宫廷也会有传统舞蹈。在苏丹，曾是“有权力的长官的宫廷管弦乐队的一部分”的所谓“缝鼓”和“话鼓”有着多种目的：它们被用来制造音乐；在仪式中“说话”；记录社群大事；传递长距离的信息；还有呼唤人们狩猎或者战争。
尽管大多数娱乐形式随着时间的推移而不断演变和延续, 但是一些过去曾经流行过的形式已经不能再被人民所接受。例如：在欧洲,早期的几个世纪，观察或者是参与惩罚犯罪分子或社会流离失所者的行刑过程是一种被接受的和较受欢迎的娱乐形式。在以前许多种的 當眾羞辱的行为也在一定程度上提供了一些娱乐。即使是一些极刑如绞刑或者斬首, 虽然目的是为了作为警告提供给公众 ,但在一定程度上也被视为一种娱乐。 一些持续时间更长的极刑,例如 石刑和掛拉分,同时也提供了一种更大的公众娱乐活动。“绞刑是一种狂欢节，无论是失业者、市民、资产阶级或好奇的贵族，都可以从马车上或租一间屋子来观看。”公开的刑罚作为一种娱乐活动一直持续直到19世纪，直到那时 “一些隆重的公开行绞刑的行动遭到了一些文学家或哲学家的厌恶”。 包括查尔斯·狄更斯和威廉·梅克比斯·薩克萊都在1840年写了篇关于纽盖特监狱施行绞刑的文章，以至于“教导了更广泛的公众，认为处决是一种变态淫秽的娱乐”。
大多数娱乐形式都可以经过一些调整后，更适合儿童需要，符合儿童兴趣。自20世纪以来，人们认为儿童的心理发育分为不同阶段，而且他们的能力和成人是不同的。这种认识始于斯坦利•霍尔，让•皮亚杰则对其进行了更深入的研究和发展。霍尔“推崇把对发展理论的研究和心理学实验室的建立联系起来”， 虽然总有人批判霍尔的学说和理论，但他的学说和理论在心理学领域仍然占据着重要的地位；皮亚杰“发现认知发展的过程与生理发展的过程具有相似性”。 基于这类心理学研究得出的理论，人们开始专门为儿童受众创作故事和活动，应用于书籍，电影，以及电子游戏中。在数字娱乐日益兴起的背景下，一些国家对儿童心理发展的特殊需求做出了响应，制定出了诸如电视分级制度的相关行业标准，以便更好地引导大众和娱乐产业。
音乐是大多数娱乐活动的基本成分，也是表现形式之一。例如，音乐被用来增强叙事情感，它在舞蹈(1, 4) 和戏剧中也不可或缺，它还通常被用于戏剧电影或戏院作品中。
音乐本身也是一种普遍和受欢迎的娱乐方式，它自行构成了表现方式，例如音乐会（2,4,5,6,7,8,9）。 根据节奏，乐器，表现方式和风格的不同，音乐可分为古典，爵士，民谣，（4，5，8），摇滚，流行音乐（6,9）或传统音乐（1,3）。 20世纪以来，演唱音乐一度只提供给那些可以为表演者支付费用的音乐，由娱乐业向个人低价提供播放或预先销售的服务。
无论演奏是来自独奏者（6），合唱团（2）还是管弦乐团（5,8），无论是否有人为的后期制作（6,7,9,10），各种各样的表现方式都属于音乐的范畴（3）。 现场表演使用的这些场地有着大小，贵贱，室内外之分，也导致了观众对艺术家的期望以及艺术家所发挥的作用不同。 例如，一些观众喜欢默默欣赏音乐，理解其内涵（5,8）。 其他观众则喜欢现场表演的气氛并乐意参与其中（7,9）。 大部分的听众选择通过预先录制的音乐产品进行娱乐（10）。
用于音乐的乐器分为人声（2,6）和乐器（1,3），或者两者的组合进行（4,5,7,8）。 无论演奏是由主唱还是乐器演奏者演奏，艺术家可以单独演奏，也可以是大小团体的一部分，反过来观众可能是个人的（10），经过的（3），小的（1,2）或 大（6,7,8,9）。 虽然有些形式，特别是无伴奏合唱和泛音，但唱歌通常伴随着乐器。 现代音乐会经常使用各种特殊效果和其他表演来伴随歌舞表演（7）。
游戏通常是为了娱乐，但有时玩游戏也是为了获得成就感或物质回报。根据不同的游戏的玩法，游戏既可以单独玩、和他人一起玩，又可以在线玩; 不论是业余玩家还是电子竞技玩家都可以在一起玩游戏。玩家也可以作为旁观者观看游戏的比赛，比如观看国际象棋锦标赛等比赛时。 游戏用具随不同游戏的变化而变化。棋盘类游戏，如围棋、象棋或西洋棋等都需要棋盘和棋子。目前已知最古老的棋盘游戏，是古埃及王国法老图坦卡蒙发明的塞尼特。纸牌类游戏，如扑克、桥牌和惠斯特牌，一直是晚上朋友之间的娱乐方式。这些游戏所需要的只仅仅是一副扑克牌。其他类游戏，如与许多陌生人玩的Bingo游戏则需要组织，而旁观者可以通过赌博参与游戏。很多游戏都是为孩子设计的，可在户外玩耍，包括跳房子、捉迷藏或瞎子摸人。而球类运动的种类则相当地广泛。它包括棒球、草地滚球和彩弹，以及许多体育项目所使用的各种球类。这些游戏方式迎合了技能锻炼和健身需求。体育游戏可以提高运动技能的敏捷性和身体素质。而像诸如像数独的数字游戏和魔方之类的益智游戏则在一定程度上可以发展游戏者的智力。
閱讀在很长一段时间内都是娱乐的一种形式， 同时阅读在一定程度上也可以分散压力。在进行阅读的时候，我们可以从中了解到许多，例如：了解传统文化、理解信息等等。 随着时间的流逝，印刷术、造纸术的产生，将进行阅读所需要的技术和成本都降低了，也进一步有助于提高阅读对大众的吸引力。此外，随着科技的发展，书本的质量越来越高，排版、印刷、装订也越来越精致，所以阅读再也不会像以前那样给人留下痛苦的印象了。 到十六世纪的欧洲，人们对进行阅读活动已经有了足够的兴趣。
在文学的许多流派中，有些是纯粹为了娱乐而设计的，全部或部分是完全为了娱乐。 例如，利默里克斯运用严格的，可预测的韵律和节奏来创作幽默，并为听众或读者提供娱乐。 诸如“选择你自己的冒险”等互动书籍可以使文学娱乐更具参与性。
Comics and cartoons are literary genres that use drawings or graphics, usually in combination with text, to convey an entertaining narrative. Many contemporary comics have elements of fantasy and are produced by companies that are part of the entertainment industry. Others have unique authors who offer a more personal, philosophical view of the world and the problems people face. Comics about superheroes such as Superman are of the first type. Examples of the second sort include the individual work over 50 years of Charles M. Schulz who produced a popular comic called Peanuts about the relationships among a cast of child characters; and Michael Leunig who entertains by producing whimsical cartoons that also incorporate social criticism. The Japanese Manga style differs from the western approach in that it encompasses a wide range of genres and themes for a readership of all ages. Caricature uses a kind of graphic entertainment for purposes ranging from merely putting a smile on the viewer's face, to raising social awareness, to highlighting the moral characteristics of a person being caricatured.
