娛樂

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观众正在路边靠看电视转播的印度与巴基斯坦之间的板球比赛取乐。(2003年)

娱乐是一种吸引受众的注意与兴趣,让受众感到愉悦与满足的活动形式。它可以是一个理念或任务,但历经数千年的发展,为了保有受众的兴趣,它更多是以活动和比赛的形式进行的。[1] 尽管由于对娱乐形式的偏好有所不同而使人们的注意力放在了不同的东西上,大部分的娱乐形式却能被认出来是如此相似。像讲 故事音乐戏剧舞蹈,还有各种不同的表演等存在于所有文化中的娱乐形式,首先都是表现为宫廷文学,随后向复杂化的形式纵深发展,又一段时间之后,就对全体公民开放了。现时代,这一过程又被制售娱乐产品的娱乐产业加速了。娱乐发展到可以被各种不同的标准所接受,范围从可以从现在巨大的预制产品库中挑选一份私人的娱乐服务的个人,再到可容二人的小型宴会,还有用合适的音乐和舞蹈的任何规模和类型的聚会,再就是为数千人而进行的表演,直至全球受众。

愉悦的经历总是与消遣强烈地联系起来,所以对于这个理念的一个一般性的理解就是快乐和欢笑,尽管众多的娱乐有严肃的目标。像仪式庆典,宗教节日的多样的形式中莫不是如此,或比如说像是讽喻之类。同时,那些表现为娱乐的活动也可能有实现内观或是智力成长的意味。

娱乐的一个重要方面就是那些把自己的余暇投入到娱乐活动中的受众。受众在观看剧本,歌剧或是电影的情境下,就处在被动的位置;而在像游戏这类参与者的身份经常互换的活动中,受众可能就处于主动的地位。娱乐可以是公共化的或者是私人性质的,像在剧场艺术音乐会这类正式的、内容确定的表演中;或者是内容不确定的,自发的,像是在儿童的游戏中。大多数娱乐形式持续了数个世纪,透过进一步演化来适应文化,科技和时尚的变化,比如舞台魔术。比如像电影和电子游戏,尽管它们使用了较新的媒体,却可以回溯到讲故事,近代戏剧和演奏音乐上。沉浸在音乐电影舞蹈的节日气氛中让受众在连续的几个日子里都感到愉快。

有些活动也曾被认为是娱乐性的,尤其是公开的惩罚类措施,不过现在已经被移出公众视野了。还有些,像是击剑射箭之类曾对某些人属于生存必须技能的项目,变成了严肃的体育运动,甚至成为参与者的职业,与此同时也发展为对更大的受众群体具有更广的吸引力的娱乐形式。同样的,其它生存必需技能,像烹饪之类,也发展为了专业人士中的各种表演活动,走上舞台变成国际赛事,然后又以娱乐的性质广播出去。某些群体或个人的娱乐活动可能会是其他什么人的正经工作。

娱乐的各种常见形式有能力跨越不同媒体,并展现为看来在创造性的重混方面有无限的潜力。这确保了众多主题、影像和结构的连贯性和持久性。

Audience applauding a performance of Cavalleria Rusticana by Pietro Mascagni (2011)

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Banqueters playing kottabos and girl playing the aulos. Greece ( 420年 B.C.E.)
Banqueting and music have continued to be two important entertainments since ancient times.
Mesoamerican ballgame (Maya Central lowlands, 650–800 C.E.). Games and ritual events have been regarded as entertainment since ancient times.

心理学与哲学[编辑]

娱乐总是可以和教育市场营销的行为区别开,尽管后两者还是深知怎样去使用娱乐的吸引力来实现它们各不相同的目标。学者们已经清楚地认识到娱乐的影响和冲击[2][3],而愈发成熟的娱乐影响到了其他的领域的实践活动,比如博物馆学[4][5]

心理学家将传媒娱乐的功能称为“达到愉悦”[6] 。在娱乐中再没有别的结果或重大利益被如此期望(很可能要除去体育竞技类娱乐项目的最后比分)。这和教育(把增进理解和帮助人们学习当作目标)与市场营销(鼓励人们买入商业产品)形成了对比。不过,但教育力图变得更加“娱乐”,而娱乐与市场营销也在寻找教育意义的时候,这些目的就都变得模糊不清了。这类混合体常以新词“教育娱乐”或是“资讯娱乐”闻名。娱乐还有学习的心理学理论被所有这些领域运用。[7] 某些教育娱乐是对结合两者最佳特点的严肃尝试[8][9] 有些人也会为别人的创痛和不开心的想法取乐(创痛乐感)。

一种娱乐也可能除了愉悦感外再为受众提供某些内观。娱乐可能精巧地考虑某些普遍的哲学话题,像是“什么是生命的意义?”“人的存在意味着什么?”“做什么是正当的?”“我思我思?”这类问题催生了很多桥段和剧情,无论是否以故事、电影、戏剧、诗歌、经典、舞蹈、动漫或游戏的形式呈现。戏剧的例子,比如威廉·莎士比亚感人至深的《哈姆雷特》中,角色用诗歌表达了这些关注,再像是《黑客帝国[10] ,求索了知识的本质[11]長篇小說在愉悦了读者的同时,也为展现这类主题提供了广阔的视角[12]。《银河系漫游指南系列》甚至因为创造性地以生动有趣的形式探索哲学问题而被改编成各种形式。这个系列原本是一个喜剧类电台节目,后来因为太受欢迎而被以小说、电影、电视剧、舞台剧、漫画、有聲書密紋唱片冒险游戏网络游戏等各种形式呈现。其中的不少内容都成了广为人知的梗(参见《银河系漫游指南》短语)。它还被译成多种语言[13]。它的主体囊括了生命的意義、娱乐的伦理学人工智能、多重世界、上帝、哲学方法论等[14]

历史[编辑]

围坐在篝火旁讲故事是一种常见的娱乐形式
阿爾伯特·比爾施塔特 篝火
Mosaic showing Roman entertainments that would have been offered at the gladiatorial games, from the 1st century

讲故事中所使用的大多仍是如用言语,图像,声音和手势来传达事物和经历的古老手法。[15]并且,讲故事不仅是人们将文化价值观、传统和历史从一代传递给另一代人的手段,而且一直是娱乐形式的重要组成部分。尽管岁月变迁,但是讲故事的形式仍然没有发生太大变化, 例如露营时围坐一起听故事,旅游中游人倾听另外一种文化的故事。我们现在拥有的最早的故事系列,毫无疑问是最初口耳相传的说法。他们的娱乐源自于这些元素,我们今天欣赏的电影和小说同样也是如此。[16] 讲故事渐渐演变和发展成为一种多样性的活动。[16] 许多包括讲故事在内的娱乐活动,尤其是音乐和戏剧,虽然有着熟悉的面孔,但已经发展成各种各样的形式来适应广泛的个人喜好和文化表现。很多类型则需要其他类型的融合和支持。例如,戏剧、故事和宴会通常需要音乐来加强氛围;运动和游戏可以纳入其他活动来增加吸引力。有些已经演变成为严肃和必要的竞争活动(例如跑步)。据说,撑杆跳高可能起源于荷兰,荷兰人使用长杆跨过宽阔的河流,这样就不用磨损木底鞋走几英里以到达最近的桥梁。另一些人认为撑竿可能被用于战争中使用撑杆来跳过堡垒墙壁。[17] 这种运动设备变得越来越复杂。例如,最初的撑竿是由梣树山核桃属或者榛属的木头制成的,到19世纪时使用竹子,到了21世纪时则使用碳纤维制成。[17] 其他活动,例如踩高跷,在21世纪的马戏团表演中仍然可以看到。角斗士站斗流行于罗马时代,同时也被称为“角斗士游戏”,这也提供了一个很好的将体育,惩罚和娱乐相结合的的活动的例子。[18][19]

娱乐会在文化或历史的转变中发生变化。例如,狩猎野生动物从迦太基引入到罗马帝国,并成为受欢迎的公共娱乐活动,也带动了野生动物的国际贸易。[20]

娱乐也会作为战争与革命之类社会动乱的结果演化为不同形式。举例而论,在中国文化大革命时期,被共产党支持的革命样板戏,还有第一次世界大战大萧条俄国革命也都影响了娱乐。[21][22][23][24][25]

