官僚

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明朝的官員。當時葡萄牙人稱為Mandarin
清朝照片中身着补子的官员

官员,亦称官僚官宦,在傳統東亞是指有官品的政府人員,相較於沒有品秩的政府人員稱作,官和吏的另一個重要的分別是官有固定的薪水,而吏則大多情況下沒有(少數例外,如在王安石變法時,有發薪給中央的吏的作法)。

從出身來看在唐代中業以後,官員大多數出自於科舉,因此與以從事實務起家的吏之間有極大的差異,彼此之間不能昇降,而僅僅在元朝有讓吏昇作官的管道。百姓或下属都称官长为“大人”,官员的儿子被稱為衙内,《续资治通鉴长编》卷18太平兴国二年三月癸未条说:“洛下有十衙内,尤放恣。”孔平仲《珩璜新论》卷4说,“或以衙为廨舍”。

中國歷史上大多時期,官位不論中央或地方官,一共分作九品,一品地位薪俸最高,九品最低。此外宋朝之後,有很多種官,僅是用來酬庸人物而不具有實效的。

官僚和官员最大的区别在于是否通过非法手段实现世代为官。

英國人稱呼中國的官為Mandarin,該詞來源於印度梵文曼怛罗,經由馬來文葡萄牙文,輾轉傳入英文。

官與吏[编辑]

兩漢時代,機關長官獨稱「官」,屬官稱「吏」;官吏出身無大分別[1]明成祖時,規定曾當吏者不能當御史、考進士,於中國人流品觀念「吏」開始被人看不起[1]

== 現代 ==m 今日的公家機關的管理人員稱為公務員,但也有不少民眾習慣稱之為官,或者「大人」,例如「市長大人」,大多帶有諷刺蔑視之意味。在英國日本這類保持君主帝王稱號的國家,官員大都nv稱為大臣、官。


Item 5.02 Departure of Directors or Certain Officers; Election of Directors; Appointment of Certain Officers; Compensatory Arrangements of Certain Officers.

On August 17, 2022, the Compensation Committee (the “Committee”) of the Board of Directors (the “Board”) of Apple Inc. (“Apple”) approved the Apple Inc. Executive Cash Incentive Plan (the “Plan”) under which eligible participants may be granted cash incentive awards based on the achievement of performance goals over performance periods established by the Committee (each, an “Award”). The Plan is intended to attract, retain, motivate, reward and align the efforts of Plan participants with the objectives of Apple shareholders. Eligible participants are members of Apple’s executive team, including Apple’s named executive officers and other employees designated by the Committee.

The Plan is administered by the Committee. The Committee establishes performance periods, which generally correlate to Apple’s fiscal years, and performance goals for which achievement will be measured over each performance period. The Committee also establishes any applicable threshold, target and maximum level of achievement for each performance goal. The Committee will specify the performance period, performance goal(s), maximum payout opportunity and any other terms and conditions for the Awards.

The payout that a participant may receive under the Plan with respect to an Award is based upon whether and to what extent the performance goals have been achieved, as determined by the Committee after receiving the necessary information to evaluate such achievement after the end of the performance period. The payout will be made in cash as soon as practicable after the Committee considers the achievement of the performance goals, and to the extent applicable, a participant’s performance. If a participant terminates service prior to a payout date, the participant’s Award will be forfeited unless otherwise determined by the Committee.

The foregoing description of the Plan is a summary and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Plan, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 10.1 hereto and is incorporated by reference herein.


Item 5.03 Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.

On August 17, 2022, Apple’s Board approved and adopted amended and restated bylaws (the “Amended and Restated Bylaws”), which became effective the same day. Among other things, the amendments effected by the Amended and Restated Bylaws:


Allow for special meetings of the Board to be called on less than 48 hours’ notice as necessary or appropriate under given circumstances.


Enhance procedural mechanics and disclosure requirements in connection with shareholder nominations of directors and submissions of proposals regarding other business at shareholder meetings (other than nominations pursuant to Apple’s proxy access bylaws and proposals to be included in Apple’s proxy materials pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)), including by requiring:


additional background information and disclosures regarding proposing shareholders, proposed nominees and business, and other persons related to a shareholder’s solicitation of proxies;

any shareholder submitting a nomination notice to make a representation as to whether such shareholder intends to solicit proxies in support of director nominees other than Apple’s nominees in accordance with Rule 14a-19 under the Exchange Act and, on request of Apple, to provide reasonable evidence that certain requirements of such rule have been satisfied;


that disclosures included in a shareholder’s notice of nominations or proposals regarding other business be updated so that they are accurate as of the shareholder meeting record date and as of ten business days prior to the shareholder meeting; and


that proposed nominees be available for interviews with the Board.


