被認定是偽科學的主題列表

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被認定是偽科學的主題列表(List of topics characterized as pseudoscience)表列出在自身发展过程中曾被学者或研究者认定为伪科学的主题。有关这类主题的具体讨论都在其对应的维基百科页面做出,本列表仅提供概述。学者们将这些东西认定为伪科学,有时是为了向大众暴露可疑、危险的主张,有时是为了定义科学之本质,有时则只是为了讽刺粗制滥造的低级科学论证。

科學界科學懷疑論机构是批评伪科学的主力军。对于伪科学主题的批评一般基于其逻辑方法修辞特点展开。[1] 本表列出的主题中,有些在今天仍是科学研究的对象,有些则是过去科学的一部分,在被证伪后又因伪科学借尸还魂;还有些主题自始至终都无科学性质,但或多或少地剽窃了某些科学领域或科学实践的内容。以下列出的主题的许多拥护者、从业者都会争辩其所相信的学说是否为伪科学,故本列表每节都会总结定性的原因。

物理科學[编辑]

天文學與空間科學[编辑]

  • 2012年預言:在2012年會發生災變和世界末日事件的一種信念,該猜想是從長紀曆衍生的。人們把其與公历比對,計算出該年为世界重生的時刻,末日的機制預測是以「太陽風暴」、「銀河對齊」、「極移」、「小行星、彗星或行星大規模碰撞(如尼比鲁)」等方式發生[2][3][4]
  • 古代外星人:由艾利希·馮·丹尼肯於1968年提出[5],指在古時候,外星人令人類文明興起,或提供了各古代社會的一些技術性援助[6][7]

地球科學[编辑]

  • 幾何圖形巨石英语Pseudoscientific metrology:支持者假設道一個存在於地球上的幾何图形可追溯至少公元前3500年前,以及認為即使到了現在,這樣的系統仍受到共济会的應用。據亞歷山大湯姆般的支持者認為,英國和布列塔尼巨石文明推動了諸如幾何、數學、地球大小般的知識。另一名支持者巴特勒則認為托姆的巨石码曾把地球圓周極坐標分為366度[25][26]
  • 百慕達三角:百慕大、波多黎各和佛羅里達州(在其最流行的版本)之間的大西洋區域,在此領域頻繁的船舶和飛機的災害和失踪事件遭一些人認為是超自然現象所導致的,與諸如遇上超自然事件、與外星人交流般的相关故事亦在民間广泛流傳[6]
  • 否定氣候變化:與否定全球變暖有关的政治爭議已受到科學界認定為偽科學[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]
  • 地球空洞说:地球是完全空心的/地殼之下是中空的主張,某些民間傳說和陰謀論者仍持有這樣的想法,並認為地下生命是存在的。
  • 李森科主义-特罗菲姆·邓尼索维奇·李森科提出來的生物遺傳原理,其是基於獲得性遺傳[35]。李森科主義是否定了孟德爾的生物遺傳理論,后來此一主義李森科后命名為米丘林主義。李森科的學說在20世紀40年代末至50年代初在蘇聯的地位尤其突出。基因斯大林集體化運動所引起的飢荒之後被广泛宣稱為「資產階級的科學」。在李森科承諾農作物產量未能兌現後,蘇聯悄然放棄了李森科的農業實踐,改为現代農業的标準做法。到了50年代中期,他的影響力大大下降。現今李森科的農業實驗和研究在很大程度上都会視為欺詐[36][37]
  • 地平說:一種理論認為地球是平的,而非球狀。一些邊緣團體仍然支持這個理論[38]

能量[编辑]