随着时代、时尚、文化、科技和经济等因素的影响,休闲娱乐的形式和地点都会持续的发生相对较小的变化。例如,一个以戏剧形式讲述的故事可以呈现在露天剧场、音乐厅电影院影城中,或者通过更先进的技术手段,比如平板电脑。大多受众都在专门建造的建筑,比如剧场礼堂或者体育场中欣赏娱乐活动。西方世界最著名的场地之一,罗马斗兽场,在公元80年代提供了一场百日游戏,5万观众在这里“享受”了这场血腥的舞台竞技。[26]盛大的场景、竞争、竞速和运动一次又一次的在这个专门设计的建筑里作为公共娱乐呈现给受众。为了满足全球观众日益复杂的需求,不断地建造出新的体育场。

宫廷娱乐[编辑]

Tournament before an audience and musicians (14th century)
Ralph Hedley The Tournament (1898) Children adapting a courtly entertainment

帝国皇室和宫廷为专业艺人提供培训的场地和支持,不同的文化以不同的方式使用宫殿和城堡。例如,在玛雅文明城市,舞台往往就在宫殿前面的大型广场上,人群会聚集在那里或者在远处指定的地点观看。[27]宫廷娱乐也会横跨不同的文化,例如,杜尔巴莫卧儿人引入印度,然后传入大英帝国, 并遵循着印度传统:机构、头衔、风俗习惯、摩诃罗阇納瓦卜的仪式等等。[28] 在韩国,宫廷舞蹈作为一种娱乐最开始在宫廷宴会上演出。[29]

宫廷娱乐常常会发生与宫廷相关的活动形式在平民中被普遍使用的情况。韩国的“蒙面舞蹈”就是这样,起源于乡村萨满教的仪式,最终成为普通人的娱乐形式。[30] 又如莫卧儿帝国的Nautch英语Nautch舞者也会在印度的宫廷或宫殿演出。另一种演变,类似于从宫廷娱乐到普通做法的演变,就是从宗教仪式到世俗娱乐的过渡,例如高丽王朝的Narye节期间的活动。最初是纯粹的宗教或仪式主义,结尾添加了一个世俗的组成部分。[31]以前的宫廷娱乐活动,比如马上长矛比武,也在儿童游戏中幸存下来。

拜占庭帝国中的宫殿中,在上层阶级的娱乐活动中,性别被要求严格区分,至少在科穆宁王朝时期,在举行一些娱乐活动如招待会和宴会时,将男性和女性分开。[32]

朝堂仪式、宫廷聚会还有与之相关联的大场面不仅被用来娱乐, 还有就是去展示财富与权力。这样的事件可以加强统治者与被统治者的关系;在有权者与无权者间, 以去将普通家庭与统治者之间的种种差别戏剧化。[33]无论是在传统宫廷还是在现代意识中,这种情况都是差不多的,像是1997年的香港回归仪式中,宴会,嘉年华,烟火,节日表演和艺术展被服务于突出政权的更迭。宫廷仪式就是服务于皇室和大臣的典型,像是“为了主人和来访高官的愉悦”。[34]像是高丽宫廷也会有传统舞蹈。[34]在苏丹,曾是“有权力的长官的宫廷管弦乐队的一部分”的所谓“缝鼓”和“话鼓”有着多种目的:它们被用来制造音乐;在仪式中“说话”;记录社群大事;传递长距离的信息;还有呼唤人们狩猎或者战争。[35][36][37]

宫廷娱乐也展现了表演者与观众的复杂关系:个体可能同时具有娱乐者和观众的一部分的身份,有时他们的身份还会在一次娱乐中互换。在凡尔赛宫的大厅,“成千的大臣,包括居住其中的男男女女,都在每天的典礼中分饰表演者和旁观者的角色,并以此保护他们的身份地位。[33]

像由皇室参与的宫廷娱乐,比如说加冕礼和婚礼,就为同时取悦贵族和人民提供了机会。举例而论,办得极好的1595年伊丽莎白一世的入世日的庆祝活动中的锦标赛、枪术比赛以及其他诸如此类活动“不仅展现在全体盛装出席的宫廷集体,也展现在为一个好日子的娱乐活动而饥渴难耐的数千伦敦人前。本日在怀特霍尔宫的斜场的一系列活动入场费定价十二个硬币。”[38]

公共处罚[编辑]

強納生·威德 (1725)的处决令

尽管大多数娱乐形式随着时间的推移而不断演变和延续, 但是一些过去曾经流行过的形式已经不能再被人民所接受。例如:在欧洲,早期的几个世纪,观察或者是参与惩罚犯罪分子或社会流离失所者的行刑过程是一种被接受的和较受欢迎的娱乐形式。在以前许多种的 當眾羞辱的行为也在一定程度上提供了一些娱乐。即使是一些极刑如绞刑或者斬首, 虽然目的是为了作为警告提供给公众 ,但在一定程度上也被视为一种娱乐。 一些持续时间更长的极刑,例如 石刑掛拉分,同时也提供了一种更大的公众娱乐活动。“绞刑是一种狂欢节,无论是失业者、市民、资产阶级或好奇的贵族,都可以从马车上或租一间屋子来观看。”[39]公开的刑罚作为一种娱乐活动一直持续直到19世纪,直到那时 “一些隆重的公开行绞刑的行动遭到了一些文学家或哲学家的厌恶”。[39] 包括查尔斯·狄更斯威廉·梅克比斯·薩克萊都在1840年写了篇关于纽盖特监狱施行绞刑的文章,以至于“教导了更广泛的公众,认为处决是一种变态淫秽的娱乐”。[39]

儿童[编辑]

儿童的主要娱乐活动是玩耍, 这对他们的成长和学习意义重大。成年人也可以提供或传授一些吸引他们的娱乐活动,例如木偶戏、小丑表演、哑剧和卡通等。这些也通常是成年人所喜欢的。[40][41]

儿童总是在玩耍着。玩耍对于儿童不仅是种娱乐,还能有助于他们的身心发展。画家老彼得•勃鲁盖尔于1560年完成了他的画作《儿童游戏英语Children%27s_Games_(Bruegel)》(Children’s Games),这是一幅展现孩子们玩耍内容的著名油画。根据画作展示的内容,我们大概能知道那个年代的孩子们玩耍的是些什么游戏。其中的有些游戏,例如弹珠捉迷藏吹肥皂泡,还有“骑小猪英语Piggyback_(transportation)”等等,一直延续至今。

分级制度示例:按照适合的年龄分段(以色列)

大多数娱乐形式都可以经过一些调整后,更适合儿童需要,符合儿童兴趣。自20世纪以来,人们认为儿童的心理发育分为不同阶段,而且他们的能力和成人是不同的。这种认识始于斯坦利•霍尔让•皮亚杰则对其进行了更深入的研究和发展。霍尔“推崇把对发展理论的研究和心理学实验室的建立联系起来”,[42] 虽然总有人批判霍尔的学说和理论,但他的学说和理论在心理学领域仍然占据着重要的地位;皮亚杰“发现认知发展的过程与生理发展的过程具有相似性”。[43] 基于这类心理学研究得出的理论,人们开始专门为儿童受众创作故事和活动,应用于书籍,电影,以及电子游戏中。在数字娱乐日益兴起的背景下,一些国家对儿童心理发展的特殊需求做出了响应,制定出了诸如电视分级制度的相关行业标准,以便更好地引导大众和娱乐产业

在21世纪,与成人网络产品一样,许多网上娱乐对儿童触手可得。这较先前的时代形成了重大的改变。儿童在室内面对屏幕的玩耍时间更长了,在室外接触自然的时间更少了,这样的现象引来了人们对网络娱乐的批评,人们认为网络娱乐对儿童想象力的培养,成人认知,以及心理健康有着消极影响。[44][45][46]

沿革[编辑]

宴会(还需要一些小修改)[编辑]

从古至今,举办宴会就一直是娱乐活动。直到21世纪,在宴会中依然保留着一些传统的作用——给客人留下好的深刻印象。

庆祝重要事件(4、6、9);款待客人(2、3、4、8);进行娱乐活动如音乐或舞蹈,或两者兼而有之(2、3)。在宫廷中宫廷娱乐是不可或缺的一部分(3、4),帮助艺人磨炼自己的技艺(2、3),也成为庆祝活动的重要组成部分。婚礼(7),生日(10)政治事件(5)以及军事活动或胜利(6)宗教义务(1)。在现代,宴会是商用,例如,在餐馆(10)和结合性能晚餐剧院。专业厨师的烹饪也已成为一种娱乐形式,即厨艺表演,也在一定程度上成为了一种供人娱乐的方式。