Comedy is both a genre of entertainment and a component of it, providing laughter and amusement, whether the comedy is the sole purpose or used as a form of contrast in an otherwise serious piece. It is a valued contributor to many forms of entertainment, including in literature, theatre, opera, film and games. In royal courts, such as in the Byzantine court, and presumably, also in its wealthy households, "mimes were the focus of orchestrated humour, expected or obliged to make fun of all at court, not even excepting the emperor and members of the imperial family. This highly structured role of jester consisted of verbal humour, including teasing, jests, insult, ridicule, and obscenity and non-verbal humour such as slapstick and horseplay in the presence of an audience." In medieval times, all comic types – the buffoon, jester, hunchback, dwarf, jokester, were all "considered to be essentially of one comic type: the fool", who while not necessarily funny, represented "the shortcomings of the individual".
Shakespeare wrote seventeen comedies that incorporate many techniques still used by performers and writers of comedy—such as jokes, puns, parody, wit, observational humor, or the unexpected effect of irony. One-liner jokes and satire are also used to comedic effect in literature. In farce, the comedy is a primary purpose.
The meaning of the word "comedy" and the audience's expectations of it have changed over time and vary according to culture. Simple physical comedy such as slapstick is entertaining to a broad range of people of all ages. However, as cultures become more sophisticated, national nuances appear in the style and references so that what is amusing in one culture may be unintelligible in another.
Live performances before an audience constitute a major form of entertainment, especially before the invention of audio and video recording. Performance takes a wide range of forms, including theatre, music and drama. In the 16th and 17th centuries, European royal courts presented masques that were complex theatrical entertainments involving dancing, singing and acting. Opera is a similarly demanding performance style that remains popular. It also encompass all three forms, demanding a high level of musical and dramatic skill, collaboration and like the masque, production expertise as well.
Audiences generally show their appreciation of an entertaining performance with applause. However, all performers run the risk of failing to hold their audience's attention and thus, failing to entertain. Audience dissatisfaction is often brutally honest and direct.
"Of course you all ought to know that while singing a good song or, or giving a good recitation ... helps to arrest the company's attention ... Such at least was the case with me – the publican devised a plan to bring my entertainment to an end abruptly, and the plan was, he told the waiter to throw a wet towel at me, which, of course, the waiter did ... and I received the wet towel, full force, in the face, which staggered me ... and had the desired effect of putting an end to me giving any more entertainments in the house." William McGonagall (Performance artist and poet)
Storytelling is an ancient form of entertainment that has influenced almost all other forms. It is "not only entertainment, it is also thinking through human conflicts and contradictions". Hence, although stories may be delivered directly to a small listening audience, they are also presented as entertainment and used as a component of any piece that relies on a narrative, such as film, drama, ballet, and opera. Written stories have been enhanced by illustrations, often to a very high artistic standard, for example, on illuminated manuscripts and on ancient scrolls such as Japanese ones. Stories remain a common way of entertaining a group that is on a journey. Showing how stories are used to pass the time and entertain an audience of travellers, Chaucer used pilgrims in his literary work The Canterbury Tales in the 14th century, as did Wu Cheng'en in the 16th century in Journey to the West. Even though journeys can now be completed much faster, stories are still told to passengers en route in cars and aeroplanes either orally or delivered by some form of technology.
The power of stories to entertain is evident in one of the most famous ones—Scheherazade—a story in the Persian professional storytelling tradition, of a woman who saves her own life by telling stories. The connections between the different types of entertainment are shown by the way that stories like this inspire a retelling in another medium, such as music, film or games. For example, composers Rimsky-Korsakov, Ravel and Szymanowski have each been inspired by the Scheherazade story and turned it into an orchestral work; director Pasolini made a film adaptation; and there is an innovative video game based on the tale. Stories may be told wordlessly, in music, dance or puppetry for example, such as in the Javanese tradition of wayang, in which the performance is accompanied by a gamelan orchestra or the similarly traditional Punch and Judy show.
Epic narratives, poems, sagas and allegories from all cultures tell such gripping tales that they have inspired countless other stories in all forms of entertainment. Examples include the Hindu Ramayana and Mahabharata; Homer's Odyssey and Iliad; the first Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan; the Persian epic Shahnameh; the Sagas of Icelanders and the celebrated Tale of the Genji. Collections of stories, such as Grimms' Fairy Tales or those by Hans Christian Andersen, have been similarly influential. Originally published in the early 19th century, this collection of folk stories significantly influence modern popular culture, which subsequently used its themes, images, symbols, and structural elements to create new entertainment forms.
Some of the most powerful and long-lasting stories are the foundation stories, also called origin or creation myths such as the Dreamtime myths of the Australian aborigines, the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh, or the Hawaiian stories of the origin of the world. These too are developed into books, films, music and games in a way that increases their longevity and enhances their entertainment value.
Theatre performances, typically dramatic or musical, are presented on a stage for an audience and have a history that goes back to Hellenistic times when "leading musicians and actors" performed widely at "poetical competitions", for example at "Delphi, Delos, Ephesus". Aristotle and his teacher Plato both wrote on the theory and purpose of theatre. Aristotle posed questions such as "What is the function of the arts in shaping character? Should a member of the ruling class merely watch performances or be a participant and perform? What kind of entertainment should be provided for those who do not belong to the elite?" The "Ptolemys in Egypt, the Seleucids in Pergamum" also had a strong theatrical tradition and later, wealthy patrons in Rome staged "far more lavish productions".
Expectations about the performance and their engagement with it have changed over time (1). For example, in England during the 18th century, "the prejudice against actresses had faded" and in Europe generally, going to the theatre, once a socially dubious activity, became "a more respectable middle-class pastime" in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the variety of popular entertainments increased. Operetta and music halls became available, and new drama theatres such as the Moscow Art Theatre and the Suvorin Theatre in Russia opened. At the same time, commercial newspapers "began to carry theatre columns and reviews" that helped make theatre "a legitimate subject of intellectual debate" in general discussions about art and culture. Audiences began to gather to "appreciate creative achievement, to marvel at, and be entertained by, the prominent 'stars'." Vaudeville and music halls, popular at this time in the United States, England, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, were themselves eventually superseded.
Plays, musicals, monologues, pantomimes, and performance poetry are part of the very long history of theatre, which is also the venue for the type of performance known as stand-up comedy. In the 20th century, radio and television, often broadcast live, extended the theatrical tradition that continued to exist alongside the new forms.