  • 水变油事件:1983年於中國發生的偽科學事件。一位發明家聲稱,他只需通過加入自己的「可燃炔」製劑數滴,就能把水變成可用燃料。中國政府和中國共產黨對於像這樣的偽科學声稱感到震驚,並發表聯合公告,譴責道對大眾的科学教育有所衰落[39]
  • 分數氫英语Brilliant Light Power:氫原子的假設狀態,據諸如蘭德爾·米爾斯(Randell Mills)般的支持者所言,因為其能量較基態時的低,因此是自由能的一個來源[40][41][42]
  • 永动机:違反熱力學定律的機器。虽自18世紀後期永動機已被確認為伪科學,但至今人們仍提議嘗試做出這樣的機器和申請專利[13][17][43]
  • 奧剛英语Orgone:偽科學的一个理念,支持者形容它是一種深奧的能量,或是一种宇宙假想生命的力量,最初由威廉·賴希於20世紀30年代提出[48][49][50]

建築學[编辑]

  • 風水:中國的建築學體系,往往遭科學界視為具迷信元素的偽科學[51][52][53]
  • 毘羅經典英语Vastu shastra:古印度的建築學體系,其中規定了一系列與建房氛圍有關的規則。諸如賈揚特·納里卡英语Jayant Narlikar般的科學家寫到其與環境沒有「邏輯聯繫」,並指出有時候業主会把已經建成的建築重建,以適應体系中的規定[54][55]另一個例子則是,一位部長曾下令拆遷在東面的貧民窟,使得他的辦公室門口能朝東,按毘羅的从業者所言,把入口改为大門朝東會解決他的政治問題[56][57]

物理學[编辑]

生命科學[编辑]

農業科學[编辑]

  • 生物動力農業有機農業的一種方式,把農場的生物個體統一和單一化,生物動力使用已被定為占星用途的日曆。生物動力學家所使用的物質和堆肥已被人形容为非常規和順勢。例如,驅逐田鼠的方法是當金星在天蠍座上时,準備由田鼠皮膚製成的骨灰[60][61][62][63]

應用科學[编辑]

健康與醫學[编辑]