十个世纪与文化的宴会形式
1 画中的描绘的是一个古埃及-底比斯的宴会 
2 拜占庭帝国的宴会会展示音乐家和各种乐器(1204–1453) 
3 查理五世的宴会,Jean Fouquet绘 
4一场宴会,其中有一只1507年Mirzas送给Babur烤鹅,这幅微型画创作于约1590年 
5 庆祝明斯特和约的签订(1648) 由巴斯勒莫斯・范・德・赫斯特绘 
6 阮福映在胜利宴会上庆祝越南独立运动的成功(绘制于18世纪晚期) 
7 一个有众多地主参加的俄国农民婚宴,绘制于18世纪晚期 
8 埃塞俄比亚国王萨勒塞拉西的宴会大厅(Johann Martin Bernatz在1852年绘制于伦敦) 
9 乔治四世西敏寺的加冕宴会(1821年7月19日) 
10 人们正在一个宴会厅里面庆祝生日 (中国,2012) 

音乐[编辑]

A full house at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, waiting for a musical entertainment to begin (1937)

音乐是大多数娱乐活动的基本成分,也是表现形式之一。例如,音乐被用来增强叙事情感,它在舞蹈(1, 4) 和戏剧中也不可或缺,它还通常被用于戏剧电影或戏院作品中。[47]

音乐本身也是一种普遍和受欢迎的娱乐方式,它自行构成了表现方式,例如音乐会(2,4,5,6,7,8,9)。 根据节奏,乐器,表现方式和风格的不同,音乐可分为古典,爵士,民谣,(4,5,8),摇滚,流行音乐(6,9)或传统音乐(1,3)。 20世纪以来,演唱音乐一度只提供给那些可以为表演者支付费用的音乐,由娱乐业向个人低价提供播放或预先销售的服务。

无论演奏是来自独奏者(6),合唱团(2)还是管弦乐团(5,8),无论是否有人为的后期制作(6,7,9,10),各种各样的表现方式都属于音乐的范畴(3)。 现场表演使用的这些场地有着大小,贵贱,室内外之分,也导致了观众对艺术家的期望以及艺术家所发挥的作用不同。 例如,一些观众喜欢默默欣赏音乐,理解其内涵(5,8)。 其他观众则喜欢现场表演的气氛并乐意参与其中(7,9)。 大部分的听众选择通过预先录制的音乐产品进行娱乐(10)。

用于音乐的乐器分为人声(2,6)和乐器(1,3),或者两者的组合进行(4,5,7,8)。 无论演奏是由主唱还是乐器演奏者演奏,艺术家可以单独演奏,也可以是大小团体的一部分,反过来观众可能是个人的(10),经过的(3),小的(1,2)或 大(6,7,8,9)。 虽然有些形式,特别是无伴奏合唱和泛音,但唱歌通常伴随着乐器。 现代音乐会经常使用各种特殊效果和其他表演来伴随歌舞表演(7)。

音乐娱乐——公众参与的十种形式
1 用来伴舞的传统乐器 (1949年摄于西藏) 
2儿童合唱团正提供音乐娱乐 (俄罗斯, 1979) 
3 合唱团正在巴黎地鐵中为旅行者表演 
4 一位鼓手正在演奏Boduberu英语Boduberu(马尔代夫的一种乐器) 
5 教会学理论背景下演奏的合唱队和管弦乐队(意大利, 2008) 
6 当代的观众坐在古代的露天体育场中 (2009年摄于希腊) 
7 一场配备3D增强效果舞台的音乐会 (2010年摄于新加坡) 
8 在音乐厅里的观众 (荷兰,2010) 
9 在音乐会中歌手被人群簇拥 (法国, 2011) 
10 一位女子正通过耳机独自聆听音乐 (2010年摄于俄罗斯) 


游戏[编辑]

游戏通常是为了娱乐,但有时玩游戏也是为了获得成就感或物质回报。根据不同的游戏的玩法,游戏既可以单独玩、和他人一起玩,又可以在线玩; 不论是业余玩家还是电子竞技玩家都可以在一起玩游戏。玩家也可以作为旁观者观看游戏的比赛,比如观看国际象棋锦标赛等比赛时。 游戏用具随不同游戏的变化而变化。棋盘类游戏,如围棋象棋西洋棋等都需要棋盘和棋子。目前已知最古老的棋盘游戏,是古埃及王国法老图坦卡蒙发明的塞尼特。纸牌类游戏,如扑克桥牌惠斯特牌,一直是晚上朋友之间的娱乐方式。这些游戏所需要的只仅仅是一副扑克牌。其他类游戏,如与许多陌生人玩的Bingo游戏则需要组织,而旁观者可以通过赌博参与游戏。很多游戏都是为孩子设计的,可在户外玩耍,包括跳房子捉迷藏瞎子摸人。而球类运动的种类则相当地广泛。它包括棒球、草地滚球和彩弹,以及许多体育项目所使用的各种球类。这些游戏方式迎合了技能锻炼和健身需求。体育游戏可以提高运动技能的敏捷性和身体素质。而像诸如像数独的数字游戏和魔方之类的益智游戏则在一定程度上可以发展游戏者的智力。

视频游戏使用控制器和屏幕与玩家进行交互。部分视频游戏也可以在线玩,玩家可以在线远程参与。在二十世纪下半叶和二十一世纪时,这类游戏的数量大大增加,为世界各地的玩家提供了各种娱乐方式。电子游戏在诸如韩国的东亚国家很受欢迎。

游戏
国际象棋
一种智力游戏 
跳房子
一种体育游戏 
电视转播的中星际争霸游戏比赛 ,一种电子游戏。 

阅读[编辑]

French poet Louise Labé (1520/1522–1566) wrote "a profound and timeless insight into reading's innate power".

The past gives us pleasure and is of more service than the present; but the delight of what we once felt is dimly lost never to return and its memory is as distressing as the events themselves were then delectable ... But when we happen to put our thoughts in writing, how easily, later on, does our mind race through an infinity of events, incessantly alive, so that a long time afterwards when we take up those written pages we can return to the same place and to the same disposition in which we once found ourselves.
quoted in Fischer (2003)[48]

The young Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582) read chivalrous novels and wrote about the "rapture" that books provided.

I became accustomed to reading [novels] and that small fault made me cool my desire and will to do other tasks. I thought nothing of spending many hours a day and night in this vain exercise, hidden from my father. My rapture in this was so great, that unless I had a new book to read, it seemed to me that I could not be happy.
quoted in Fischer (2003)[49]

閱讀在很长一段时间内都是娱乐的一种形式, 同时阅读在一定程度上也可以分散压力。在进行阅读的时候,我们可以从中了解到许多,例如:了解传统文化、理解信息等等。[50] 随着时间的流逝,印刷术造纸术的产生,将进行阅读所需要的技术和成本都降低了,也进一步有助于提高阅读对大众的吸引力。此外,随着科技的发展,书本的质量越来越高,排版、印刷、装订也越来越精致,所以阅读再也不会像以前那样给人留下痛苦的印象了。[51] 到十六世纪的欧洲,人们对进行阅读活动已经有了足够的兴趣。

在文学的许多流派中,有些是纯粹为了娱乐而设计的,全部或部分是完全为了娱乐。 例如,利默里克斯运用严格的,可预测的韵律和节奏来创作幽默,并为听众或读者提供娱乐。 诸如“选择你自己的冒险”等互动书籍可以使文学娱乐更具参与性。

Readers entertained by comic books (1971)

Comics and cartoons are literary genres that use drawings or graphics, usually in combination with text, to convey an entertaining narrative.[52] Many contemporary comics have elements of fantasy and are produced by companies that are part of the entertainment industry. Others have unique authors who offer a more personal, philosophical view of the world and the problems people face. Comics about superheroes such as Superman are of the first type.[53] Examples of the second sort include the individual work over 50 years of Charles M. Schulz[54] who produced a popular comic called Peanuts[55] about the relationships among a cast of child characters;[56] and Michael Leunig who entertains by producing whimsical cartoons that also incorporate social criticism. The Japanese Manga style differs from the western approach in that it encompasses a wide range of genres and themes for a readership of all ages. Caricature uses a kind of graphic entertainment for purposes ranging from merely putting a smile on the viewer's face, to raising social awareness, to highlighting the moral characteristics of a person being caricatured.