The stage and the spaces set out in front of it for an audience create a theatre. All types of stage are used with all types of seating for the audience, including the impromptu or improvised (2, 3, 6); the temporary (2); the elaborate (9); or the traditional and permanent (5, 7). They are erected indoors (3, 5, 9) or outdoors (2, 4, 6). The skill of managing, organising and preparing the stage for a performance is known as stagecraft (10). The audience's experience of the entertainment is affected by their expectations, the stagecraft, the type of stage, and the type and standard of seating provided.
|Theatrical entertainment – stages, staging and stagecraft|
Films are a major form of entertainment, although not all films have entertainment as their primary purpose: documentary film, for example, aims to create a record or inform, although the two purposes often work together. The medium was a global business from the beginning: "The Lumière brothers were the first to send cameramen throughout the world, instructing them to film everything which could be of interest for the public." In 1908, Pathé launched and distributed newsreels and by World War I, films were meeting an enormous need for mass entertainment. "In the first decade of the [20th] century cinematic programmes combined, at random, fictions and newsfilms." The Americans first "contrived a way of producing an illusion of motion through successive images," but "the French were able to transform a scientific principle into a commercially lucrative spectacle". Film therefore became a part of the entertainment industry from its early days. Increasingly sophisticated techniques have been used in the film medium to delight and entertain audiences. Animation, for example, which involves the display of rapid movement in an art work, is one of these techniques that particularly appeals to younger audiences. The advent of computer-generated imagery (CGI) in the 21st century made it "possible to do spectacle" more cheaply and "on a scale never dreamed of" by Cecil B. DeMille. From the 1930s to 1950s, movies and radio were the "only mass entertainment" but by the second decade of the 21st century, technological changes, economic decisions, risk aversion and globalisation reduced both the quality and range of films being produced. Sophisticated visual effects and CGI techniques, for example, rather than humans, were used not only to create realistic images of people, landscapes and events (both real and fantastic) but also to animate non-living items such as Lego normally used as entertainment as a game in physical form. Creators of The Lego Movie "wanted the audience to believe they were looking at actual Lego bricks on a tabletop that were shot with a real camera, not what we actually did, which was create vast environments with digital bricks inside the computer." The convergence of computers and film has allowed entertainment to be presented in a new way and the technology has also allowed for those with the personal resources to screen films in a home theatre, recreating in a private venue the quality and experience of a public theatre. This is similar to the way that the nobility in earlier times could stage private musical performances or the use of domestic theatres in large homes to perform private plays in earlier centuries.
Films also re-imagine entertainment from other forms, turning stories, books and plays, for example, into new entertainments. The Story of Film, a documentary about the history of film, gives a survey of global achievements and innovations in the medium, as well as changes in the conception of film-making. It demonstrates that while some films, particularly those in the Hollywood tradition that combines "realism and melodramatic romanticism", are intended as a form of escapism, others require a deeper engagement or more thoughtful response from their audiences. For example, the award winning Senegalese film Xala takes government corruption as its theme. Charlie Chaplin's film The Great Dictator was a brave and innovative parody, also on a political theme. Stories that are thousands of years old, such as Noah, have been re-interpreted in film, applying familiar literary devices such as allegory and personification with new techniques such as CGI to explore big themes such as "human folly", good and evil, courage and despair, love, faith, and death – themes that have been a main-stay of entertainment across all its forms.
As in other media, excellence and achievement in films is recognised through a range of awards, including ones from the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the Cannes International Film Festival in France and the Asia Pacific Screen Awards.
The many forms of dance provide entertainment for all age groups and cultures. Dance can be serious in tone, such as when it is used to express a culture's history or important stories; it may be provocative; or it may put in the service of comedy. Since it combines many forms of entertainment – music, movement, storytelling, theatre – it provides a good example of the various ways that these forms can be combined to create entertainment for different purposes and audiences.
Dance is "a form of cultural representation" that involves not just dancers, but "choreographers, audience members, patrons and impresarios ... coming from all over the globe and from vastly varied time periods." Whether from Africa, Asia or Europe, dance is constantly negotiating the realms of political, social, spiritual and artistic influence." Even though dance traditions may be limited to one cultural group, they all develop. For example, in Africa, there are "Dahomean dances, Hausa dances, Masai dances and so forth." Ballet is an example of a highly developed Western form of dance that moved to the theatres from the French court during the time of Louis XIV, the dancers becoming professional theatrical performers. Some dances, such as the quadrille, a square dance that "emerged during the Napoleonic years in France" and other country dances were once popular at social gatherings like balls, but are now rarely performed. On the other hand, many folk dances (such as Scottish Highland dancing and Irish dancing), have evolved into competitions, which by adding to their audiences, has increased their entertainment value. "Irish dance theatre, which sometimes features traditional Irish steps and music, has developed into a major dance form with an international reputation."
Since dance is often "associated with the female body and women's experiences", female dancers, who dance to entertain, have in some cases been regarded as distinct from "decent" women because they "use their bodies to make a living instead of hiding them as much as possible". Society's attitudes to female dancers depend on the culture, its history and the entertainment industry itself. For example, while some cultures regard any dancing by women as "the most shameful form of entertainment", other cultures have established venues such as strip clubs where deliberately erotic or sexually provocative dances such as striptease are performed in public by professional women dancers for mostly male audiences.
Various political regimes have sought to control or ban dancing or specific types of dancing, sometimes because of disapproval of the music or clothes associated with it. Nationalism, authoritarianism and racism have played a part in banning dances or dancing. For example, during the Nazi regime, American dances such as swing, regarded as "completely un-German", had "become a public offense and needed to be banned". Similarly, in Shanghai, China, in the 1930s, "dancing and nightclubs had come to symbolise the excess that plagued Chinese society" and officials wondered if "other forms of entertainment such as brothels" should also be banned. Banning had the effect of making "the dance craze" even greater. In Ireland, the Public Dance Hall Act of 1935 "banned – but did not stop – dancing at the crossroads and other popular dance forms such as house and barn dances." In the US, various dances have been banned, either because like burlesque, they were suggestive, or because, like the Twist, they were associated with African Americans. "African American dancers were typically banned from performing in minstrel shows until after the Civil War."
Dances can be performed solo (1, 4); in pairs, (2, 3); in groups, (5, 6, 7); or by massed performers (10). They might be improvised (4, 8) or highly choreographed (1, 2, 5, 10); spontaneous for personal entertainment, (such as when children begin dancing for themselves); a private audience, (4); a paying audience (2); a world audience (10); or an audience interested in a particular dance genre (3, 5). They might be a part of a celebration, such as a wedding or New Year (6, 8); or a cultural ritual with a specific purpose, such as a dance by warriors like a haka (7). Some dances, such as traditional dance in 1 and ballet in 2, need a very high level of skill and training; others, such as the can-can, require a very high level of energy and physical fitness. Entertaining the audience is a normal part of dance but its physicality often also produces joy for the dancers themselves (9).
|Dance – 10 types across 10 cultures|
人类出于娱乐的目的使用动物，已经有几千年了。人们为了娱乐而追捕它们(而不是为了寻求食物 );displayed while they hunt for prey; watched when they compete with each other; and watched while they perform a trained routine for human amusement. The Romans, for example, were entertained both by competitions involving wild animals and acts performed by trained animals. They watched as "lions and bears danced to the music of pipes and cymbals; horses were trained to kneel, bow, dance and prance ... acrobats turning handsprings over wild lions and vaulting over wild leopards." There were "violent confrontations with wild beasts" and "performances over time became more brutal and bloodier".
