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安娜·科穆宁娜

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安娜·科穆宁娜
Anna Comnena profilsayfasi.jpg
出生 1083年12月1日
君士坦丁堡大皇宫紫色寝宫英语Porphyra Chamber
逝世 1153年 (70岁)
君士坦丁堡凯哈里托梅内修道院
配偶 尼基弗鲁斯·布林尼乌斯英语Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger
子嗣 阿莱克修斯·科穆宁
约翰·杜卡斯
伊琳娜·杜卡伊娜
玛利亚·布林奈娜·科穆宁娜
王朝 科穆宁家族
父親 阿莱克修斯一世
母親 伊琳娜·杜卡伊娜英语Irene Doukaina

安娜·科穆宁娜希臘語Ἄννα Κομνηνή,1083年12月1日-1153年),東羅馬帝國皇帝阿歷克塞一世的女兒,也是歐洲歷史上最早的女性歷史學家之一,她根據父親阿歷克塞一世的一生著有《阿歷克塞傳英语Alexiad》(希臘語Ἀλεξιάς),這是研究拜占庭帝國歷史的重要史料之一。

生平[编辑]

安娜·科穆宁娜1083年出生于君士坦丁堡的紫色寝宫中。在其早年的生活中,安娜接受到了良好的教育,她学习了文学、修辞和科学,饱读古希腊哲学,还在导师的帮助下学习了历史、医学、数学。 其父阿历克塞一世最初选定米海尔七世的儿子君士坦丁·杜卡斯英语Constantine Doukas (co-emperor)为其继承人,并让他与安娜定下了婚约。但后来长子约翰出生,王位继承权就转给了约翰。君士坦丁·杜卡斯去世之后,1097年,安娜与尼基弗鲁斯·布林尼乌斯英语Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger结婚,安娜与其丈夫、皇后伊琳娜开始出来反对阿历克塞一世的继承人计划。安娜与皇后试图说服阿历克塞一世将皇位转让给布林尼乌斯,但阿历克塞一世还是设法将皇位传给约翰,而约翰也靠着自己的能力保住了皇位继承人的位置。于是安娜开始策划反对其弟弟的阴谋,后来阴谋败露,安娜被迫退出政争。在退出宫廷斗争之后,安娜专心于历史的研究,并仿照古代的风格写出了《阿历克塞传》。南斯拉夫的拜占庭历史研究者奥斯特洛格尔斯基评价这本书是“拜占庭人文主义的杰出见证”[1],并且为后世研究拜占庭历史提供了宝贵的材料。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 奥斯特洛格尔斯基《拜占庭国家史》299页

资料来源[编辑]

一手资料[编辑]

  • Niketas Choniates, O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniates (Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 1984)
  • Anna Comnena (2001). Dawes, Elizabeth A., ed. "The Alexiad." The Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  • Anna Komnene, The Alexiad, translated by E.R.A. Sewter, ed. Peter Frankopan, (New York: Penguin, 2009)
  • Georgios Tornikes, 'An unpublished funeral oration on Anna Comnena', English translation by Robert Browning, in Aristotle Transformed: The Ancient Commentators and Their Influence, ed. R. Sorabji (New York: Cornell University Press, 1990)

二手资料[编辑]