喜剧[编辑]

Comedian Charlie Chaplin impersonating Hitler for comic effect in the satirical film The Great Dictator (1940)

Comedy is both a genre of entertainment and a component of it, providing laughter and amusement, whether the comedy is the sole purpose or used as a form of contrast in an otherwise serious piece. It is a valued contributor to many forms of entertainment, including in literature, theatre, opera, film and games.[57][58] In royal courts, such as in the Byzantine court, and presumably, also in its wealthy households, "mimes were the focus of orchestrated humour, expected or obliged to make fun of all at court, not even excepting the emperor and members of the imperial family. This highly structured role of jester consisted of verbal humour, including teasing, jests, insult, ridicule, and obscenity and non-verbal humour such as slapstick and horseplay in the presence of an audience."[32] In medieval times, all comic types – the buffoon, jester, hunchback, dwarf, jokester, were all "considered to be essentially of one comic type: the fool", who while not necessarily funny, represented "the shortcomings of the individual".[59][60]

Shakespeare wrote seventeen comedies that incorporate many techniques still used by performers and writers of comedy—such as jokes, puns, parody, wit, observational humor, or the unexpected effect of irony.[61][62] One-liner jokes and satire are also used to comedic effect in literature. In farce, the comedy is a primary purpose.

The meaning of the word "comedy" and the audience's expectations of it have changed over time and vary according to culture.[63] Simple physical comedy such as slapstick is entertaining to a broad range of people of all ages. However, as cultures become more sophisticated, national nuances appear in the style and references so that what is amusing in one culture may be unintelligible in another.[64]

表演[编辑]

Live performances before an audience constitute a major form of entertainment, especially before the invention of audio and video recording. Performance takes a wide range of forms, including theatre, music and drama. In the 16th and 17th centuries, European royal courts presented masques that were complex theatrical entertainments involving dancing, singing and acting. Opera is a similarly demanding performance style that remains popular. It also encompass all three forms, demanding a high level of musical and dramatic skill, collaboration and like the masque, production expertise as well.

Poster for a 1908 production of Verdi's 1871 opera Aida, performed by the Hippodrome Opera Company of Cleveland, Ohio, US

Audiences generally show their appreciation of an entertaining performance with applause. However, all performers run the risk of failing to hold their audience's attention and thus, failing to entertain. Audience dissatisfaction is often brutally honest and direct.

"Of course you all ought to know that while singing a good song or, or giving a good recitation ... helps to arrest the company's attention ... Such at least was the case with me – the publican devised a plan to bring my entertainment to an end abruptly, and the plan was, he told the waiter to throw a wet towel at me, which, of course, the waiter did ... and I received the wet towel, full force, in the face, which staggered me ... and had the desired effect of putting an end to me giving any more entertainments in the house." William McGonagall (Performance artist and poet)[65]

讲故事[编辑]

Storytelling is an ancient form of entertainment that has influenced almost all other forms. It is "not only entertainment, it is also thinking through human conflicts and contradictions".[16] Hence, although stories may be delivered directly to a small listening audience, they are also presented as entertainment and used as a component of any piece that relies on a narrative, such as film, drama, ballet, and opera. Written stories have been enhanced by illustrations, often to a very high artistic standard, for example, on illuminated manuscripts and on ancient scrolls such as Japanese ones.[66] Stories remain a common way of entertaining a group that is on a journey. Showing how stories are used to pass the time and entertain an audience of travellers, Chaucer used pilgrims in his literary work The Canterbury Tales in the 14th century, as did Wu Cheng'en in the 16th century in Journey to the West. Even though journeys can now be completed much faster, stories are still told to passengers en route in cars and aeroplanes either orally or delivered by some form of technology.

The power of stories to entertain is evident in one of the most famous ones—Scheherazade—a story in the Persian professional storytelling tradition, of a woman who saves her own life by telling stories.[67][68][69] The connections between the different types of entertainment are shown by the way that stories like this inspire a retelling in another medium, such as music, film or games. For example, composers Rimsky-Korsakov, Ravel and Szymanowski have each been inspired by the Scheherazade story and turned it into an orchestral work; director Pasolini made a film adaptation; and there is an innovative video game based on the tale. Stories may be told wordlessly, in music, dance or puppetry for example, such as in the Javanese tradition of wayang, in which the performance is accompanied by a gamelan orchestra or the similarly traditional Punch and Judy show.

Epic narratives, poems, sagas and allegories from all cultures tell such gripping tales that they have inspired countless other stories in all forms of entertainment. Examples include the Hindu Ramayana and Mahabharata; Homer's Odyssey and Iliad; the first Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan; the Persian epic Shahnameh; the Sagas of Icelanders and the celebrated Tale of the Genji. Collections of stories, such as Grimms' Fairy Tales or those by Hans Christian Andersen, have been similarly influential. Originally published in the early 19th century, this collection of folk stories significantly influence modern popular culture, which subsequently used its themes, images, symbols, and structural elements to create new entertainment forms.[70]

Some of the most powerful and long-lasting stories are the foundation stories, also called origin or creation myths such as the Dreamtime myths of the Australian aborigines, the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh,[71] or the Hawaiian stories of the origin of the world.[72] These too are developed into books, films, music and games in a way that increases their longevity and enhances their entertainment value.

Telling stories
William Blake's painting of the pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales 
Scheherazade telling her stories to King Shahryar in The Arabian Nights 
Telling stories via Wayang golek puppets in Java 
Tosa Mitsuoki illustrating her Tale of Genji 

剧场艺术[编辑]

Saturday night audience at the Victoria Theatre, London (1872)

Theatre performances, typically dramatic or musical, are presented on a stage for an audience and have a history that goes back to Hellenistic times when "leading musicians and actors" performed widely at "poetical competitions", for example at "Delphi, Delos, Ephesus".[73] Aristotle and his teacher Plato both wrote on the theory and purpose of theatre. Aristotle posed questions such as "What is the function of the arts in shaping character? Should a member of the ruling class merely watch performances or be a participant and perform? What kind of entertainment should be provided for those who do not belong to the elite?"[74] The "Ptolemys in Egypt, the Seleucids in Pergamum" also had a strong theatrical tradition and later, wealthy patrons in Rome staged "far more lavish productions".[75][76]

Expectations about the performance and their engagement with it have changed over time (1).[77] For example, in England during the 18th century, "the prejudice against actresses had faded"[78] and in Europe generally, going to the theatre, once a socially dubious activity, became "a more respectable middle-class pastime"[79] in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the variety of popular entertainments increased. Operetta and music halls became available, and new drama theatres such as the Moscow Art Theatre and the Suvorin Theatre in Russia opened.[80] At the same time, commercial newspapers "began to carry theatre columns and reviews" that helped make theatre "a legitimate subject of intellectual debate" in general discussions about art and culture.[80] Audiences began to gather to "appreciate creative achievement, to marvel at, and be entertained by, the prominent 'stars'."[80] Vaudeville and music halls, popular at this time in the United States, England, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, were themselves eventually superseded.[81]

Plays,[82] musicals,[83] monologues, pantomimes, and performance poetry are part of the very long history of theatre, which is also the venue for the type of performance known as stand-up comedy.[84] In the 20th century, radio and television, often broadcast live, extended the theatrical tradition that continued to exist alongside the new forms.

The stage and the spaces set out in front of it for an audience create a theatre. All types of stage are used with all types of seating for the audience, including the impromptu or improvised (2, 3, 6); the temporary (2); the elaborate (9); or the traditional and permanent (5, 7). They are erected indoors (3, 5, 9) or outdoors (2, 4, 6). The skill of managing, organising and preparing the stage for a performance is known as stagecraft (10). The audience's experience of the entertainment is affected by their expectations, the stagecraft, the type of stage, and the type and standard of seating provided.