Animals that perform trained routines or "acts" for human entertainment include fleas in flea circuses, dolphins in dolphinaria, and monkeys doing tricks for an audience on behalf of the player of a street organ. Animals kept in zoos in ancient times were often kept there for later use in the arena as entertainment or for their entertainment value as exotica.
Many contests between animals are now regarded as sports – for example, horse racing is regarded as both a sport and an important source of entertainment. Its economic impact means that it is also considered a global industry, one in which horses are carefully transported around the world to compete in races. In Australia, the horse race run on Melbourne Cup Day is a public holiday and the public regards the race as an important annual event. Like horse racing, camel racing requires human riders, while greyhound racing does not. People find it entertaining to watch animals race competitively, whether they are trained, like horses, camels or dogs, or untrained, like cockroaches.
The use of animals for entertainment is often controversial, especially the hunting of wild animals. Some contests between animals, once popular entertainment for the public, have become illegal because of the cruelty involved. Among these are blood sports such as bear-baiting, dog fighting and cockfighting. Other contests involving animals remain controversial and have both supporters and detractors. For example, the conflict between opponents of pigeon shooting who view it as "a cruel and moronic exercise in marksmanship, and proponents, who view it as entertainment" has been tested in a court of law. Fox hunting, which involves the use of horses as well as hounds, and bullfighting, which has a strong theatrical component, are two entertainments that have a long and significant cultural history. They both involve animals and are variously regarded as sport, entertainment or cultural tradition. Among the organisations set up to advocate for the rights of animals are some whose concerns include the use of animals for entertainment. However, "in many cases of animal advocacy groups versus organisations accused of animal abuse, both sides have cultural claims."
|Animals used for entertainment|
A circus, described as "one of the most brazen of entertainment forms", is a special type of theatrical performance, involving a variety of physical skills such as acrobatics and juggling and sometimes performing animals. Usually thought of as a travelling show performed in a big top, circus was first performed in permanent venues. Philip Astley is regarded as the founder of the modern circus in the second half of the 18th century and Jules Léotard is the French performer credited with developing the art of the trapeze, considered synonymous with circuses. Astley brought together performances that were generally familiar in traditional British fairs "at least since the beginning of the 17th century": "tumbling, rope-dancing, juggling, animal tricks and so on". It has been claimed that "there is no direct link between the Roman circus and the circus of modern times. ... Between the demise of the Roman 'circus' and the foundation of Astley's Amphitheatre in London some 1300 years later, the nearest thing to a circus ring was the rough circle formed by the curious onlookers who gathered around the itinerant tumbler or juggler on a village green."
The form of entertainment known as stage magic or conjuring and recognisable as performance, is based on traditions and texts of magical rites and dogmas that have been a part of most cultural traditions since ancient times. (References to magic, for example, can be found in the Bible, in Hermeticism, in Zoroastrianism, in the Kabbalistic tradition, in mysticism and in the sources of Freemasonry.)
Stage magic is performed for an audience in a variety of media and locations: on stage, on television, in the street, and live at parties or events. It is often combined with other forms of entertainment, such as comedy or music and showmanship is often an essential part of magic performances. Performance magic relies on deception, psychological manipulation, sleight of hand and other forms of trickery to give an audience the illusion that a performer can achieve the impossible. Audiences amazed at the stunt performances and escape acts of Harry Houdini, for example, regarded him as a magician.
Fantasy magicians have held an important place in literature for centuries, offering entertainment to millions of readers. Famous wizards such as Merlin in the Arthurian legends have been written about since the 5th and 6th centuries, while in the 21st century, the young wizard Harry Potter became a global entertainment phenomenon when the book series about him sold about 450 million copies (as at June 2011), making it the best-selling book series in history.
Street entertainment, street performance or "busking" are forms of performance that have been meeting the public's need for entertainment for centuries. It was "an integral aspect of London's life", for example, when the city in the early 19th century was "filled with spectacle and diversion". Minstrels or troubadours are part of the tradition. The art and practice of busking is still celebrated at annual busking festivals.
There are three basic forms of contemporary street performance. The first form is the "circle show". It tends to gather a crowd, usually has a distinct beginning and end, and is done in conjunction with street theatre, puppeteering, magicians, comedians, acrobats, jugglers and sometimes musicians. This type has the potential to be the most lucrative for the performer because there are likely to be more donations from larger audiences if they are entertained by the act. Good buskers control the crowd so patrons do not obstruct foot traffic. The second form, the walk-by act, has no distinct beginning or end. Typically, the busker provides an entertaining ambience, often with an unusual instrument, and the audience may not stop to watch or form a crowd. Sometimes a walk-by act spontaneously turns into a circle show. The third form, café busking, is performed mostly in restaurants, pubs, bars and cafés. This type of act occasionally uses public transport as a venue.
Parades are held for a range of purposes, often more than one. Whether their mood is sombre or festive, being public events that are designed to attract attention and activities that necessarily divert normal traffic, parades have a clear entertainment value to their audiences. Cavalcades and the modern variant, the motorcade, are examples of public processions. Some people watching the parade or procession may have made a special effort to attend, while others become part of the audience by happenstance. Whatever their mood or primary purpose, parades attract and entertain people who watch them pass by. Occasionally, a parade takes place in an improvised theatre space (such as the Trooping the Colour in 5) and tickets are sold to the physical audience while the global audience participates via broadcast.
One of the earliest forms of parade were "triumphs" – grand and sensational displays of foreign treasures and spoils, given by triumphant Roman generals to celebrate their victories. They presented conquered peoples and nations that exalted the prestige of the victor. "In the summer of 46 B.C.E. Julius Caesar chose to celebrate four triumphs held on different days extending for about one month." In Europe from the Middle Ages to the Baroque the Royal Entry celebrated the formal visit of the monarch to the city with a parade through elaborately decorated streets, passing various shows and displays. The annual Lord Mayor's Show in London is an example of a civic parade that has survived since medieval times.