屬偽科學的醫療行為通常被稱為庸醫英语:quack)。

  • 替代医学,已遭科学界形容為偽科學的一个分类,国家科学基金会已進行了關於「科幻和偽科學」的「公眾態度和公眾理解」的調查,包括研究替代醫學的受歡迎程度。它認為「相信替代醫學」是一項令人關注的問題,其把替代醫學定義為「所有治療方法皆沒有通過現代科學方法證明」。其引述懷疑論者調查委員會英语Committee for Skeptical Inquiry替代醫學列表後,認為当中許多屬偽科學,並提及到科學工作者、組織和科學決策團體成員所關注的問題,它評論說「儘管如此,替代醫學的受歡迎程度似乎在增加[64]……美國醫學院校中至少有60%課堂時間投入在替代療法的教學中,這在科學界引起一定爭議[64]。」有報告指,大學正在「越來越傾向於順勢療法和補充醫學,其为科學界所反對的『偽科學』學位[65] 。」学者形容替代醫學的學位為「偽科學學位[64][65][66]」、「反科學」以及「有害的」[67]
  • 人智医学英语Anthroposophic medicine:補充和替代醫學的一种[68],由魯道夫·斯坦納伊達·韋格曼英语Ita Wegman根據人智學的精神理念在20世紀20年代創立,強調以整全觀對待健康,卻不強調隨機對照試驗[69][70],人智医学会配製與症狀的「關鍵動力力量」(key dynamic forces)匹配的藥物[71],並且会準備各種稀釋液調配,最后求診者以外用、口服以及非口服的方式服用藥物的方式,來達至整體上順勢的效果[72] 。人智医学的從業者一般不建議/建議推遲疫苗接種,以及使用抗生素和退熱藥[73][74][75]。諸如羅伯特·卡羅爾英语Robert Todd Carroll般的懷疑論者,把人智医学的原則比喻為交感巫術,即治療性植物可通過它們的形態以及生理性的扭曲而被識別[76]卡羅爾和其他人表示該體系不是基於科學[76][77][78]埃得·扎德英语Edzard Ernst認為,人智醫學的功效还沒有得到獨立於它的哲學理念的全面科學分析證明,且沒有基於證據的結論可以得出該體系的整體效用[79]
  • 應用肌肉動力學英语Applied kinesiology:一种診斷方法,当中从業者会利用人手去为肌肉強度作測試,以此为根據去作出醫療診斷和處方治療,支持者相信從業者可以通過外部的物理性質確定健康問題或缺乏哪種營養,如肌肉反應、姿勢,或分析動作。各種療法的基礎是測試肌肉的無力度或動作的平滑性、並基於以下猜想——肌肉和器官之間有關的。例如從業者會給病人一手握住載有內含物的罐子,然後測試另一隻手的肌肉力量;如果有很小的抵抗力,從業者便可宣稱患者對該物質過敏[80]或疾病[81]科學並不支持某些國際學院要求應用肌肉動力學至標準診斷技術的主張[82]脊骨神經醫學的从業者往往会運用應用肌肉動力學,但自然療法从業者、醫生、牙醫、營養師、物理治療師按摩治療師、護士也可能運用應用肌肉動力學[81][83]。應用肌肉動力學不應與運動機能學英语Kinesiology相混淆,運動機能學是人體運動的科學研究。
  • 商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术英语Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques:从業者聲稱其是過敏和相關病症的一种替代診治。現有的综述得出結論:該技术所使用的診斷技術是無效的[84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91],一些醫學協會建議不要以這種方式運用應用肌肉動力學[90][92][93][94][95][96]。一些探討商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术的文獻综述直接表明:缺乏任何證據支持它的有效性,且其主張是毫無根據的[91][97]。商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术的理論基礎已被批評為缺乏科學依據[95][98]澳亚临床免疫与过敏协会英语Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy建議不要使用商布德利帕德敏感症消除技术[95]