Theatrical entertainment – stages, staging and stagecraft
1 Satirical representation of audience reaction (1809) 
2 Improvised stage for a public performance at a fair (1642) 
3 Improvised stage for domestic theatre 
4 Outdoor stage before a show 
5 Concert theatre ready for solo instrumentalist 
6 Outdoor theatre created from Edinburgh castle forecourt 
7 Traditional stage for Japanese Noh theatre 
8 Stage for theatre in the round 
9 Teatro Colón, a highly decorative, horseshoe theatre 
10 Stagecraft – a locking rail backstage 

影院与电影[编辑]

电影观众通常坐在于投影屏幕前排列好的舒适的椅子上。 挪威 (2005)

Films are a major form of entertainment, although not all films have entertainment as their primary purpose: documentary film, for example, aims to create a record or inform,[85] although the two purposes often work together. The medium was a global business from the beginning: "The Lumière brothers were the first to send cameramen throughout the world, instructing them to film everything which could be of interest for the public."[86] In 1908, Pathé launched and distributed newsreels[86] and by World War I, films were meeting an enormous need for mass entertainment. "In the first decade of the [20th] century cinematic programmes combined, at random, fictions and newsfilms."[86] The Americans first "contrived a way of producing an illusion of motion through successive images," but "the French were able to transform a scientific principle into a commercially lucrative spectacle".[87] Film therefore became a part of the entertainment industry from its early days. Increasingly sophisticated techniques have been used in the film medium to delight and entertain audiences. Animation, for example, which involves the display of rapid movement in an art work, is one of these techniques that particularly appeals to younger audiences.[88] The advent of computer-generated imagery (CGI) in the 21st century made it "possible to do spectacle" more cheaply and "on a scale never dreamed of" by Cecil B. DeMille.[89] From the 1930s to 1950s, movies and radio were the "only mass entertainment" but by the second decade of the 21st century, technological changes, economic decisions, risk aversion and globalisation reduced both the quality and range of films being produced.[90] Sophisticated visual effects and CGI techniques, for example, rather than humans, were used not only to create realistic images of people, landscapes and events (both real and fantastic) but also to animate non-living items such as Lego normally used as entertainment as a game in physical form.[91] Creators of The Lego Movie "wanted the audience to believe they were looking at actual Lego bricks on a tabletop that were shot with a real camera, not what we actually did, which was create vast environments with digital bricks inside the computer."[91] The convergence of computers and film has allowed entertainment to be presented in a new way and the technology has also allowed for those with the personal resources to screen films in a home theatre, recreating in a private venue the quality and experience of a public theatre. This is similar to the way that the nobility in earlier times could stage private musical performances or the use of domestic theatres in large homes to perform private plays in earlier centuries.

Films also re-imagine entertainment from other forms, turning stories, books and plays, for example, into new entertainments.[92] The Story of Film, a documentary about the history of film, gives a survey of global achievements and innovations in the medium, as well as changes in the conception of film-making. It demonstrates that while some films, particularly those in the Hollywood tradition that combines "realism and melodramatic romanticism",[93] are intended as a form of escapism, others require a deeper engagement or more thoughtful response from their audiences. For example, the award winning Senegalese film Xala takes government corruption as its theme. Charlie Chaplin's film The Great Dictator was a brave and innovative parody, also on a political theme. Stories that are thousands of years old, such as Noah, have been re-interpreted in film, applying familiar literary devices such as allegory and personification with new techniques such as CGI to explore big themes such as "human folly", good and evil, courage and despair, love, faith, and death – themes that have been a main-stay of entertainment across all its forms.[94]

As in other media, excellence and achievement in films is recognised through a range of awards, including ones from the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the Cannes International Film Festival in France and the Asia Pacific Screen Awards.

舞蹈[编辑]

Dancers creating their own entertainment at a ball.
Peterborough (2008) (silent video)

The many forms of dance provide entertainment for all age groups and cultures. Dance can be serious in tone, such as when it is used to express a culture's history or important stories; it may be provocative; or it may put in the service of comedy. Since it combines many forms of entertainment – music, movement, storytelling, theatre – it provides a good example of the various ways that these forms can be combined to create entertainment for different purposes and audiences.

Dance is "a form of cultural representation" that involves not just dancers, but "choreographers, audience members, patrons and impresarios ... coming from all over the globe and from vastly varied time periods."[95] Whether from Africa, Asia or Europe, dance is constantly negotiating the realms of political, social, spiritual and artistic influence."[96] Even though dance traditions may be limited to one cultural group, they all develop. For example, in Africa, there are "Dahomean dances, Hausa dances, Masai dances and so forth."[97] Ballet is an example of a highly developed Western form of dance that moved to the theatres from the French court during the time of Louis XIV, the dancers becoming professional theatrical performers.[98] Some dances, such as the quadrille, a square dance that "emerged during the Napoleonic years in France"[99] and other country dances[100] were once popular at social gatherings like balls,[101][102] but are now rarely performed. On the other hand, many folk dances (such as Scottish Highland dancing and Irish dancing), have evolved into competitions, which by adding to their audiences, has increased their entertainment value. "Irish dance theatre, which sometimes features traditional Irish steps and music, has developed into a major dance form with an international reputation."[103]

Since dance is often "associated with the female body and women's experiences",[96] female dancers, who dance to entertain, have in some cases been regarded as distinct from "decent" women because they "use their bodies to make a living instead of hiding them as much as possible".[104] Society's attitudes to female dancers depend on the culture, its history and the entertainment industry itself. For example, while some cultures regard any dancing by women as "the most shameful form of entertainment",[105] other cultures have established venues such as strip clubs where deliberately erotic or sexually provocative dances such as striptease are performed in public by professional women dancers for mostly male audiences.

Various political regimes have sought to control or ban dancing or specific types of dancing, sometimes because of disapproval of the music or clothes associated with it. Nationalism, authoritarianism and racism have played a part in banning dances or dancing. For example, during the Nazi regime, American dances such as swing, regarded as "completely un-German", had "become a public offense and needed to be banned".[106] Similarly, in Shanghai, China, in the 1930s, "dancing and nightclubs had come to symbolise the excess that plagued Chinese society" and officials wondered if "other forms of entertainment such as brothels" should also be banned. Banning had the effect of making "the dance craze" even greater.[107] In Ireland, the Public Dance Hall Act of 1935 "banned – but did not stop – dancing at the crossroads and other popular dance forms such as house and barn dances."[103] In the US, various dances have been banned, either because like burlesque, they were suggestive,[108] or because, like the Twist, they were associated with African Americans.[109] "African American dancers were typically banned from performing in minstrel shows until after the Civil War."[110]

Dances can be performed solo (1, 4); in pairs, (2, 3); in groups, (5, 6, 7); or by massed performers (10). They might be improvised (4, 8) or highly choreographed (1, 2, 5, 10); spontaneous for personal entertainment, (such as when children begin dancing for themselves); a private audience, (4); a paying audience (2); a world audience (10); or an audience interested in a particular dance genre (3, 5). They might be a part of a celebration, such as a wedding or New Year (6, 8); or a cultural ritual with a specific purpose, such as a dance by warriors like a haka (7). Some dances, such as traditional dance in 1 and ballet in 2, need a very high level of skill and training; others, such as the can-can, require a very high level of energy and physical fitness. Entertaining the audience is a normal part of dance but its physicality often also produces joy for the dancers themselves (9).

Dance – 10 types across 10 cultures
1 泰国的传统舞者 
3 Ballroom dancing (Czech Republic) 
4 Belly dancer (Morocco) 
5 Morris dancing (England) 
6 Highland wedding (Scotland, 1780) 
7 Warrior dancers (Papua New Guinea) 
8 Fire Dragon dance for Chinese New Year 
10 Children in Mass Games (North Korea) 

动物[编辑]

人类出于娱乐的目的使用动物,已经有几千年了。人们为了娱乐而追捕它们(而不是为了寻求食物 );displayed while they hunt for prey; watched when they compete with each other; and watched while they perform a trained routine for human amusement. The Romans, for example, were entertained both by competitions involving wild animals and acts performed by trained animals. They watched as "lions and bears danced to the music of pipes and cymbals; horses were trained to kneel, bow, dance and prance ... acrobats turning handsprings over wild lions and vaulting over wild leopards." There were "violent confrontations with wild beasts" and "performances over time became more brutal and bloodier".[111]

Animals that perform trained routines or "acts" for human entertainment include fleas in flea circuses, dolphins in dolphinaria, and monkeys doing tricks for an audience on behalf of the player of a street organ. Animals kept in zoos in ancient times were often kept there for later use in the arena as entertainment or for their entertainment value as exotica.[112]

Many contests between animals are now regarded as sports – for example, horse racing is regarded as both a sport and an important source of entertainment. Its economic impact means that it is also considered a global industry, one in which horses are carefully transported around the world to compete in races. In Australia, the horse race run on Melbourne Cup Day is a public holiday and the public regards the race as an important annual event. Like horse racing, camel racing requires human riders, while greyhound racing does not. People find it entertaining to watch animals race competitively, whether they are trained, like horses, camels or dogs, or untrained, like cockroaches.

