對伊斯蘭教的批判

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對伊斯蘭教的批评伊斯蘭教创立以來就已存在。早期對伊斯蘭的批評來自基督徒,例如9世紀前多數激進基督徒稱伊斯兰教異端[1]。到后来穆斯林世界本身也遭到批评。[2][3]九一一袭击事件和其他恐怖攻擊之後,西方國家对伊斯蘭教的批评得到延续。[4]其後也由這些批判,激起了反伊斯蘭和大部分歐洲國家反移民的浪潮的理由。

在对伊斯兰教的批判中,批评对象主要包括伊斯兰教“最后的先知”穆罕默德的伦理道德[5][6]、《古兰经》的真实性及其合乎道德的程度等。[7]非洲和印度的圖畫描述了他們認為伊斯蘭教對土著文化的破壞。 其他的批評集中在伊斯蘭世界歷史上和現代伊斯蘭國家的人權問題,包括在伊斯蘭法律的統治下對女性待遇LGBT人士和宗教和少數民族。[8][9][9] In the wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability or willingness of Muslim immigrants to assimilate in the Western world,[10] and other countries such as India[11][12][13] and Russia,[14][15] has been criticized.

歷史[编辑]

伊斯蘭教和伊斯蘭教的真實性[编辑]

道德[编辑]

女性[编辑]

對穆斯林移民和移民的批評[编辑]

歐洲移民危機開始以後,在西方國家各種極右政黨以那些穆斯林移民文化與德國法國等國文化不相容為由,作為被批評的對象,例如德國另類選擇有禁止宣禮塔的言論。[16]

對批評的回覆[编辑]

另見[编辑]

註解[编辑]

  1. ^ De Haeresibus by John of Damascus. See Migne 《希腊人教父英语Patrologia Graeca》, vol. 94, 1864, cols 763–73. An English translation by the Reverend John W Voorhis appeared in The Moslem World for October 1954, pp. 392–98.
  2. ^ Warraq, Ibn. Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus Books. 2003: 67. ISBN 1-59102-068-9. 
  3. ^ Ibn Kammuna, Examination of the Three Faiths, trans. Moshe Perlmann (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971), pp. 148–49
  4. ^ Akyol, Mustafa. Islam’s Problem With Blasphemy. The New York Times. 13 January 2015 [16 January 2015]. 
  5. ^ Mohammed and Mohammedanism, by Gabriel Oussani, Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 16, 2006.
  6. ^ Ibn Warraq, The Quest for Historical Muhammad (Amherst, Mass.:Prometheus, 2000), 103.
  7. ^ Bible in Mohammedian Literature., by Kaufmann Kohler Duncan B. McDonald, Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 22, 2006.
  8. ^ Saudi Arabia. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Timothy Garton Ash. Islam in Europe. The New York Review of Books. 2006-10-05. 
  10. ^ Tariq Modood. Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach 1st. Routledge. 2006-04-06: 29. ISBN 978-0-415-35515-5. 
  11. ^ "Indian Nepalis: Issues and Perspectives", pp. 355–56, Tanka Bahadur Subba, Concept Publishing Company, 2009, 9788180694462
  12. ^ India's 'Mexican' Problem: Illegal Immigration from Bangladesh. Ibtimes. 6 February 2012. Ghosh claimed Muslim immigrants in India are now attacking Hindus and forcibly seeking to convert Hindu girls to Islam. He has demanded that the Indian government halt illegal immigration from Bangladesh and deport undocumented Muslims back to Bangladesh. 
  13. ^ Illegal immigration from Bangladesh has turned Assam explosive. Niticentral. 2012-10-31. (原始内容存档于2013-12-15). 
  14. ^ Tatarstan: The Battle over Islam in Russia's Heartland. 2013. 
  15. ^ Russia and Islam: State, Society and Radicalism. Taylor & Francis. 2010: 94.  by Roland Dannreuther, Luke March
  16. ^ Far right AfD party says Muslims not welcome in Germany. 

參考資料[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]

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