  • 貝茨方法英语Bates method:由眼科醫生威廉·貝茨開發的一套纠正方法,旨在「自然地」提高視力,它據稱可消除眼外肌緊繃,以省去眼鏡的需求[99]。1929年,聯邦貿易委員會列舉了貝茨所編寫的書——《摘掉眼鏡完美視力》的誤導性宣傳[100],但相关投訴後來被駁回[101]。雖然有些人聲稱遵循了他的指導以后,視力的確有所改善,但貝茨關於視覺和調節的想法已遭到主流眼科和視光學界的反對[102][103][104][105][106]
  • 生理节律:假設人的生理和行為会受到分別23、28、33天為一循環的體力、情緒和智力週期所控制。該體系假定,当智力週期曲線越過基線位或附近時(個體出生時),該人判斷事物出錯的机会会增加。並沒有人發現任何與行動有关的生物物理機制,生物節律的預測能力並不比碰運气佳[6][107][108][109]。對於像晝夜節律般的生物學研究,請參見時間生物學
  • 細胞記憶:一种假設認为身體本身便能夠儲存記憶,而不是只有大腦。支持者認为它是失億後再回復記憶的根本原因[110]。這些回憶的特徵通常是以身體一個或多個部分幻肢痛來表達——支持者認为这是身體回憶過去的創傷所致,細胞記憶的想法經常是與記憶的壓抑聯繫起來,当中細胞会記憶亂倫或性虐待的经歷,並通過身體感知回憶[110][111]
  • 健腦操英语Brain Gym:一項商業培訓計劃,聲稱只要实踐者所進行的動作合乎要求,任何學習的困難都可以透過大腦中的新迴路建立來克服。他們聲稱,重複26套健腦操動作能「激活大腦,優化其儲存和提取信息的能力[112]。」,並聲稱健腦操是为了達至「身與心的融匯」而設,並能提高「集中力、記憶力、閱讀能力、寫作能力、組織能力、聽力、身體協調性等能力」[113]。科學界已駁斥了其理論基礎,並把它形容為偽科學[114][115][116][117]。有关健腦操的科學研究在经过同行評審後,發現一般情況下學業技能並無顯著改善。它所聲稱的結果並没有考慮其他變量,比如安慰劑效應、休息和運動的好處。其創始人保羅·丹尼森也承認,許多健腦操的聲稱並不是基於優良的科學(good science),而是基於他的「直覺」[118]
  • 脊骨神經醫學:一種替代医学實踐,側重於尋找脊髓的半脱位英语Vertebral subluxation(一套屬於脊骨神經醫學的症狀和體徵),並以調整脊髓的方式治療。許多現代脊骨神經醫學从業者僅僅針對機械性功能障礙,並提供健康和生活方式輔導[119][120]。然而,許多从業者根據丹尼爾·大衛·帕爾馬英语Daniel David Palmer巴特利特·約書亞·帕爾默英语B. J. Palmer的活力論作出實踐,堅持認為所有或許多的器質性疾病都是脊髓功能障礙的結果,如脊椎半脫位或先天的知能英语Innate intelligence(一种猜想能量)的流動受到損害[121][122] 。這些觀點並不是基於科學,以及目前仍没有強而有力的研究能化解脊骨神經醫學和主流醫學之間的歷史矛盾[123][124][125][126]。最近的系統綜述顯示脊骨神經醫學可能適度有益於非特異性下背痛的管理[127][128][129]。脊骨神經醫學的有效性尚未根據循證醫學的任何原則證實[130]。報告中亦提及「符合輕微的定義」的副作用,如脊柱推拿後可能出現的神經系統受損,尤其是上脊柱推拿,其發生頻率为33——61%之間,脊骨神經醫學的大多數副作用都是輕微的,如輕度酸痛、頭暈,頭昏、淺頭暈、頭痛、麻木感或上肢酸麻;很少觀察到但亦有發生的嚴重併發症則包括蛛網膜下腔出血椎動脈夾層英语Vertebral artery dissection或是脊髓病變[131][132][133][134][135]
    • 先天的知能英语Innate intelligence:一种假想能量,一些脊骨神經醫學从業者認為它的責任是流動以維持患者的健康。花大部分时間研究脊骨神經醫學的臨床心理學家約瑟夫·基廷英语Joseph C. Keating Jr.表示:「一直以來,我們的『一種原因,一種治療』这种說辭,我們應該預料到被更廣泛的健康科學界嘲笑。脊骨神經醫學不能兩者兼得。我們的理論不能同時教條式地構建生機論及科學化,帕爾默的知能的目的性、自覺性和剛性應予駁回[136]。」