The use of animals for entertainment is often controversial, especially the hunting of wild animals. Some contests between animals, once popular entertainment for the public, have become illegal because of the cruelty involved. Among these are blood sports such as bear-baiting, dog fighting and cockfighting. Other contests involving animals remain controversial and have both supporters and detractors. For example, the conflict between opponents of pigeon shooting who view it as "a cruel and moronic exercise in marksmanship, and proponents, who view it as entertainment" has been tested in a court of law.[113] Fox hunting, which involves the use of horses as well as hounds, and bullfighting, which has a strong theatrical component, are two entertainments that have a long and significant cultural history. They both involve animals and are variously regarded as sport, entertainment or cultural tradition. Among the organisations set up to advocate for the rights of animals are some whose concerns include the use of animals for entertainment.[114] However, "in many cases of animal advocacy groups versus organisations accused of animal abuse, both sides have cultural claims."[115]

Animals used for entertainment
‘Ala’ud-Din and Mahima Dharma hunting an Indian tiger, 1790. 
Trained monkey performing for an audience of children (1900–20). 
Crowd watches Pharlap win the Melbourne Cup in Australia, 1930. 
Crowd watches a bullfight in Mexico, 2010. 

马戏[编辑]

Children entertained by a stilt walker performing in a circus act

A circus, described as "one of the most brazen of entertainment forms",[116] is a special type of theatrical performance, involving a variety of physical skills such as acrobatics and juggling and sometimes performing animals. Usually thought of as a travelling show performed in a big top, circus was first performed in permanent venues. Philip Astley is regarded as the founder of the modern circus in the second half of the 18th century and Jules Léotard is the French performer credited with developing the art of the trapeze, considered synonymous with circuses.[117] Astley brought together performances that were generally familiar in traditional British fairs "at least since the beginning of the 17th century": "tumbling, rope-dancing, juggling, animal tricks and so on".[116] It has been claimed that "there is no direct link between the Roman circus and the circus of modern times. ... Between the demise of the Roman 'circus' and the foundation of Astley's Amphitheatre in London some 1300 years later, the nearest thing to a circus ring was the rough circle formed by the curious onlookers who gathered around the itinerant tumbler or juggler on a village green."[118]

魔术[编辑]

The form of entertainment known as stage magic or conjuring and recognisable as performance, is based on traditions and texts of magical rites and dogmas that have been a part of most cultural traditions since ancient times. (References to magic, for example, can be found in the Bible, in Hermeticism, in Zoroastrianism, in the Kabbalistic tradition, in mysticism and in the sources of Freemasonry.)[119]

Stage magic is performed for an audience in a variety of media and locations: on stage, on television, in the street, and live at parties or events. It is often combined with other forms of entertainment, such as comedy or music and showmanship is often an essential part of magic performances. Performance magic relies on deception, psychological manipulation, sleight of hand and other forms of trickery to give an audience the illusion that a performer can achieve the impossible. Audiences amazed at the stunt performances and escape acts of Harry Houdini, for example, regarded him as a magician.[120][121][122]

Fantasy magicians have held an important place in literature for centuries, offering entertainment to millions of readers. Famous wizards such as Merlin in the Arthurian legends have been written about since the 5th and 6th centuries, while in the 21st century, the young wizard Harry Potter became a global entertainment phenomenon when the book series about him sold about 450 million copies (as at June 2011), making it the best-selling book series in history.[123][124]

街头表演[编辑]

Didgeridoo player entertaining passers by in the street

Street entertainment, street performance or "busking" are forms of performance that have been meeting the public's need for entertainment for centuries.[125] It was "an integral aspect of London's life", for example, when the city in the early 19th century was "filled with spectacle and diversion".[126] Minstrels or troubadours are part of the tradition. The art and practice of busking is still celebrated at annual busking festivals.[127]

There are three basic forms of contemporary street performance. The first form is the "circle show". It tends to gather a crowd, usually has a distinct beginning and end, and is done in conjunction with street theatre, puppeteering, magicians, comedians, acrobats, jugglers and sometimes musicians. This type has the potential to be the most lucrative for the performer because there are likely to be more donations from larger audiences if they are entertained by the act. Good buskers control the crowd so patrons do not obstruct foot traffic. The second form, the walk-by act, has no distinct beginning or end. Typically, the busker provides an entertaining ambience, often with an unusual instrument, and the audience may not stop to watch or form a crowd. Sometimes a walk-by act spontaneously turns into a circle show. The third form, café busking, is performed mostly in restaurants, pubs, bars and cafés. This type of act occasionally uses public transport as a venue.

巡游[编辑]

Parades are held for a range of purposes, often more than one. Whether their mood is sombre or festive, being public events that are designed to attract attention and activities that necessarily divert normal traffic, parades have a clear entertainment value to their audiences. Cavalcades and the modern variant, the motorcade, are examples of public processions. Some people watching the parade or procession may have made a special effort to attend, while others become part of the audience by happenstance. Whatever their mood or primary purpose, parades attract and entertain people who watch them pass by. Occasionally, a parade takes place in an improvised theatre space (such as the Trooping the Colour in 5) and tickets are sold to the physical audience while the global audience participates via broadcast.

One of the earliest forms of parade were "triumphs" – grand and sensational displays of foreign treasures and spoils, given by triumphant Roman generals to celebrate their victories. They presented conquered peoples and nations that exalted the prestige of the victor. "In the summer of 46 B.C.E. Julius Caesar chose to celebrate four triumphs held on different days extending for about one month."[128] In Europe from the Middle Ages to the Baroque the Royal Entry celebrated the formal visit of the monarch to the city with a parade through elaborately decorated streets, passing various shows and displays. The annual Lord Mayor's Show in London is an example of a civic parade that has survived since medieval times.

Many religious festivals (especially those which incorporate processions, such as Holy Week processions or the Indian festival of Holi) have some entertainment appeal in addition to their serious purpose. Sometimes, religious rituals have been adapted or evolved into secular entertainments, or like the Festa del Redentore in Venice, have managed to grow in popularity while holding both secular and sacred purposes in balance. However, pilgrimages, such as the Christian pilgrimage of the Way of St. James, the Muslim Hajj and the Hindu Kumbh Mela, which may appear to the outsider as an entertaining parade or procession, are not intended as entertainment: they are instead about an individual's spiritual journey. Hence, the relationship between spectator and participant, unlike entertainments proper, is different. The manner in which the Kumbh Mela, for example, "is divorced from its cultural context and repackaged for Western consumption – renders the presence of voyeurs deeply problematic."[129]

Parades generally impress and delight (5, 6, 7, 8), often by including unusual, colourful costumes (6, 7). Sometimes they also commemorate (5, 8) or celebrate (1, 4, 8, 9, 10). Sometimes they have a serious purpose, such as when the context is military (1, 2, 5), when the intention is sometimes to intimidate; or religious, when the audience might participate or have a role to play (6, 7, 9). Even if a parade uses new technology and is some distance away (10), it is likely to have a strong appeal, draw the attention of onlookers and entertain them.

Parades – 10 types, six cultures
1 Triumph of Caesar, Andreani (1588/9) 
2 Alfred Jacob Miller Cavalcade by the Snake Indians (1858–60) 
3 Parade from the onlooker perspective (1816) 
4 Inauguration parade of US President McKinley (1897) 
5 Respectful crowd at motorcade in Canada (1945) 
6 Festive parade in Brazil (2004) 
7 Costumes in West Indian Day parade (2008) 
8 Celebratory parade in London before seated audience (2008) 
9 Ganesh Visarjan, Mumbai (2007) 
10 Flypast (2012) 

烟花[编辑]

Spectators at Bicentennial fireworks in Colombia

自从17世纪以来,烟花就是许多公共娱乐的一部分,并成为重大庆典的主要特征,且一直受到欢迎。火药最初在中国古代、古欧洲时被用于军事用途。烟花在18世纪时最为受欢迎,在那时,人们常常支付给拥有烟火制造术的人高额报酬,特别是因制造技巧娴熟的被召唤到其他国家进行展示的意大利人。[130][131] 烟火和戏水是宫廷中的一个重要的表演环节,在活动中突然发出的噪音,烟雾象征权力者身份的辉煌,这种情绪认为这个主题适合他的主权,他的威望,以及在他的力量中有一种无可替代的荣耀感:“一种别人对他的敬畏以彰显他的荣耀,生日,命名日,婚礼纪念日可以来提供别人为他庆祝的机会”[132] One of the most famous courtly uses of fireworks was one used to celebrate the end of the War of the Austrian Succession and while the fireworks themselves caused a fire,[133] the accompanying Music for the Royal Fireworks written by Handel has been popular ever since. Aside from their contribution to entertainments related to military successes, courtly displays and personal celebrations, fireworks are also used as part of religious ceremony. For example, during the Indian Dashavatara Kala of Gomantaka "the temple deity is taken around in a procession with a lot of singing, dancing and display of fireworks".[134]

The "fire, sudden noise and smoke" of fireworks is still a significant part of public celebration and entertainment. For example, fireworks were one of the primary forms of display chosen to celebrate the turn of the millennium around the world. As the clock struck midnight and 1999 became 2000, firework displays and open-air parties greeted the New Year as the time zones changed over to the next century. Fireworks, carefully planned and choreographed, were let off against the backdrop of many of the world's most famous buildings, including the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, the Acropolis in Athens, Red Square in Moscow, Vatican City in Rome, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, and Elizabeth Tower in London.