Many religious festivals (especially those which incorporate processions, such as Holy Week processions or the Indian festival of Holi) have some entertainment appeal in addition to their serious purpose. Sometimes, religious rituals have been adapted or evolved into secular entertainments, or like the Festa del Redentore in Venice, have managed to grow in popularity while holding both secular and sacred purposes in balance. However, pilgrimages, such as the Christian pilgrimage of the Way of St. James, the Muslim Hajj and the Hindu Kumbh Mela, which may appear to the outsider as an entertaining parade or procession, are not intended as entertainment: they are instead about an individual's spiritual journey. Hence, the relationship between spectator and participant, unlike entertainments proper, is different. The manner in which the Kumbh Mela, for example, "is divorced from its cultural context and repackaged for Western consumption – renders the presence of voyeurs deeply problematic."
Parades generally impress and delight (5, 6, 7, 8), often by including unusual, colourful costumes (6, 7). Sometimes they also commemorate (5, 8) or celebrate (1, 4, 8, 9, 10). Sometimes they have a serious purpose, such as when the context is military (1, 2, 5), when the intention is sometimes to intimidate; or religious, when the audience might participate or have a role to play (6, 7, 9). Even if a parade uses new technology and is some distance away (10), it is likely to have a strong appeal, draw the attention of onlookers and entertain them.
|Parades – 10 types, six cultures|
自从17世纪以来，烟花就是许多公共娱乐的一部分，并成为重大庆典的主要特征，且一直受到欢迎。火药最初在中国古代、古欧洲时被用于军事用途。烟花在18世纪时最为受欢迎，在那时，人们常常支付给拥有烟火制造术的人高额报酬，特别是因制造技巧娴熟的被召唤到其他国家进行展示的意大利人。 烟火和戏水是宫廷中的一个重要的表演环节，在活动中突然发出的噪音，烟雾象征权力者身份的辉煌，这种情绪认为这个主题适合他的主权，他的威望，以及在他的力量中有一种无可替代的荣耀感：“一种别人对他的敬畏以彰显他的荣耀，生日，命名日，婚礼纪念日可以来提供别人为他庆祝的机会” One of the most famous courtly uses of fireworks was one used to celebrate the end of the War of the Austrian Succession and while the fireworks themselves caused a fire, the accompanying Music for the Royal Fireworks written by Handel has been popular ever since. Aside from their contribution to entertainments related to military successes, courtly displays and personal celebrations, fireworks are also used as part of religious ceremony. For example, during the Indian Dashavatara Kala of Gomantaka "the temple deity is taken around in a procession with a lot of singing, dancing and display of fireworks".
The "fire, sudden noise and smoke" of fireworks is still a significant part of public celebration and entertainment. For example, fireworks were one of the primary forms of display chosen to celebrate the turn of the millennium around the world. As the clock struck midnight and 1999 became 2000, firework displays and open-air parties greeted the New Year as the time zones changed over to the next century. Fireworks, carefully planned and choreographed, were let off against the backdrop of many of the world's most famous buildings, including the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, the Acropolis in Athens, Red Square in Moscow, Vatican City in Rome, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, and Elizabeth Tower in London.
体育运动一直是人们娱乐的方式。区别于运动员，体育竞技的观赏者通常被称作观众。 随着體育場条件的改善和观众席的设计以及录制和传播技术的发展，人们无需到比赛场所即可观看比赛，因此观众的规模愈发壮大、观赏性运动也变得越来越流行。全球涌现的最受欢迎的两项运动是足球和板球，它们的国际比赛 國際足協世界盃和板球對抗賽在世界各地广泛受到追捧。除了直接参与比赛的运动员以外，体育竞技还是世界各地数百万观众的主要娱乐项目。具有全球魅力的环法自行车赛是一项多阶段、长时间的竞技性运动。较其他竞技运动来说不寻常的是，它不在体育场而是在乡村间进行比赛。
除了具有世界吸引力和竞争力的体育运动以外，还有奥林匹克运动会。它的娱乐价值还涉及举办国及其运动文化。例如，在美国棒球和篮球是流行的娱乐形式；不丹的全国性运动是射箭；新西兰丹的全国性运动是橄欖球；伊朗则是自由式摔跤；日本独特的相撲摔跤包含从悠久历史中衍生的仪式元素。某些情况下，诸如国际跑步组Hash House Harriers，参与者为自己创造了体育和娱乐的融合。和作为观众参与大不相同的是，它的社交性强于竞争性。
尽管国家首脑，统治者和有权力的人民总是能够为他们提供娱乐费用，并且在很多情况下为公共娱乐付费，但人们通常会自己娱乐或者在可能的情况下参加现场表演。 20世纪的技术发展意味着娱乐产品的制作可以从观众中独立出去，由娱乐行业以商业形式包装出售。 与娱乐相关的产业被称为娱乐业，业界依赖商业模式来制作、销售、传播。或以其他方式发行，甚至包揽所有类型的演出。 该行业变得十分复杂，以至于其经济学成为学术研究的一个独立领域。
电影业是娱乐业的一部分， 其中的组成部分包括好莱坞和宝莱坞电影业，以及英国的电影院和欧洲的所有电影院，包括法国，德国，西班牙，意大利等。 性行业是娱乐行业的另一个特殊组成部分，将商业基础上的相同形式和媒体（例如电影，书籍，舞蹈和其他形式表演）应用于性产品的开发，宣传和销售。
游乐园为游客提供过山车，乘火车，水上游乐设施，暗黑游乐设施以及其他活动设施和相关景点。 这些公园建在被以主题划分的大片地区上。 有时候整个游乐园都是基于一个主题，比如一些海洋世界乐园，这些游乐园都是以海洋生物为主题的。
特制的结构作为娱乐场所以适应观众，制作了许多着名的创新建筑，其中最着名的是剧院结构。 对于古希腊人来说，“剧院的建筑重要性反映了他们对社区的重要性，在他们的纪念性，对他们设计的投入以及对他们细节的关注上表现出了明显的表现。” 罗马人随后发展了一个椭圆形的体育场，称为马戏团。 在现代，一些最宏大的娱乐建筑为他们的城市和设计师带来了名气。 例如，悉尼歌剧院是世界遗产，伦敦的O₂是一个娱乐区，包含室内舞台，音乐俱乐部，电影院和展览空间。 德国的拜罗伊特节日剧院是为一个特定的音乐作品而设计和建造的剧院。
大众观众场馆设计的两个主要建筑问题是出口速度和安全性。 场地可以被清空的速度对于舒适性和安全性都很重要，因为大量人群需要很长时间才能从设计不良的场地驱散，并且这又产生了安全风险。 希尔斯堡灾难就是一个例子，表明建筑设计的不良方面可能导致观众死亡。 视线和声学也是大多数剧场的重要设计考虑因素。
在21世纪，娱乐场所，尤其是体育场馆，“很可能成为主要建筑类型之一”。 然而，他们需要“全新的方法”进行设计，因为他们需要成为“复杂的娱乐中心，多种体验场所，能够以多种方式享受。” 因此，建筑师现在必须设计“有着两种截然不同的功能，如体育和娱乐中心主持现场观众，以及作为体育和娱乐工作室服务于远程观众的观看和收听需求”。
|Architecture for entertainment|
那些挑战设计或建造的极限的建筑师们有时会造出一些本身就具有娱乐性的建筑物，它们超出了公众和顾客的预期，又有卓越的美学价值。诸如法蘭克·蓋瑞设计的毕尔巴鄂古根海姆美术馆就属于这一类建筑，它本身既是旅游胜地，又是重要的世界性博物馆。Other apparently usable buildings are really follies, deliberately constructed for a decorative purpose and never intended to be practical.