    • 椎骨半脫位英语Vertebral subluxation:脊骨神經醫學的用語描述先天的知能所流動的部位病變或推測由脊椎病變引起的神經肌肉骨胳病變和內臟功能失調,科學共識並不支持脊骨神經醫學的椎骨半脫位存在[137]
  • 結腸清洗療法英语Colon cleansing:幾種替代醫學,旨在從結腸和腸道除去糞便和不明毒素。從業者相信,腐爛糞便積聚於大腸壁,並且它們窩藏寄生蟲或致病腸道菌群,造成非特異性症狀和健康欠佳。這種「自體中毒」的假設是基於古埃及人和希臘人的醫療信念,而在20世紀初名聲掃地[138][139]
  • 顱骶療法英语Craniosacral therapy:治療師把他們的手放在病人的頭骨上,使得他們能夠調節腦脊液的節奏[140]。顱骶療法的治療師聲稱顱骶療法可以治療精神緊張、頸部和背部疼痛、偏頭痛顳下頜關節功能紊亂英语Temporomandibular joint dysfunction以及慢性疼痛(如纖維肌痛)[141][142][143]。在1999年進行的系統回顧「找不到有效的科學證據表明,顱骶療法提供予患者任何好處。」並指出,「現有的低等證據是从实驗設計差的健康結果研究中衍生」和「已有報告指出患者在療法後損傷頭部的事件[144]。」顱骶療法已被很多不同的研究人員定性為偽科學或在研究人員中的名聲較差[145][146][147][148][149][150]
  • 水晶療法英语Crystal healing:相信水晶有治療作用。一度在前科學(pre-scientific)和土著人之間流行,它的知名度因20世紀70年代的新紀元運動復興[151][152]
  • 排毒英语Detoxification (alternative medicine):排毒是替代醫學範圍內的一种实践,聲稱可以去除身體內的「毒素」——在身體積累的有害物質,據稱在短期或長期內對個人健康有不良影響。許多主流媒體網站提供关於这种实践的文章,但是缺乏科學依據證明存在毒素及其危害或去除技術的功效。
  • 耳燭:一種替代醫學实践,聲稱使用空心蠟燭將一端插入外耳道,另一端點燃,可以改善整體健康和幸福感。醫學研究表明,這種实践是無效的,並有可能令人受傷,虽然可能性較低。一項調查訪問了122名耳鼻喉科醫師,發現在其職業生涯中,共有21例病例耳朵因此而受傷[153]。此過程不會幫助清除耳垢或毒性物質[154]
  • 接地气療法英语Earthing therapy:一種療法,聲稱通過直接與地面或與連接到電氣接地的裝置物理接觸可以緩解疼痛、令睡眠質素更佳並幫助緩解疾病的發炎症狀[155]。據稱,地球擁有過剩的電子,但由於絕緣鞋和地面覆蓋物的關係令人們缺少,與大地接觸能把其過量的電子提供予身體,然後充当抗氧化劑[156]
  • 電磁波過敏症:「患者」報告對暴露水平低於規定安全標準的電場和磁場或不同頻率的電磁輻射敏感。症狀並不一致,但可以包括頭痛、疲勞、睡眠困難和類似的非特異性症状[157]。研究發現,患者的不適與隱藏的輻射來源無關[158][159]和「無科學依據證明暴露於電磁場及電磁波過敏症之間目前存在的任何聯繫[160]。」
  • 信仰療法:通過諸如祈禱手禮英语Laying on of hands等行為治愈疾病。據觀察所得信仰療法沒有帶來超過安慰劑預期的肉體上的得益[6][161][162]
  • 健康手鍊及各種療法飾品——聲稱改善健康、癒合或提高穿用者的「」,如離子手鍊英语Ionized jewelry全息手鍊英语Hologram bracelet以及磁性飾品。製造商所聲稱的任何效果没有被獨立來源證實[163][164]
  • 顺势疗法:相信某物質能在健康的人身上,引起病人患某病時的病症,此物質就能治療該病症。這些準備工作通常是就以上一点稀釋製劑,任何治療方法可能也是差不多[165]。順勢療法的研究在很大程度上是負面的或不確定的[166][167][168][169] 。順勢療法的原則沒有已證實的科學依據[170][171][172][173][174][175][176]