体育竞技[编辑]

来自意大利的体育迷观众
2010年國際足協世界盃上的南非球迷

体育运动一直是人们娱乐的方式。区别于运动员,体育竞技的观赏者通常被称作观众。 随着體育場条件的改善和观众席的设计以及录制和传播技术的发展,人们无需到比赛场所即可观看比赛,因此观众的规模愈发壮大、观赏性运动也变得越来越流行。全球涌现的最受欢迎的两项运动是足球板球,它们的国际比赛 國際足協世界盃板球對抗賽在世界各地广泛受到追捧。除了直接参与比赛的运动员以外,体育竞技还是世界各地数百万观众的主要娱乐项目。[135]具有全球魅力的环法自行车赛是一项多阶段、长时间的竞技性运动。较其他竞技运动来说不寻常的是,它不在体育场而是在乡村间进行比赛。[136]

除了具有世界吸引力和竞争力的体育运动以外,还有奥林匹克运动会。它的娱乐价值还涉及举办国及其运动文化。例如,在美国棒球篮球是流行的娱乐形式;不丹的全国性运动是射箭;新西兰丹的全国性运动是橄欖球;伊朗则是自由式摔跤;日本独特的相撲摔跤包含从悠久历史中衍生的仪式元素。[137]某些情况下,诸如国际跑步组Hash House Harriers,参与者为自己创造了体育和娱乐的融合。和作为观众参与大不相同的是,它的社交性强于竞争性。

一项活动逐渐成为运动,进而演变成一项娱乐活动也受到当地气候和条件的影响。例如,现代运动冲浪和夏威夷相关联,而滑雪则更可能在斯堪的纳维亚发展。虽然它们产生给观众的这些运动娱乐在世界范围广泛传播,但发源国仍以实力著称。有时气候会造就一种运动,如加拿大的重要娱乐活动冰球就是适应气候而生的。

集市、展览与购物[编辑]

集市 (非常设)与展览在古代和中世纪就已经存在了。这种地方常常用于展示财富、创新和交易物品,在提供特定的娱乐项目的同时本身也作为娱乐场所存在着。[138]不管是在地中海的市场上还是在小型商店里,“购物总是能提供某种形式的愉悦感,让人远离日常生活。”[139]然而在现代世界,“营销手段成了新的娱乐形式:旋转发光的标牌、重音乐、……、大屏幕、交互式电脑亭、日间日托、……咖啡馆。”[139]

到了十九世纪,艺术、制造、商业展览已经变成了国际性的行为。它们不仅大受欢迎,同时还能影响国际观念。例如,1878年巴黎世博会促进了在观念、创新和标准方面的国际合作。从1851年的伦敦到1900年的巴黎,“超过两亿的参观者踏入了伦敦、巴黎、维也纳、费城、芝加哥世博会乃至世界各地其他小型展览的大门[138][140]。”第二次世界大战后,有远超五亿次的参观通过世博会的旋转大门被记录下来[141]。作为一种壮景、一种娱乐形式,“从建筑、到全球化模式、再到根本的人类身份认同[141]”,这些展览的影响无处不在。“集市、专门商店、艺术博物馆的兴起[142]”促成了拥有大量消费的现代世界和娱乐工业之间的紧密联系。

在商店或展览会中的娱乐活动
1889巴黎万国博览会的广告 
2010年上海世博会时观众正排队进入卡塔尔馆的场景 
在一些商场中为儿童提供的玩具球池 

安全问题 (未润色)[编辑]

一些娱乐活动,如大型节日(不论是宗教节日或文化传统节日),音乐会,俱乐部,派对和庆祝活动,都涉及大量人员。从最早的时代开始,娱乐场所的人群就会面临危险,特别是在娱乐消费酒精等毒物时。例如,古希腊人有酒神奥秘,而罗马人则有土星。过度和人潮的后果可能会导致违反社会行为规范,有时甚至会造成伤害甚至死亡,例如在阿尔塔蒙特自由音乐会,室外摇滚音乐节。夜总会发生的严重事包括因踩踏事故造成的伤亡;恐怖袭击,例如针对夜总会的2002年巴厘岛爆炸事件;特别是明火。在车站夜总会火灾发生后,在美国进行的调查表明,从早期事件(例如Cocoanut Grove火灾)获得的“关于夜总会消防安全”的经验教训并不一定会导致持续有效的改变。防止此类事件的努力包括任命专业人士,例如中世纪的米斯鲁爵士,或者在近代,控制进入人群流量的工作人员;并不断完善例如建筑安全等相关标准。娱乐业现在认为娱乐场所的安全保护是一项重要的管理工作。

娱乐产业[编辑]

尽管国家首脑,统治者和有权力的人民总是能够为他们提供娱乐费用,并且在很多情况下为公共娱乐付费,但人们通常会自己娱乐或者在可能的情况下参加现场表演。 20世纪的技术发展意味着娱乐产品的制作可以从观众中独立出去,由娱乐行业以商业形式包装出售。 与娱乐相关的产业被称为娱乐业,业界依赖商业模式来制作、销售、传播。或以其他方式发行,甚至包揽所有类型的演出。 该行业变得十分复杂,以至于其经济学成为学术研究的一个独立领域。

电影业是娱乐业的一部分, 其中的组成部分包括好莱坞和宝莱坞电影业,以及英国的电影院和欧洲的所有电影院,包括法国,德国,西班牙,意大利等。 性行业是娱乐行业的另一个特殊组成部分,将商业基础上的相同形式和媒体(例如电影,书籍,舞蹈和其他形式表演)应用于性产品的开发,宣传和销售。

游乐园为游客提供过山车,乘火车,水上游乐设施,暗黑游乐设施以及其他活动设施和相关景点。 这些公园建在被以主题划分的大片地区上。 有时候整个游乐园都是基于一个主题,比如一些海洋世界乐园,这些游乐园都是以海洋生物为主题的。

娱乐业的发展造就了更多种类的就业机会。 虽然像作家,音乐家和作曲家这样的工作像以往一样存在,但从事这项工作的人很可能会被公司聘用,而不会像以前那样自行寻找机会。新的岗位已经出现,例如电影业的领班或特效总监,以及游乐园里的服务员。

奖项代表在各种娱乐业分支享有的卓越声誉。 例如,有代表优秀的音乐,游戏(包括视频游戏),漫画,喜剧,剧院,电视,电影,舞蹈和魔术等奖项。但体育奖项取决于客观结果和技能,而不是娱乐价值。

娱乐产业
装在盒子里的35毫米胶片 。 
人们在音响店购买音乐。 (1988年摄于德国) 
一张印有电子条形码的门票。 (2005年摄于巴伦西亚) 

建筑[编辑]

为娱乐而生的建筑[编辑]

特制的结构作为娱乐场所以适应观众,制作了许多着名的创新建筑,其中最着名的是剧院结构。 对于古希腊人来说,“剧院的建筑重要性反映了他们对社区的重要性,在他们的纪念性,对他们设计的投入以及对他们细节的关注上表现出了明显的表现。” 罗马人随后发展了一个椭圆形的体育场,称为马戏团。 在现代,一些最宏大的娱乐建筑为他们的城市和设计师带来了名气。 例如,悉尼歌剧院是世界遗产,伦敦的O₂是一个娱乐区,包含室内舞台,音乐俱乐部,电影院和展览空间。 德国的拜罗伊特节日剧院是为一个特定的音乐作品而设计和建造的剧院。