On the other hand, sometimes architecture is entertainment, while pretending to be functional. The tourism industry, for example, creates or renovates buildings as "attractions" that have either never been used or can never be used for their ostensible purpose. They are instead re-purposed to entertain visitors often by simulating cultural experiences. Buildings, history and sacred spaces are thus made into commodities for purchase. Such intentional tourist attractions divorce buildings from the past so that "the difference between historical authenticity and contemporary entertainment venues/theme parks becomes hard to define". Examples include "the preservation of the Alcázar of Toledo, with its grim Civil War History, the conversion of slave dungeons into tourist attractions in Ghana, [such as, for example, Cape Coast Castle] and the presentation of indigenous culture in Libya". The specially constructed buildings in amusement parks represent the park's theme and are usually neither authentic nor completely functional.
在20世纪40年代, 收音机是家庭娱乐和信息传递的电子媒介。 到了20世纪50年代, 电视成为新的媒介, 它迅速流行全世界, 带来视觉娱乐, 一开始只有黑白电视, 然后彩色电视出现在世界上。 到了20世纪70年代, 遊戲 可以在电子媒介上进行, then hand-held devices provided mobile entertainment, and by the last decade of the 20th century, via networked play. In combination with products from the entertainment industry, all the traditional forms of entertainment became available personally. People could not only select an entertainment product such as a piece of music, film or game, they could choose the time and place to use it. The "proliferation of portable media players and the emphasis on the computer as a site for film consumption" together have significantly changed how audiences encounter films. One of the most notable consequences of the rise of electronic entertainment has been the rapid obsolescence of the various recording and storage methods. As an example of speed of change driven by electronic media, over the course of one generation, television as a medium for receiving standardised entertainment products went from unknown, to novel, to ubiquitous and finally to superseded. One estimate was that by 2011 over 30 percent of households in the US would own a Wii console, "about the same percentage that owned a television in 1953". Some expected that halfway through the second decade of the 21st century, online entertainment would have completely replaced television—which didn't happen. The so-called "digital revolution" has produced an increasingly transnational marketplace that has caused difficulties for governments, business, industries, and individuals, as they all try to keep up. Even the sports stadium of the future will increasingly compete with television viewing "...in terms of comfort, safety and the constant flow of audio-visual information and entertainment available." Other flow on effects of the shift are likely to include those on public architecture such as hospitals and nursing homes, where television, regarded as an essential entertainment service for patients and residents, will need to be replaced by access to the internet. At the same time, the ongoing need for entertainers as "professional engagers" shows the continuity of traditional entertainment.
By the second decade of the 21st century, analogue recording was being replaced by digital recording and all forms of electronic entertainment began to converge. For example, convergence is challenging standard practices in the film industry: whereas "success or failure used to be determined by the first weekend of its run. Today, ... a series of exhibition 'windows', such as DVD, pay-per-view, and fibre-optic video-on-demand are used to maximise profits." Part of the industry's adjustment is its release of new commercial product directly via video hosting services. Media convergence is said to be more than technological: the convergence is cultural as well. It is also "the result of a deliberate effort to protect the interests of business entities, policy institutions and other groups". Globalisation and cultural imperialism are two of the cultural consequences of convergence. Others include fandom and interactive storytelling as well as the way that single franchises are distributed through and affect a range of delivery methods. The "greater diversity in the ways that signals may be received and packaged for the viewer, via terrestrial, satellite or cable television, and of course, via the Internet" also affects entertainment venues, such as sports stadia, which now need to be designed so that both live and remote audiences can interact in increasingly sophisticated ways – for example, audiences can "watch highlights, call up statistics", "order tickets and merchandise" and generally "tap into the stadium's resources at any time of the day or night".
The introduction of television altered the availability, cost, variety and quality of entertainment products for the public and the convergence of online entertainment is having a similar effect. For example, the possibility and popularity of user-generated content, as distinct from commercial product, creates a "networked audience model [that] makes programming obsolete". Individuals and corporations use video hosting services to broadcast content that is equally accepted by the public as legitimate entertainment.
While technology increases demand for entertainment products and offers increased speed of delivery, the forms that make up the content are in themselves, relatively stable. Storytelling, music, theatre, dance and games are recognisably the same as in earlier centuries.
- The Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 1971, Vol 1 pp. 213–4) gives Latin and French origins for the word, including inter (among) + tenir (to hold) as derivations, giving translations of "to hold mutually" or "to hold intertwined" and "to engage, keep occupied, the attention thoughts or time (of a person)". It also provides words like "merry-making", "pleasure", "delight", as well as "to receive as a guest and show hospitality to". It cites a 1490 usage by William Caxton.
- For example, the application of psychological models and theories to entertainment is discussed in Part III of Bryant, Jennings; Vorderer, Peter. Psychology of Entertainment. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 2006: 367–434. ISBN 0-8058-5238-7.
- Sayre, Shay; King, Cynthia. Entertainment and Society: Influences, Impacts, and Innovations (Google eBook) 2nd. Oxon, New York: Routledge. 2010. ISBN 0-415-99806-9. p. 22.
- Frost, Warwick (编). Conservation, Education, Entertainment?. Channel View Publication. 2011. ISBN 978-1-84541-164-0.
- Macleod, Suzanne; Watson, Sheila. Knell, Simon J., 编. Museum Revolutions. Oxon, New York: Routledge. 2007. ISBN 0-203-93264-1.
- Zillmann, Dolf; Vorderer, Peter. Media Entertainment – the psychology of its appeal. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Taylor & Francis e-library (2009). 2000: vii. ISBN 0-8058-3324-2.
- For example, marketers mix commercial messages with non-commercial messages in entertainments on radio, television, films, videos and games. Shrum, L. J. J. The Psychology of Entertainment Media 2nd. Routledge. 2012. ISBN 978-1-84872-944-5.
- Singhal, Arvind; Cody, Michael J.; Rogers, Everett; Sabido, Miguel (编). Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice. Taylor & Francis. 2008. ISBN 1-4106-0959-6.
- de Freitas, Sara; Maharg, Paul (编). Digital Games and Learning. London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4411-9870-9.
- IMDb The Matrix worldwide release dates
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- Gakhar, Sonia. The influence of storytelling on pre-service students' attitudes and intentions (MSc Thesis). Iowa State University. 2007.
- Kuhns, Richard Francis. Decameron and the Philosophy of Storytelling: Author as Midwife and Pimp. New York; Chichester West Sussex: Columbia University Press. 2005: 7. ISBN 0-231-13608-0.