  • 虹膜學英语Iridology:醫療診斷手段,其支持者相信能夠通過仔細檢查虹膜的標記和圖案來識別和診斷健康問題。從業人員劃分虹膜為80-90个區域,其中每一個分別連繫到特定的身體區域或器官。此連繫尚未經過科學驗證,疾病檢測既不是講究也不是具體的[177][178][179]。由於虹膜紋理是一個表型特徵,懷孕期間的在母體內發展並且出生後保持不變(這使得虹膜生物識別有用處),虹膜學幾乎是不可能成功的。
  • 腸漏綜合症英语Leaky gut syndrome:一個在替代醫學中擬議的狀態,有害物質从腸道壁外面進入的通道,被提出作為許多狀態的原因,包括多发性硬化症和自閉症。腸漏綜合症是一項已被稱為偽科學的宣稱[180]。據英國國家健康服務英语National Health Service (England)所指出,这个理論是模糊且未經證實的[181]。一些懷疑論者和科學家說,治療腸漏綜合症的市場是被誤導或故意欺詐的一個實例[181]
  • 闪电般的过程英语The Lightning Process:自稱是从整骨療法衍生的系統——神經語言規劃及生活輔導[182]。支持者聲稱,該过程可以對一系列的疾病和病症產生積極影響,包括肌痛性腦炎,但是療效沒有科學證據證明[183]。闪电般的过程的設計者菲爾·帕克(Phill Parker)表明,慢性疲勞症候群是中樞神經系統自主神經系統失調的結果,闪电般的过程旨在解決这些神经系统的失調,幫助打破「腎上腺素循環」,讓系統的應激反應維持在一个高的水平[183]
  • 磁療:使用磁場來正面地影響健康的實踐。雖然磁鐵和磁場有合法的醫療用途,但在磁療使用的磁場強度太低,不足以實現任何生理變化,使用的方法亦沒有科學有效性[6][184][185]
  • 阿育吠陀:傳統阿育吠陀是紮根於古印度5000年歷史的另類醫療實踐,基於心靈——身體的一套信念[186][187]。人的意識不平衡或壓力被認為是疾病的原因[186]。患者按着體質類型劃分(三種doshas(能量元素)被認為是控制身心和諧,以其衡量個人的體質)和治療的目的是恢復心靈——身體系統的平衡[186][187] 。長期以來,它一直是印度醫療保健的主要傳統體系[187]。它已在印度的學院和學校被制度化,但無證從業者依然普遍[188]。像其他傳統知識一樣,很多有關阿育吠陀的知識已失傳;在西方,目前與阿育吠陀有关的實踐是瑪赫西·馬赫什·瑜珈部分基於阿育吠陀的啓發[189] ,把其與傳統的超覺靜坐英语Transcendental Meditation混合。在美國,阿育吠陀最引人注目的倡導者是狄巴克·喬布拉英语Deepak Chopra,他聲稱阿育吠陀是基於量子神秘主義[189]
  • 自然療法:或稱自然醫學,基於相信活力論的一種替代醫學,其假定一種被稱为生命能量或生命力的特殊能量的存在,其会引導身體的活動如新陳代謝、繁殖、生長和適應[190]。自然療法已被定性為偽科學[191][192]。它尤其因沒被證明、被證偽或危險的治療方法而被人批評[193][194][195][196]。自然的方法以及不是人造或合成的化學品不一定更安全或更有效;任何有效果的治療也可能有有害的副作用[139][192][197][198]
  • 骨科手法醫學英语Osteopathic manipulative medicine整骨手法醫學整骨醫學的核心技術,基於安德魯·泰勒·史迪爾構想的理念,認為身體擁有的自我調節機制可能可以通過控制或移動骨骼、肌腱和肌肉得到充分利用。它被提議治療許多人類疾病,包括帕金森氏病、胰腺炎和肺炎,但只發現對下背痛有效[199][200][201]。長期以來,人們一直認為它是基於「偽科學教條」[202]。美國計算生物學家和電腦科學家史蒂芬·扎尔茨贝格英语Steven Salzberg提到整骨醫學院校教授的整骨手法醫學為“偽科學中的實踐訓練”[203]
  • 魯爾夫治療法英语Rolfing:由愛達·魯爾夫英语Ida Rolf(1896–1979) 所創,從業者聲稱能夠擺脫人體肌肉層的創傷記憶[204],沒有任何證據表明魯爾夫治療法對任何疾病有效[205]
