工作记忆

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在理查德·阿特金斯(Richard Atkinson)和理查德·谢弗林(Richard Shiffrin)1968年所提出的記憶三階段模型中,工作記憶是短期記憶的另一個稱呼,後來的一些研究慢慢發現,工作記憶在人類高層次的認知作業中,如閱讀、理解和推理,扮演著重要的關鍵角色[1]

1974年,Baddeley和Hitch在模拟短时记忆障碍的实验基础上提出了工作记忆的三系统概念,用“工作记忆”(working memory,WM)替代原来的“短期記憶”(short-term memory, STM)概念。 工作记忆通常与短期记忆同义使用,但一些理论家认为这两种记忆形式是不同的,前提是工作记忆允许对存储的信息进行操作,而短期记忆仅指信息的短期存储 。[2][3] 工作记忆是认知心理学神经心理学神经科学的核心理论概念。

參見[编辑]

参考来源[编辑]

  1. ^ Robert J. Sternberg. 認知心理學. 李玉琇、蔣文祁(合譯). 台北: 雙葉書廊. 2010. ISBN 9789866637681 (中文(台灣)‎). 
  2. ^ Diamond A. Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol. 2013, 64: 135–168. PMC 4084861. PMID 23020641. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750. WM (holding information in mind and manipulating it) is distinct from short-term memory (just holding information in mind). They cluster onto separate factors in factor analyses of children, adolescents, and adults (Alloway et al. 2004, Gathercole et al. 2004). They are linked to different neural subsystems. WM relies more on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas maintaining information in mind but not manipulating it [as long as the number of items is not huge (suprathreshold)] does not need involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (D’Esposito et al. 1999, Eldreth et al. 2006, Smith & Jonides 1999). Imaging studies show frontal activation only in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex for memory maintenance that is not suprathreshold. ... WM and short-term memory also show different developmental progressions; the latter develops earlier and faster. 
  3. ^ Cowan, Nelson. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?. Prog. Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research 169. 2008: 323–338. ISBN 978-0-444-53164-3. PMC 2657600. PMID 18394484. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9.