- Carlsen, Spike. A Splintered History of Wood. New York: Harper Perennial. 2009: 170. ISBN 978-0-06-137356-5.
- Dunkle, Roger, Gladiators: violence and spectacle in ancient Rome, Harlow, England; New York: Pearson/Longman, 2008, ISBN 9781405807395
- Wiseman, Douglas C., Medieval Sport: Quest for Survival, Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse Microfiche, 1977
- Potter, David Stone; Mattingly, David J. Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire. University of Michigan Press. 1999: 308. ISBN 0-472-10924-3.
- Roshwald, Aviel; Stites, Richard. European Culture in the Great War: The Arts, Entertainment and Propaganda, 1914–1918. Cambridge University Press. 2002. ISBN 0-521-57015-8.
- Heinrich, Anselm. Meech, Tony, 编. Heinrich, Entertainment, propaganda, education: regional theatre in Germany and Britain between 1918 and 1945. Hatfield, England: University of Hertfordshire Press. 2007. ISBN 978-1-902806-74-7.
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- McDonald Walton (2007)， p. 51.
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- Allen, Charles; Dwivedi, Sharada. Lives of the Indian Princes. London: Century Publishing. 1984: 210. ISBN 0-7126-0910-5.
- Van Zile, Judy. Perspectives on Korean Dance. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. 2001. ISBN 0-8195-6494-X. p. 36.
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- Walthall (2008).
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- British Museum catalogue image of Sudanese slit drum
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- Fischer (2003)， p. 215.
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- "Charles M. Schulz on Cartooning", Hogan's Alley #1, 1994
- Films have been made of the Peanuts cartoons, including one released in 2015 to celebrate the 65th anniversary of the comic strip.
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- Grindon, Leger. The Hollywood romantic comedy: conventions, history, controversies. Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4051-8266-9.
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- Hornback, Robert. The English clown tradition from the middle ages to Shakespeare. Woodbridge Suffolk, Rochester, New York: D.S. Brewer. 2009. ISBN 978-1-84384-200-2.
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- McGonagall, William (1890). "Reminiscences" in Collected Poems. Edinburgh: Birlinn. 1992: 13. ISBN 1-874744-01-7.
- Watanabe, Masako. Storytelling in Japanese Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. ISBN 978-0-300-17590-5.
- Yamanaka, Yuriko; Nishio, Tetsuo. The Arabian nights and orientalism: perspectives from East & West. London, New York: I.B. Tauris. 2006.
- Burton, Sir Richard (1821–1890) (in English). Arabian nights. A plain and literal translation of the Arabian nights' entertainments: now entitled The book of the thousand and one nights. London: Barker. 1958.
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- Rankin, Walter. Grimm pictures: fairy tale archetypes in eight horror and suspense films. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7864-3174-8.
- The epic of Gilgamesh: the Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian and Sumerian (English – translated from Akkadian and Sumerian by Andrew George). London: Allen Lane. 1999. ISBN 0-7139-9196-8.
- Thompson, Vivian Laubach; Kahalewai, Marilyn. Hawaiian Myths of Earth, Sea, and Sky. University of Hawaii Press. 1966. ISBN 0-8248-1171-2.
- McDonald, Marianne and Walton, J. Michael (编). The Cambridge companion to Greek and Roman theatre. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. ISBN 0-521-83456-2. p. 26.
- McDonald & Walton (2007)， p. 93.
- McDonald & Walton (2007)， p. 26.
- Milling, Jane; Donohue, Joseph W.; Thomson, Peter (编). The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Cambridge University Press (3 volumes). 2005. ISBN 0-521-82790-6.
- Kenrick, John. Musical theatre: a history. London: Continuum. c. 2008. ISBN 0-8264-2860-6.
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- Stempel, Larry. Showtime: a history of the Broadway musical theater. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. c. 2010. ISBN 978-0-393-06715-6.
- Robinson, Peter M. The dance of the comedians: the people, the president, and the performance of political standup comedy in America. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. c. 2010. ISBN 978-1-55849-733-7.
- Wyver, John. The Moving Image: An International History of Film, Television, and Video. John Wiley & Sons, Limited. 1989. ISBN 0-631-16821-4.
- Paris, Michael (编). The First World War and popular Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 1999. ISBN 0-8135-2824-0. p. 9.
- Paris (1999)， p. 115.
- Cavalier, Stephen. The world history of animation. Berkeley: University of California Press. c. 2011. ISBN 0-520-26112-7.
- Byrnes, Paul. Pompeii, Noah and Exodus: The sword giveth again. Film. The Sydney Morning Herald. [2014-03-30].
- Byrnes, Paul. Losing the plot. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2015-12-12: 12–13.
- Maddox, Garry. The Lego Movie: Hit off the old block. The Sydney Morning Herald. [2014-03-30].
- Rothwell, Kenneth S. A History of Shakespeare on Screen: A Century of Film and Television. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 1999. ISBN 0-521-59404-9.
- Paris (1999)， p. 17.
- Byrnes, Paul. Noah review: Moments of brilliance but can't shake sinking feeling. Review. The Sydney Morning Herald. [2014-03-30].
- Albright, Ann Cooper. Dils, Ann, 编. Moving History/Dancing Cultures: A Dance History Reader. Durham, North Carolina: Wesleyan University Press. 2001. ISBN 0-8195-6412-5. p. xviii.
- Dils & Albright (2001)， p. 96.
- Dils & Albright (2001)， p. 34.
- Clarke, Mary. The history of dance. New York: Crown Publishers. 1981. ISBN 0-517-54282-X. p. 98.
- Clarke (1981)， p. 97.
- Wilson, Thomas. An Analysis of Country Dancing. W. Calvert. 1808.
- Fullerton, Susannah; Le Faye, Deirdre. A Dance with Jane Austen: How a Novelist and Her Characters Went to the Ball. Pgw. 2012. ISBN 0-7112-3245-8.
- Wilson, Thomas. The Treasures of Terpsichore: or, A Companion for the Ball-Room. London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones. 1816.
- Wulff, Helena. Dancing at the Crossroads: Memory and Mobility in Ireland. Berghahn Books. 2007: 137. ISBN 978-1-84545-328-2.
- Dils & Albright (2001)， p. 142.
- van Nieuwkerk, Karin. "Changing Images and Shifting Identities: Female Performers in Egypt" in Dils & Albright (2001). p. 141.
- Karina, Lilian; Kant, Marion. Hitler's Dancers: German Modern Dance and the Third Reich. Translated by Jonathan Steinberg English language. Berghahn Books. 1999: 174. ISBN 1-57181-300-4.
- Field, Andrew David. Shanghai's Dancing World: Cabaret Culture and Urban Politics, 1919–1954. Sha Tin, Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong. 2010: 169. ISBN 978-962-996-373-6.
- Butters, Gerald R. Banned in Kansas: Motion Picture Censorship, 1915–1966. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. 2007: 230. ISBN 978-0-8262-1749-3.