  • 觸摸治療英语Therapeutic touch活力論的一種,醫師或護士[45][206]將他或她的手放在患者上和圍繞以“重新調整”或“平衡”假想的能量場[43]。Cochrane評價的結論是「沒有證據表明[觸摸治療]促進急性傷口癒合[207]。」並沒有人發現能量場的生物物理基礎[208][209]
  • 锡箔帽:錫箔帽是從一片或多片鋁箔製成的帽子或普通的內含箔頭飾,相信戴上它可以保護大腦,免受電磁場、精神控制和讀心術的威脅。目前沒有發現無線電頻與防止隨後健康狀況不佳的錫箔帽間有任何关係。
  • 中國傳統醫學:起源於中國的傳統醫療系統,作為一種替代醫學實踐,遍及世界大部分地區。它包含基於道家的宇宙觀元素[210],認為人體比解剖術語有更多的功能和生命力[211][212]。中國傳統醫學遵循陰陽的原則判斷健康與疾病,並歸因於能量的流動平衡或不平衡——[213][214]。診斷方法僅僅只靠身體外部,包括在人體六點切診檢查病人的舌頭、和一次病人訪談;醫師間診斷一致性較差[211][215][216][217]。中國傳統醫學描述的人體功能和結構與現代醫學根本不同,儘管一些規程和補救措施已經承諾在科学方面進行調查[213][218]
    • 针灸:用細針刺激穴位和平衡經絡,沒有已知的解剖學組織學基礎證明穴位經絡的存在[215][219],有些針灸師把它們看作是功能性,而不是結構性的實體,其在患者的評估和護理中有用[213][220][221]干针英语Dry needling是不考慮中醫知識的针灸治療。自20世紀後期,針灸一直是活躍的科研主題[222],它的作用和應用在醫學研究人員和臨床醫生間仍然存在爭議[222]。因為它是一個治療過程,而不是一种丸劑,故對照研究的設計是具有挑戰性的,像手術和其他治療過程一樣[213][222][223][224][225]。一些學術回顧的結論是針灸的作用主要是安慰劑[226][227],及其他則發現可能適用於特定條件下的功效[222][228][229][230]
    • 拔罐:古代中國的一种替代醫學,在局部皮膚產生吸力;從業者認為这可以促進血液流動去促使康復[232]。其会使用熱(火)或機械設備(手或電泵)產生吸力。拔罐的對照試驗只有一個已進行且它並沒有表現任何緩解疼痛的功效。一本由英國科普作家西蒙·辛格英语Simon Singh和Edzard Ernst寫的書聲稱,沒有證據證明拔罐對任何醫療條件產生有利影響[233]
    • 經絡:氣血流通的渠道,與幾個臟腑器官成對[211][234]。沒有已知的解剖學組織學基礎證明穴位和經絡的存在[215][219]
    • 艾灸:應用於點燃的艾蒿或艾條刺激皮膚穴位
    • :流動的生命能量,須平衡它保持健康。氣從未被直接觀測到,也與科學所使用的能量概念無關[235][236][237]
    • 中藥本草:中國傳統醫學所使用的生药。這包括許多植物的一部分或整株,如人參枸杞,及更奇異的如海馬。製劑一般混合多種成分,與基於物理特性如味道或形狀選擇,或據中國傳統醫學的臟腑[238] 。大多數製劑沒有得到嚴格的評估或沒有功效跡象[218][239][240]。研究這些製劑中潛在活性成分的生药学研究是活躍的,雖然應用並不總是符合中國傳統醫學[241]
    • 臟腑:功能性器官,其儲存陰陽和蓄存精氣[211]。這些器官不是基於解剖學。
  • 尿療法:飲用自己的未稀釋尿液或順勢療法的尿液藥劑,據稱能治療多種疾病,其是基於偽科學[242]
  • 自閉症和疫苗之間的聯繫:其中疫苗被指責引起自閉症譜系障礙、引發它們或加重他們,其已被定性為偽科學[243]。許多流行病學的研究發現缺乏證據表明MMR疫苗或含硫柳汞疫苗和自閉症的對應關係[244]。因此,醫學研究所已經得出結論,這些品種的疫苗和自閉症之間沒有因果關係[245]
  • 活力論:該學說認為生命的活動不受物理和化學定律所規限,某種程度上是生命自行決定,《偽科學百科全書》指出「今天,活力論是許多偽科學衛生系統的基礎,其聲稱疾病是由人體的生命力紊亂或失衡造成。」「活力論者宣稱自己是科學的,但實際上他們拒絕科學方法,其原因和作用基本上是假設的。他們經常認為主觀感受會更加有力於客觀物理現實[246]。」

