公元前408年, 在阿尔西比亚德斯胜利之后, 大流士二世决定继续和雅典的战争并且给予斯巴达人强有力的支持。他命小居鲁士去小亚细亚作为吕底亚和弗里几亚总督主要在卡帕多细亚，成为那边波斯军队的统帅, "小亚细亚地区的军队聚集在Castolos旷野"。[來源請求] 这里,居鲁士会见了斯巴达将领吕山德。 在他身上,居鲁士发现这个男人愿意支持自己成为王, 就像吕山德希望在波斯王子的支持下成为希腊的绝对统治者。因此，居鲁士全力支持伯罗奔尼撒战争中的吕山德,可是拒绝他的继任者卡利克拉提达斯.[來源請求]
在那期间, 大流士病倒了，临终前把他的孩子叫到自己身边； 居鲁士把钱给了吕山德然后去了苏萨. 普鲁塔克写道居鲁士的妈妈帕瑞萨娣丝希望把她心爱的儿子扶上王位, "因此, 他的父亲大流士现在病了，他被从海上送到了宫庭，从那里出发，满怀希望地说，他将被宣布为王国的继承人。 For Parysatis had the specious plea in his behalf, which Xerxes on the advice of Demaratus had of old made use of, that she had borne him Arsicas when he was a subject, but Cyrus when a king.尽管, 她并不是站在大流士一方, 可是长子Arsicas已经被宣布为王, 他的名字被改成了阿尔塔薛西斯；并且居鲁士保留了吕底亚总督和沿海各省的指挥官的职位。"
- Unicode: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁
- Strassler, R.B. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. Free Press New York. 1996: 128, 549. ISBN 0-684-82790-5.
- Plutarch. Ed. by A.H. Clough. "Artaxerxes," Plutarch's Lives. 1996. Project Gutenberg
- In this courtly training Cyrus earned a double reputation; first he was held to be a paragon of modesty among his fellows, rendering an obedience to his elders which exceeded that of many of his own inferiors; and next he bore away the palm for skill in horsemanship and for love of the animal itself. Nor less in matters of war, in the use of the bow and the javelin, was he held by men in general to be at once the aptest of learners and the most eager practiser. As soon as his age permitted, the same pre-eminence showed itself in his fondness for the chase, not without a certain appetite for perilous adventure in facing the wild beasts themselves. Once a bear made a furious rush at him, and without wincing he grappled with her, and was pulled from his horse, receiving wounds the scars of which were visible through life; but in the end he slew the creature, nor did he forget him who first came to his aid, but made him enviable in the eyes of many.
- Xenophon. Tr. H. G. Dakyns. Anabasis I.IX. Project Gutenberg.
- Xenophon. Tr. H. G. Dakyns. Anabasis I.I. Project Gutenberg.
- Plutarch. Ed. by A.H. Clough. "Lysander," Plutarch's Lives. 1996. Project Gutenberg
前401年春, Cyrus united all his forces into an army now including Xenophon's "Ten Thousand", and advanced from Sardis without announcing the object of his expedition. By dexterous management and large promises, he overcame the misgivings of the Greek troops over the length and danger of the war; a Spartan fleet of thirty-five triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus into Syria and conveyed to him a Spartan detachment of 700 men under Cheirisophus. The king had only been warned at the last moment by Tissaphernes and gathered an army in haste; Cyrus advanced into Babylonia before he met with an enemy. In October 401 BC, the battle of Cunaxa ensued. Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites (citizen-soldiers), 2,500 peltasts (light infantry), and an Asiatic army of approximately 10,000 under the command of Ariaeus.[來源請求]
居鲁士看到结果依赖于王的命运; he therefore wanted Clearchus, 希腊人的统帅， to take the centre against Artaxerxes. Clearchus, out of arrogance, disobeyed. As a result, the left wing of the Persians under Tissaphernes was free to engage the rest of Cyrus' forces; Cyrus in the centre threw himself upon Artaxerxes but was slain. Tissaphernes claimed to have killed the rebel himself, and Parysatis later took vengeance upon the slayer of her favorite son.[來源請求] The Persian troops, instead of attacking the Greeks via a direct assault, decoyed them into the interior, beyond the Tigris, and then attacked through trickery. It was a solid and clever plan, but after their commanders had been taken prisoners, the Greeks managed to force their way to the Black Sea.[來源請求]
According to the chapter on Artaxerxes II in Plutarch's Life, a young Persian soldier named Mithridates unknowingly struck Cyrus the Younger during the Battle of Cunaxa (Greek: Κούναξα), making him fall from his horse, 昏倒. 一些阉人发现了居鲁士并尝试把他带到安全的地方, but a Caunian among the king's camp followers struck a vein behind his knee with a dart, making him fall and strike his head on a stone, 于是他死了。 Unwisely, Mithridates boasted of killing Cyrus in the court, and Parysatis had him executed by scaphism. She likewise got vengeance on Masabates, the king's eunuch, who had cut off Cyrus' hand and head, by winning him from her son Artaxerxes in a game of dice and having him flayed alive.