Clarify the Board’s authority to designate the location for shareholder meetings and specify powers of the chair of a shareholder meeting to prescribe rules and regulations for the conduct of a meeting and to adjourn a meeting.”


Revise and update the procedures and requirements for shareholders to request a special meeting of shareholders and a record date for action by written consent.


Require that a shareholder directly or indirectly soliciting proxies from other shareholders use a proxy card color other than white.


Add bylaws allowing the Board to operate with reduced procedural requirements during an emergency, as defined in the California Corporations Code (the “Code”).

The Amended and Restated Bylaws also incorporate ministerial, clarifying and conforming changes, including changes to align with the language used in certain provisions of the Code.

The foregoing description is a summary and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Amended and Restated Bylaws, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 3.2 hereto and is incorporated by reference herein.


Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.


(d) Exhibits.


Exhibit Number Exhibit Description

 3.2	  	Amended and Restated Bylaws of Apple Inc., effective as of August 17, 2022.

10.1 Apple Inc. Executive Cash Incentive Plan. 104 Inline XBRL for the cover page of this Current Report on Form 8-K.

明朝1617年出版的《利玛窦中国札记》第一次出現“Mandarin”(拉丁語Mandarinos)這個詞, 從而證實Mandarin(曼達林、中國官僚、官話)和滿洲人毫無關係,更不是“滿大人”的意思

英文中用Mandarin(曼達林)一詞來表示中國官僚,源自於葡萄牙語中的mandarim,後演化成拼寫mandarin一詞。早在皮莱资使團被囚禁後,被囚葡國人寫下的信札中,葡萄牙語中就已廣泛使用Mandarim一詞。(這些信札是葡萄牙關於中國最早的報導之一,可能成書於1524年)。[2]費爾南·羅佩斯·德·卡斯達聶達英语Fernão Lopes de Castanheda的《História do descobrimento e conquista da Índia pelos portugueses》中[3],十六世紀末經澳門進入中國大陸的利瑪竇也在葡萄牙人中推廣使用了該詞。利玛窦中国札记英文版第45頁(附圖提供了原版,第52頁。),[4]

有許多人把葡語中的這個詞想成mandador(指揮者)或者mandar,源自拉丁文mandare[5] 然而,現代字典同意葡萄牙人是從馬來語menteri(朝臣、部長)一詞中借來的,馬來語menteri一词又是從梵語mantrin (天城體: मंत्री) (意為部長语源学上來講又相關於"曼怛罗").[6][7][8] 根據馬來西亞翁姑·阿都·阿兹教授,這個詞源於馬六甲蘇丹國期間住在馬六甲的葡萄牙人試圖會見中國政府高官,並用馬來語標記“朝臣、部長”意思的Menteri一詞來代指中國的“大官”。但是由於葡萄牙人不諳馬來語,把“Menteri”的音加了一個“n”,發成了“Mandarin”。[9]

在十六世紀“曼達林”這個詞還沒有普遍使用時,在歐洲人旅行者圈中“Loutea”一詞也可以代指中國文官 (該詞拼寫各異)。如,在盖洛特·佩雷拉英语Galeote Pereira1548至1553年的中國旅行記中(1565年在歐洲出版)Loutea一詞廣泛使用;或者,在加斯帕·達克魯斯英语Gaspar da Cruz所寫的《Treatise of China》(1569年在歐洲出版)中,Louthia一詞廣泛使用。葡萄牙荷蘭殖民史專家博克舍英语C.R. Boxer解釋道:本詞來源於中文常見的“老爷”一詞(漢語拼音:lǎoyé; 廈門話: ló-tia; 泉州話: lāu-tia[10]胡安·冈萨雷斯·德·门多萨所著的《大中华帝国史》(1585年)也是如此稱呼中國文官的。《大中华帝国史》借鑒了盖洛特·佩雷拉英语Galeote Pereira以及加斯帕·達克魯斯英语Gaspar da Cruz兩公的文字,並成為十六世紀晚期歐洲人瞭解中國標準參考書[11] 另外,《利玛窦中国札记》記載了Lauye和Lautie兩種發音,見右圖。