- Pruter, Robert. Chicago Soul. University of Illinois. 1991: 191. ISBN 0-252-06259-0.
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- St Leon, Mark. Circus: the Australian story. Melbourne: Melbourne Books. 2011: 3. ISBN 978-1-877096-50-1.
- Hancocks, David. A different nature: the paradoxical world of zoos and their uncertain future. Berkeley: University of California Press. c. 2001. ISBN 0-520-23676-9.
- An extensive discussion of the legal and cultural issues can be found in Bronner, Simon J. Killing Tradition: Inside Hunting and Animal Rights Controversies. The University Press of Kentucky. 2008. ISBN 978-0-8131-2528-2.
- Examples include: The League against Cruel Sports, UK; People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), multinational; and Showing Animals Respect and Kindness (SHARK), US.
- Bronner 2008.
- Stoddart, Helen. Rings of Desire: Circus History and Representation. Manchester, UK & New York: Manchester University Press. 2000: 13. ISBN 0-7190-5233-5.
- Diamond, Michael. Victorian sensation, or, The spectacular, the shocking, and the scandalous in nineteenth-century Britain. London: Anthem Press. 2003. ISBN 1-84331-076-7.
- St Leon (2011).
- Lévi, Éliphas. The History of Magic (originally published in 1860 as Histoire de la Magie English edition, translated by A. E. Waite in 1913). Boston, Massachusetts: Red Wheel/Weiser. 2001. ISBN 0-87728-929-8.
- Gresham, William Lindsay, Houdini: the man who walked through walls, Holt, 1959
- Epstein, Beryl; Epstein, Sam, The Great Houdini: magician extraordinary, Folkestone: Bailey Brothers and Swinfen (Reprint. Originally published: New York : Dutton, c1920), 1971, ISBN 0561000948
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- Cohen, David; Greenwood, Ben. The buskers: a history of street entertainment. Newton Abbot; North Pomfret, Vermont: David & Charles. c. 1981. ISBN 0-7153-8026-5.
- For example, 2012 Coffs Harbour International Buskers and Comedy Festival.
- Gurval, Robert Alan. Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War. University of Michigan. 1995: 20. ISBN 0-472-10590-6.
- Maclean, Kama. Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008: 52. ISBN 978-0-19-533894-2.
- Casanova, Giacomo Chevalier de Seingalt. History of My Life, Volumes 9–10 Vol 10. Baltimore, Maryland; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1997: 333. ISBN 0-8018-5666-3 （英语）.
- Kelly, Jack. Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World. Basic Books. 2005. ISBN 0-465-03722-4.
- Sagarra, Eda. A Social History of Germany 1648–1914. Transaction Publishers. 2003: 31. ISBN 978-0-7658-0982-7.
- Hogwood, Christopher. Handel: Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks. Cambridge University Press. 2005: 80. ISBN 978-0-521-83636-4.
- Varadpande, Manohar Laxman. History of Indian Theatre (vol. 2). New Delhi: Shakti Malik Abhinav Publications. 1992: 286. ISBN 81-7017-278-0.
- Hardy, Stephen; Sutton, William Anthony. Mullin, Bernard James, 编. Sport Marketing. Human Kinetics. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7360-6052-3.
- Thompson, Christopher S. The Tour de France: A Cultural History. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-520-25630-9.
- Kubota, Makoto. Sumo. Chronicle Books Llc. 1999. ISBN 0-8118-2548-5.
- Wilson, Robert. Great Exhibitions: The World Fairs 1851–1937. National Gallery of Victoria. 2007: 10–11. ISBN 978-0-7241-0284-6.
- Moss, Mark Howard. Shopping as an Entertainment Experience. Lanham, Maryland; Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books. 2007: 3. ISBN 978-0-7391-1680-7.
- World's Colombian Exposition of 1893. Chicago Illinois Institute of Technology. [2012-11-15].
- Rydell, Robert; Boisseau, T. J.; Markwyn, Abigail M.; Rydell, Robert W. Boisseau, T. J., 编. Gendering the Fair: Histories of Women and Gender at World's Fairs. Chicago, Illinois: University of Illinois. 2010: viii. ISBN 978-0-252-03558-6.
- Rydell, Robert W. World of Fairs: The Century-of-Progress Expositions. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 1993: 15. ISBN 0-226-73236-3.
- Lasansky, D. Medina; McLaren, Brian. Architecture and Tourism: Perception, Performance and Place English. Berg Publishers. 2004. ISBN 1-85973-709-9. p. xvii.
- Lasansky (2004)， p. xvii, Part II, Ch. 4, 5, 6.
- Garratt, G. R. M. The early history of radio: from Faraday to Marconi. London, UK: Institution of Electrical Engineers, in association with the Science Museum. c. 1994. ISBN 0-85296-845-0.
- Hilmes, Michele; Loviglio, Jason (编). Radio reader: essays in the cultural history of radio. New York: Routledge. 2002. ISBN 0-415-92820-6.
- Cox, Jim. The great radio sitcoms. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7864-3146-5.
- Spigel, Lynn. Make room for TV: television and the family ideal in postwar America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1992. ISBN 0-226-76966-6.
- Tryon, Chuck. Reinventing Cinema: Movies in the Age of Media Convergence. Rutgers University Press. 2009: 6, 9. ISBN 978-0-8135-4546-2.
- Spigel, Lynn; Olsson, Jan (编). Television after TV: Essays on a Medium in Transition. Duke University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8223-3383-X.
- Cogburn, Jon; Silcox, Mark. Philosophy Through Video Games. New York, Oxon: Routledge. 2002: i. ISBN 0-415-98857-8.
- Doyle, Gillian. Media Ownership: The Economics and Politics of Convergence and Concentration in the UK and European Media. (Google eBook): SAGE. 2002. ISBN 0-7619-6680-3.
- Ellis, John. Scheduling: the last creative act in television?. Media Culture Society. Bournemouth University/Large Door Productions. January 2000, 22 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1177/016344300022001002.
- For example, in the UK: Tryhorn, Chris. Government thinktank to tackle media convergence issues. The Guardian. 2007-12-21 [2012-11-22]. （原始内容存档于2012-11-21）.
- And for example, in Australia: Convergence Review. Australian Government: Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy. 2012-04-30 [2012-11-23]. （原始内容存档于2012-11-21）.
- Sheard (2001)， p. 49.
- Power, Julie. Laughter and music better than drugs for dementia patients. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2013-08-03 [2013-08-03].
- Dwyer, Tim. Media Convergence. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England and New York: Open University Press McGraw-Hill Education. 2010. ISBN 978-0-335-22873-7.
- Sayre & King (2010)， p. 156.
- Sayre & King (2010)， pp. 22, 30 ff.
- Sayre & King (2010)， p. 30.
- Jenkins, Henry. Convergence culture: where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8147-4281-5.
- Sheard (2001)， p. xvi.
- Sayre & King (2010)， p. 536.