Michael Curtis Ford - The Ten Thousand - a historical novel about the 10,000 Greek mercenaries who made up the core of Cyrus's army.
Michael G. Thomas - Black Legion: Gates of Cilicia - a science fiction retelling of the tale of Anabasis. The Black Legion series closely follows the original historical narrative with most of the characters retained.
Robin Waterfield - Xenophon's Retreat: Greece, Persia, and the End of the Golden Age (London: Faber and Faber Ltd., 2006) is a summary of Xenophon's Anabasis or The Expedition of Cyrus.
It is recently believed that the Gur-e-Dokhtar could be the tomb meant for Cyrus the Younger, after the iron clamps of the monument were studied.
Category:401 BC deathsCategory:5th-century BC rulers Category:Anabasis (Xenophon) Category:Year of birth unknown Category:5th-century BC Iranian people Category:Achaemenid satraps of Lydia Category:Achaemenid satraps of Ionia Category:Rebellions against the Achaemenid Empire
- After he had been sent down by his father to be satrap of Lydia and Great Phrygia and Cappadocia, and had been appointed general of the forces, whose business it is to muster in the plain of the Castolus, nothing was more noticeable in his conduct than the importance which he attached to the faithful fulfillment of every treaty or compact or undertaking entered into with others. He would tell no lies to any one. Thus doubtless it was that he won the confidence alike of individuals and of the communities entrusted to his care; or in case of hostility, a treaty made with Cyrus was a guarantee sufficient to the combatant that he would suffer nothing contrary to its terms. Therefore, in the war with Tissaphernes, all the states of their own accord chose Cyrus in lieu of Tissaphernes, except only the men of Miletus, and these were only alienated through fear of him, because he refused to abandon their exiled citizens; and his deeds and words bore emphatic witness to his principle: even if they were weakened in number or in fortune, he would never abandon those who had once become his friends.He made no secret of his endeavour to outdo his friends and his foes alike in reciprocity of conduct. The prayer has been attributed to him, "God grant I may live along enough to recompense my friends and requite my foes with a strong arm."
- Many were the gifts bestowed on him, for many and diverse reasons; no one man, perhaps, ever received more; no one, certainly, was ever more ready to bestow them upon others, with an eye ever to the taste of each, so as to gratify what he saw to be the individual requirement. Many of these presents were sent to him to serve as personal adornments of the body or for battle; and as touching these he would say, "How am I to deck myself out in all these? To my mind a man's chief ornament is the adornment of nobly-adorned friends." Indeed, that he should triumph over his friends in the great matters of welldoing is not surprising, seeing that he was much more powerful than they, but that he should go beyond them in minute attentions, and in an eager desire to give pleasure, seems to me, I must confess, more admirable. Frequently when he had tasted some specially excellent wine, he would send the half remaining flagon to some friend with a message to say: "Cyrus says, this is the best wine he has tasted for a long time, that is his excuse for sending it to you. He hopes you will drink it up to-day with a choice party of friends." Or, perhaps, he would send the remainder of a dish of geese, half loaves of bread, and so forth, the bearer being instructed to say: "This is Cyrus's favourite dish, he hopes you will taste it yourself." Or, perhaps, there was a great dearth of provender, when, through the number of his servants and his own careful forethought, he was enabled to get supplies for himself; at such times he would send to his friends in different parts, bidding them feed their horses on his hay, since it would not do for the horses that carried his friends to go starving. Then, on any long march or expedition, where the crowd of lookers-on would be large, he would call his friends to him and entertain them with serious talk, as much as to say, "These I delight to honour."