  • Carolyn R. Connor, Women of Byzantium (Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2004)
  • Dalven, Rae (1972). Anna Comnena. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc.
  • Frankopan, Peter (2002). "Perception and Projection of Prejudice: Anna Comnena, the Alexiad, and the First Crusade." Chapter 5 in Edgington, Susan B.; Lambert, Sarah. Gendering the Crusades. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Gouma-Peterson, Thalia. "Gender and Power: Passages to the Maternal in Anna Komnene's Alexiad." In Gouma-Peterson, Thalia. Anna Komnene and Her Times. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. p. 107-125. ISBN 0815336454
  • Hanawalt, Emily Albu (1982). "Anna Komnene". In Strayer, Joseph R. ed. The Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 303-304. ISBN 0684167603
  • Hill, Barbara (2000). "Actions Speak Louder Than Words: Anna Komnene's Attempted Usurpation". In Gouma-Peterson, Thaila. Anna Komnene and Her Times. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. p. 45-62. ISBN 0815336454
  • Jongh, Suzanne Wittek-De (1953). "Le César Nicéphore Byennois, l'historien, et sese ascendants". Byzantion. 23: 463-468., cited in Dion C. Smythe (2006), Garland, Lynda ed. "Middle Byzantine Family Values and Anna Komnene's Alexiad". Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience 800-1200. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited. ISBN 9780754657378
  • Lynda Garland & Stephen Rapp, "Maria ‘of Alania’: Woman & Empress Between Two Worlds," Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience, ed. Lynda Garland, (New Hampshire: Ashgate, 2006). ISBN 9780754657378
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  • Angeliki Laiou, "Introduction: Why Anna Komnene?" Anna Komnene and Her Times, ed. Thalia Gouma-Peterson, (New York: Garland, 2000). ISBN 0815336454.
  • Larmour, David (2004). Margolis, Nadia; Wilson, Katherina M., eds. "Comnene, Anna". Women in the Middle Ages: an encyclopedia. 1. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 203-205. ISBN 0313330174.
  • Macrides, Ruth (2000). "The Pen and the Sword: Who Wrote the Alexiad?." In Gouma-Peterson, Thaila. Anna Komnene and Her Times. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. p. 63-82. ISBN 0815336454
  • Neville, Leonora (2016). Anna Komnene: the life and work of a medieval historian. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190498177.
  • Reinsch, Diether R. (2000). "Women’s Literature in Byzantium?—The Case of Anna Komnene." Translated from German by Thomas Dunlap. In Anna Komnene and Her Times, ed. Thalia Gouma-Peterson. New York: Garland Publishing Inc.
  • Dion C. Smythe, "Middle Byzantine Family Values and Anna Komnene’s Alexiad," Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience 800-1200, ed. Lynda Garland, (New Hampshire: Ashgate, 2006). ISBN 9780754657378.
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Baynes, T.S. (编), Anna Comnena, Encyclopædia Britannica 2 9th, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons: 59–60, 1878 
  •  Chisholm, Hugh (编). Anna Comnena. 大英百科全書 2 第十一版. 劍橋大學出版社: 59. 1911年. 
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Shahan, Thomas Joseph. Anna Comnena. 天主教百科全書. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Georgina Buckler, Anna Comnena: A Study, Oxford University Press, 1929. ISBN 0-19-821471-5
  • Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, translated by Elizabeth A. Dawes in 1928
  • Anna Comnena, The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, edited and translated by E.R.A. Sewter. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969. (This print version uses more idiomatic English, has more extensive notes, and mistakes).
  • John France, "Anna Comnena, the Alexiad and the First Crusade", Reading Medieval Studies v.9 (1983)
  • Ed. Kurtz, 'Unedierte Texte aus der Zeit des Kaisers Johannes Komnenos, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift 16 (1907): 69–119 (Greek text of Anna Comnene’s testament)
  • Thalia Gouma-Peterson (ed.), Anna Komnene and her Times, New York: Garland, 2000. ISBN 0-8153-3851-1.
  • Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed., 2014. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
  • Barbara Hill, "Actions speak louder than words: Anna Komnene’s attempted usurpation," in Anna Komnene and her times (2000): 46–47.
  • Levin, Carole, et al. Extraordinary Women of the Medieval and Renaissance World. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000.
  • Magoulias, Harry J. (编). O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniatēs. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1984. ISBN 978-0-8143-1764-8.  5–6.
  • Ellen Quandahl and Susan C. Jarratt, "'To recall him…will be a subject of lamentation': Anna Comnene as rhetorical historiographer" in Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric (2008): 301–335. JSTOR 10.1525/rh.2008.26.3.301
  • Vlada Stankovíc, "Nikephoros Bryennios, Anna Komnene and Konstantios Doukas. A Story of Different Perspectives," in Byzantinische Zeitschrift (2007): 174.
  • Paul Stephenson, "Anna Comnena's Alexiad as a source for the Second Crusade?", Journal of Medieval History v. 29 (2003)
  • Dion C. Smythe, "Middle Byzantine Family Values and Anna Komnene’s Alexiad," in Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience (2006): 125–127.
  • Dion C. Symthe, "Outsiders by taxis perceptions of non-conformity eleventh and twelfth-century literature," in Byzantinische Forschungen: Internationale Zeitschrift für Byzantinistik (1997): 241.
  • Varzos, Konstantinos. Η Γενεαλογία των Κομνηνών [The Genealogy of the Komnenoi] (PDF) A. Thessaloniki: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. 1984 (希腊语). 
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Anna Comnena. New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Anna Comnena. The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

外部链接[编辑]