金融[编辑]

社會科學[编辑]

心理學[编辑]

  • 依附療法英语Attachment therapy:一套有可能致命的臨床介入[256],並是一套較激進的育兒技巧的名稱,亦即实踐者会冷血地對兒童实行「剝奪和身心虐待,以尋求自己想要的效果[257]。」最常見的施行时間是大人因宣洩憤怒和惡化的情緒而剝奪孩子。当中最常見的是「重生」,亦即把孩子被緊緊包裹在毯子內,然後模擬從產道出生:鼓勵孩子努力拼搏、推動和擠壓他/她自己去模擬宮縮[6]。儘管實踐的名字不是基於傳統依附理論,它的原則亦在主流發展心理學中毫無根據可言[258]。在2006年,它是美國虐待兒童問題專業協會的關鍵主題[259]。並非所有依附療法都是強制性的,且自从康丹丝·纽梅克英语Candace Newmaker的案例後,該領域的領導人一直朝著減少脅迫行為的方向前進[259]
  • 洗腦:一种思想灌輸的理論過程,其会導致被洗腦者的自主權減少、失去獨立思考能力、關係和信念被破壞。在此情景下,洗腦是指基本信仰和價值觀被非自願地再教育。洗腦一詞已被應用到戰術、心理或其他方面,被視為可以顛覆並控制一個人的思想、行為、情感或決策。1983年,美國心理協會(APA)要求瑪格麗特·辛格英语Margaret Singer主持了一個特別小組,其叫APA說服和控制中的欺騙和間接引入技術專責小組英语APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Methods of Persuasion and Control,研究洗腦或者「強制性說服」是否的確在「邪教」的招聘中發揮作用,美國心理協會發現,洗腦的理論並沒有經驗證明,並駁回專責小組的報告,因為報告「缺乏必要的科學嚴謹性,即使是批評態度,美國心理協會的出版許可必須有科學嚴謹性[260][261]。」否決備忘錄連帶着從外部評審員本傑明·貝特·郝拉米英语Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi和杰弗裡·D·費舍爾(Jeffery D. Fisher)寄來的兩封信件,這些信件批評「洗腦」為不可識別的理論概念,以及批評辛格的推理存在缺陷,「近乎荒謬。」[262]
  • 性傾向治療:有時會稱為性傾向修復(reparative therapy),其目的是改變一個非異性戀者的性傾向,使他們不再是同性戀雙性戀[263]美國精神醫學學會界定性傾向修復療法是「心理治療……基於同性戀本身是一種精神障礙的前提或『病人』應該改變他們同性戀傾向的假設」[264][265][266]
  • 筆跡學:基於相信人格特質會不自覺地影響字跡形態的心理測試——某些類型的人會在用筆时表現出某些怪癖。字跡分析不能提供較猜測更高的人格準確度,神經科學家巴里·貝葉斯滕英语Barry Beyerstein把其比喻成交感巫術[6][45][267][268][269][270]

参见[编辑]

註腳[编辑]

  1. ^ Pollak 2002.
  2. ^ O'Neill 2008.
  3. ^ Rosenbaum 2009
  4. ^ Hummels 2009.
  5. ^ Fraknoi, Andrew. Ancient Astronauts and Erich Von Daniken. Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. October 2009 [2 November 2011]. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 entry in Shermer, Michael (编). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience (PDF). ABC–CLIO, Inc. 2002 [16 December 2013]. ISBN 1-57607-653-9. 
  7. ^ Trefil, James. Who Were the Ancient Engineers of Egypt?. Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for Skeptical Inquiry). March 2007, 17.1 [1 December 2007]. The pyramids, as impressive as they are, give no evidence at all for the presence of advanced technology at work in ancient Egypt. 
  8. ^ Kilgannon, Corey. Origin of the Species, From an Alien View. New York Times (The New York Times Company). 8 January 2010 [29 October 2010]. Mr. Sitchin has been called silly before – by scientists, historians and archaeologists who dismiss his theories as pseudoscience and fault their underpinnings: his translations of ancient texts and his understanding of physics. 
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