在西方,“曼達林”一詞一般與“士大夫”這個概念相關,士大夫一般會吟詩作文,讀

“曼達林”一詞又可以代指標準的北方中文,因為的官員用該方言。該詞是在明代就開始使用的中文“官話”一詞的翻譯。歐洲早期作者如利瑪竇將“官話”一詞寫作Quonhua,符合利瑪竇時代的轉寫系統,耶穌會在利瑪竇逝世後多年都沿用此转写系统。[12]

中國歷史有名官員[编辑]

近現代[编辑]

參見[编辑]

另見[编辑]

以「官僚」開頭的条目

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 錢穆,《中國歷代政治得失》
  2. ^ TitleLetters from Portuguese captives in Canton, written in 1534 & 1536: with an introduction on Portuguese intercourse with China in the first half of the sixteenth century. Educ. Steam Press, Byculla. 1902 [2020-10-06]. (原始内容存档于2019-05-19). 。這些信札當時未曾出版,但卻以手稿形式傳抄流傳;學者Ferguson將藏於巴黎圖書館的該信札一個抄本出版。Ferguson認為這些手稿是1534到1536年間寫成的,其他學者卻認為這些信札是1524年就寄出去了(Boxer et al. 1953,第xxi頁)。在這些信札中“曼達林”一詞以複數形式出現數次,有時有詞尾的n/m:mandarĩsmanderĩsmanderỹs以及沒有n/m:mandarismanderysmandarys。(注意在十六世紀葡萄牙語正字法中,使用者可以在n或者m前面的元音字母上面加上一條波浪線表記n或者m,所以ĩ以及可以轉動寫成in/imyn/ym
  3. ^ Fernão Lopes de Castanheda, História do descobrimento e conquista da Índia pelos portugueses, Vol. VI, cap II, 26. Castanheda's spelling (in plural) is still mandarins.
  4. ^ "China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Matteo Ricci", Random House, New York, 1953. In the original Latin, vol. 1, p. 51: "Lusitani Magistratus illos, à mandando fortasse, Mandarinos vocant, quo nomine iam etiam apud Europæos Sinici Magistratus intelliguntur".
  5. ^ Johnson, Samuel. Dictionnary of the english language. Lyon Public Library: Longman. 1827 [2020-10-06]. (原始内容存档于2019-05-19). 
  6. ^ Mandarin页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆), Online Etymology Dictionary
  7. ^ Mandarin页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆Merriam-Webster
  8. ^ "mandarin", Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 1 6th. Oxford University Press. 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. 
  9. ^ Ku Seman Ku Hussain; Hafizahril Abdul Hamid. PPSMI satu kesilapan [PPSMI a mistake]. Mingguan Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Melayu (M) Berhad). 19 July 2009: 7 (马来语). Jadi perkataan menteri itu disebut kepada "menterin" dan apabila mereka pergi ke negeri China untuk berjumpa dengan pegawai tinggi akhirnya perkataan "menterin" tadi bertukar kepada "Mandarin". 
  10. ^ Boxer, Charles Ralph; Pereira, Galeote; Cruz, Gaspar da; de Rada, Martín, South China in the sixteenth century: being the narratives of Galeote Pereira, Fr. Gaspar da Cruz, O.P. [and] Fr. Martín de Rada, O.E.S.A. (1550–1575), Issue 106 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, Printed for the Hakluyt Society: 10 sq., 1953 [2020-10-06], (原始内容存档于2019-05-19) 閩南語(福建+泉州)中的發音根據C.R. Boxer ,他的來源是Carstairs Douglas的《Dictionary of the Amoy vernacular》。
  11. ^ "LOUTEA, LOYTIA, &c" in: Yule, Sir Henry; Burnell, Arthur Coke, Crooke, William , 编, Hobson-Jobson: a glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive, J. Murray: 522–523, 1903 [2020-10-06], (原始内容存档于2019-05-18) 
  12. ^ See pages 28–29 in the English translation, China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Matteo Ricci, Random House, New York, 1953. In the original Latin, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas suscepta ab Societate Jesu (1617), vol. 1, p. 31: "Præter hunc tamen cuique Provinciæ vernaculum sermonem, alius est universo regno communis, quem ipsi Quonhua vocant, quod curialem vel forensem sonat."