大众观众场馆设计的两个主要建筑问题是出口速度和安全性。 场地可以被清空的速度对于舒适性和安全性都很重要,因为大量人群需要很长时间才能从设计不良的场地驱散,并且这又产生了安全风险。 希尔斯堡灾难就是一个例子,表明建筑设计的不良方面可能导致观众死亡。 视线和声学也是大多数剧场的重要设计考虑因素。

在21世纪,娱乐场所,尤其是体育场馆,“很可能成为主要建筑类型之一”。 然而,他们需要“全新的方法”进行设计,因为他们需要成为“复杂的娱乐中心,多种体验场所,能够以多种方式享受。” 因此,建筑师现在必须设计“有着两种截然不同的功能,如体育和娱乐中心主持现场观众,以及作为体育和娱乐工作室服务于远程观众的观看和收听需求”。

Architecture for entertainment
Colosseum (70–80 B.C.E.) Roman venue for mass entertainment 
The Grand Foyer in the Palais Garnier, Paris (1875), influenced architecture around the world. 
里约热内卢的馬拉簡拿運動場, 1950年落成时是世界上可接纳人数最多的体育场 

作为娱乐的建筑[编辑]

Inauthentic castle in Disneyland amusement park

那些挑战设计或建造的极限的建筑师们有时会造出一些本身就具有娱乐性的建筑物,它们超出了公众和顾客的预期,又有卓越的美学价值。诸如法蘭克·蓋瑞设计的毕尔巴鄂古根海姆美术馆就属于这一类建筑,它本身既是旅游胜地,又是重要的世界性博物馆。Other apparently usable buildings are really follies, deliberately constructed for a decorative purpose and never intended to be practical.

On the other hand, sometimes architecture is entertainment, while pretending to be functional. The tourism industry, for example, creates or renovates buildings as "attractions" that have either never been used or can never be used for their ostensible purpose. They are instead re-purposed to entertain visitors often by simulating cultural experiences. Buildings, history and sacred spaces are thus made into commodities for purchase. Such intentional tourist attractions divorce buildings from the past so that "the difference between historical authenticity and contemporary entertainment venues/theme parks becomes hard to define".[143] Examples include "the preservation of the Alcázar of Toledo, with its grim Civil War History, the conversion of slave dungeons into tourist attractions in Ghana, [such as, for example, Cape Coast Castle] and the presentation of indigenous culture in Libya".[144] The specially constructed buildings in amusement parks represent the park's theme and are usually neither authentic nor completely functional.

1888 wax cylinder recording of composer Arthur Sullivan speaking about his reaction to Thomas Edison's invention of the phonograph. ... I am astonished and somewhat terrified at the results of this evening's experiment – astonished at the wonderful power you have developed, and terrified at the thought that so much hideous and bad music may be put on record forever. But all the same, I think it is the most wonderful thing that I have ever experienced, and I congratulate you with all my heart on this wonderful discovery.

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Magazine advertisement for crystal radio (1922)
阿拉木圖电视塔, 哈萨克斯坦 (1983年建造)

电子媒体发展的影响[编辑]

全球化[编辑]

到了二十世纪下半叶,电子传播媒体的发展使得向全球大众提供娱乐产品成为可能。这项技术使得人们能够看到、听到和参与进所有人们熟知的娱乐形式——故事,戏剧,音乐, 舞蹈——无论他们身在何处。 随着微型化技术的不断发展, 卡式磁带光盘等数据存储设备的改进也促进了娱乐技术的快速发展。 计算机化和条形码的开发也使得购票变得更容易、更快速、更全球化。

衰退[编辑]

在20世纪40年代, 收音机是家庭娱乐和信息传递的电子媒介。[145][146][147] 到了20世纪50年代, 电视成为新的媒介, 它迅速流行全世界, 带来视觉娱乐, 一开始只有黑白电视, 然后彩色电视出现在世界上。[148] 到了20世纪70年代, 遊戲 可以在电子媒介上进行, then hand-held devices provided mobile entertainment, and by the last decade of the 20th century, via networked play. In combination with products from the entertainment industry, all the traditional forms of entertainment became available personally. People could not only select an entertainment product such as a piece of music, film or game, they could choose the time and place to use it. The "proliferation of portable media players and the emphasis on the computer as a site for film consumption" together have significantly changed how audiences encounter films.[149] One of the most notable consequences of the rise of electronic entertainment has been the rapid obsolescence of the various recording and storage methods. As an example of speed of change driven by electronic media, over the course of one generation, television as a medium for receiving standardised entertainment products went from unknown, to novel, to ubiquitous and finally to superseded.[150] One estimate was that by 2011 over 30 percent of households in the US would own a Wii console, "about the same percentage that owned a television in 1953".[151] Some expected that halfway through the second decade of the 21st century, online entertainment would have completely replaced television—which didn't happen. The so-called "digital revolution" has produced an increasingly transnational marketplace that has caused difficulties for governments, business, industries, and individuals, as they all try to keep up.[152][153][154][155] Even the sports stadium of the future will increasingly compete with television viewing "...in terms of comfort, safety and the constant flow of audio-visual information and entertainment available."[156] Other flow on effects of the shift are likely to include those on public architecture such as hospitals and nursing homes, where television, regarded as an essential entertainment service for patients and residents, will need to be replaced by access to the internet. At the same time, the ongoing need for entertainers as "professional engagers" shows the continuity of traditional entertainment.[157]

融合[编辑]

By the second decade of the 21st century, analogue recording was being replaced by digital recording and all forms of electronic entertainment began to converge.[158] For example, convergence is challenging standard practices in the film industry: whereas "success or failure used to be determined by the first weekend of its run. Today, ... a series of exhibition 'windows', such as DVD, pay-per-view, and fibre-optic video-on-demand are used to maximise profits."[159] Part of the industry's adjustment is its release of new commercial product directly via video hosting services. Media convergence is said to be more than technological: the convergence is cultural as well.[160] It is also "the result of a deliberate effort to protect the interests of business entities, policy institutions and other groups".[149] Globalisation and cultural imperialism are two of the cultural consequences of convergence.[161] Others include fandom and interactive storytelling as well as the way that single franchises are distributed through and affect a range of delivery methods.[162] The "greater diversity in the ways that signals may be received and packaged for the viewer, via terrestrial, satellite or cable television, and of course, via the Internet" also affects entertainment venues, such as sports stadia, which now need to be designed so that both live and remote audiences can interact in increasingly sophisticated ways – for example, audiences can "watch highlights, call up statistics", "order tickets and merchandise" and generally "tap into the stadium's resources at any time of the day or night".[163]

The introduction of television altered the availability, cost, variety and quality of entertainment products for the public and the convergence of online entertainment is having a similar effect. For example, the possibility and popularity of user-generated content, as distinct from commercial product, creates a "networked audience model [that] makes programming obsolete".[164] Individuals and corporations use video hosting services to broadcast content that is equally accepted by the public as legitimate entertainment.

While technology increases demand for entertainment products and offers increased speed of delivery, the forms that make up the content are in themselves, relatively stable. Storytelling, music, theatre, dance and games are recognisably the same as in earlier centuries.

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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  150. ^ Cogburn, Jon; Silcox, Mark. Philosophy Through Video Games. New York, Oxon: Routledge. 2002: i. ISBN 0-415-98857-8. 
  151. ^ Doyle, Gillian. Media Ownership: The Economics and Politics of Convergence and Concentration in the UK and European Media. (Google eBook): SAGE. 2002. ISBN 0-7619-6680-3. 
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  154. ^ And for example, in Australia: Convergence Review. Australian Government: Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy. 2012-04-30 [2012-11-23]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-21). 
  155. ^ Sheard (2001), p. 49.
  156. ^ Power, Julie. Laughter and music better than drugs for dementia patients. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2013-08-03 [2013-08-03]. 
  157. ^ Dwyer, Tim. Media Convergence. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England and New York: Open University Press McGraw-Hill Education. 2010. ISBN 978-0-335-22873-7. 
  158. ^ Sayre & King (2010), p. 156.
  159. ^ Sayre & King (2010), pp. 22, 30 ff.
  160. ^ Sayre & King (2010), p. 30.
  161. ^ Jenkins, Henry. Convergence culture: where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8147-4281-5. 
  162. ^ Sheard (2001), p. xvi.
  163. ^ Sayre & King (2010), p. 536.