巨大質量恆星列表

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這是一份有關巨大質量恆星的列表,依太陽質量的多寡排列(1太陽質量=太陽的質量而不是太陽系的質量)。

恆星質量是恆星最重要的一個要素。質量加上化學成分能確定一顆恆星的光度、它實際上的大小和它最後的命運。列在表上的恆星,由於它們的質量非常巨大,到最後大多都會爆發成超新星甚至是極超新星,然後形成黑洞

不確定性和警告[编辑]

藝術家筆下的遠觀巨大質量恆星

表中所列出的恆星質量都是從理論上推測的,依據的是恆星很難測定的溫度和絕對星等。所有列出的恆星質量都是不確定的:因為天文學家已經將目前的理論和測量技術發揮到了極限,而無論是理論或觀測,只要有一個錯誤,或是兩者都錯,結果就會不正確。例如仙王座VV變星,依據這顆恆星特有的產物估算,質量就可能是太陽的25至40倍,或是100倍。

大質量恆星是很罕見的,表中列出的恆星距離都在數千光年以上,它們孤單地存在著,使距離很難測量。除了很遠之外,這些質量極端巨大的恆星似乎都被噴發出來的氣體雲氣包圍著;周圍的氣體會遮蔽恆星的光度,使原本就很難測量的光度和溫度更難測量,並且也使測量他們內部化學成分變成更加複雜的問題。[1]

另一方面,雲氣的遮蔽也阻礙了觀測,而難以確認是一顆大質量恆星,還是多星系統。下表中必然有一定數量的恆星也許是轨道极近的聯星,每一顆恆星的質量必然也不小,但不一定是巨大的質量;這些系統仍然可以二選一的是一顆或多顆大質量恆星,或有許多質量不大的伴星。因此表中許多恆星的質量經常是目前被研究的主題,質量經常被重測,而且經常被校正。[2]

表中列出的質量中,數據最可靠的恆星是HD 97950 A1[3]WR 21aWR 20a,因為兩者都是聯星系統(兩顆恆星沿著軌道互繞)。天文學家能夠運用克卜勒行星運動定律,經由研究它們的軌道運動可以測量出兩顆恆星各自的質量。此外,這三者還都是食雙星,還可以測量徑向速度和光度曲線來測量質量。

恆星演化[编辑]

一定數量的恆星也許已經拋出了比目前估計還要多的質量,但因為這些巨額質量的流失是經由次級的假超新星爆炸事件產生的,因此可能已經拋出了10倍於太陽的質量。也會有一定數量的超新星和極超新星殘骸,它們的質量可以依據在爆炸前觀測到的前超新星或前極超新星的質量,和超新星或極超新星爆炸時的能量和事件的類型來估計。[4]這種恆星(如果還未爆炸)將很容易出現在這張表中(但是它們也可能不在表中)。

巨大質量的恆星列表[编辑]

图例
沃尔夫-拉叶星
高光度蓝变星
O型星
B型星
由左至右:紅矮星、太陽、藍矮星和R136a1

太陽質量60倍以上的恒星:

恒星名称 質量(太陽=1) 距離(光年) 视星等 有效温度(K) 估算方法 链接 參考文獻
BAT99-98 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 226 165000 13.38 45000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][6]
R136a1 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 215 163000 12.28 46000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [7][6]
R136a7 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 199 163000 13.97 49000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
BAT99-105 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 189 163000 12.78 47300 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
R136a2 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 187 163000 12.34 50000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [7][6]
VFTS 1022 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 178 164000 13.47 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
R136a5 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 171 157000 13.71 47000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
R136a4 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 167 157000 13.41 48000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
HSH95-46 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 160 163000 14.56 49000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
R136a3 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 154 163000 12.97 50000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [7][6]
VFTS 682 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 153 164000 16.08 52200 质光关系 SIMBAD [9][6]
HD 15558 A (位于心脏星云内的IC 1805) 152 24400 7.87 39500 双星系统 SIMBAD [10][11]
HSH95-36 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 149 163000 14.41 52000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
BAT99-116 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 147 163000 13.09 53000 双星系统 SIMBAD [12][6]
VFTS 482 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 145 164000 12.95 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
R136c (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 142 163000 13.43 51000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [13][6]
VFTS 1021 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 141 164000 13.35 39800 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
LH 10-3209 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1763) 140 160000 11.859 42500 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][15]
VFTS 506 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 138 164000 13.31 47300 质光关系 SIMBAD [9][6]
BAT99-116 B (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 136 163000 13.09 53000 双星系统 SIMBAD [12][6]
VFTS 545 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 133 164000 13.32 47300 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
HD 97950 B (位于NGC 3603内的HD 97950) 132 24800 11.33 42000 质光关系 SIMBAD [3][16]
HD 269810 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2029) 130 163000 12.22 52500 质光关系 SIMBAD [17][18]
HSH95-73 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 127 163000 15.13 33000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
WR 42e (位于NGC 3603内的HD 97950) 123 25000 14.53 43000 系统弹出 SIMBAD [20]
R136a6 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 121 157000 13.35 53000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
HD 97950 A1a (位于NGC 3603内的HD 97950) 120 24800 11.18 42000 双星系统 SIMBAD [3][16]
LSS 4067 (位于HM 1) 120 11000 11.44 40000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][22]
R136b (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 120 163000 13.24 37000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
WR 93 (位于NGC 6357内的匹斯密斯24) 120 5900 10.68 71000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][11]
Sk -69° 212 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 119 160000 12.416 45400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
Sk -69° 249 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2074) 119 160000 12.02 38900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][24]
ST5-31 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 119 160000 12.273 50700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][25]
MSP 183 (位于维斯特卢2) 115 20000 13.878 46300 质光关系 SIMBAD [26][27]
WR 24 (位于船底座星云科林德228) 114 14000 6.48 50100 恒星演化 SIMBAD [28][29]
HD 97950 C1 (位于NGC 3603内的HD 97950) 113 24800 11.89 44000 质光关系 SIMBAD [3][16]
圆拱星团-F9 (位于圆拱星团) 111.3 25000 16.1 (J波段) 36600 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
天鹅座OB2#12 A (位于天鹅座OB2) 110 5200 11.702 13700 质光关系 SIMBAD [32][33]
HD 93129 Aa (位于船底座星云内的川普勒14) 110 7500 6.9 42500 三星系统 SIMBAD [34][11]
R146 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 109 164000 13.11 63000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][6]
VFTS 621 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 107 164000 15.39 54000 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
WR 21a A (来自维斯特卢2速逃星) 103.6 26100 12.661 45000 双星系统 SIMBAD [35][18]
R99 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的N44) 103 164000 11.52 28000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][11]
HSH95-47 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 102 163000 14.72 47000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][6]
圆拱星团-F6 (位于圆拱星团) 101 25000 15.75 (J波段) 33900 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
Sk -65° 47 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1923) 101 160000 12.466 47800 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
圆拱星团-F1 (位于圆拱星团) 100.9 25000 16.3 (J波段) 33200 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
牡丹星 (靠近银心) 100 26000 12.98 (J波段) 25100 质光关系 SIMBAD [36][37]
VFTS 457 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 100 164000 13.74 39800 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
海山二 A (位于船底座星云内的川普勒16) 100 7500 4.3 9400-35200 质光关系 SIMBAD [38][39]
默瑟30-1 A (位于龙鱼星云内的默瑟30) 99 40000 10.33 (J波段) 32200 恒星演化 SIMBAD [40]
Sk -68° 137 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 99 160000 13.346 50000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][15]
HSH95-48 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 98 163000 14.75 49000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
WR 25 A (位于船底座星云内的川普勒16) 98 6500 8.8 50100 恒星演化 SIMBAD [28][11]
BI 253 (来自大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云速逃星) 97.6 164000 13.76 54000 质光关系 SIMBAD [13][41]
R136a8 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 96 157000 14.42 51000 质光关系 SIMBAD [19][6]
HD 38282 B (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 95 163000 11.11 47000 双星系统 SIMBAD [42][18]
HM 1-6 (位于HM 1) 95 11000 11.64 44700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][43]
NGC 3603-42 (位于NGC 3603内的HD 97950) 95 25000 12.86 50000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][16]
R139 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 95 163000 11.94 35000 双星系统 SIMBAD [5][6]
BAT99-6 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1747) 94 165000 11.95 165000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
HSH95-49 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 94 163000 14.75 48000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
Sk -66° 172 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的N64) 94 160000 13.1 46300 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][15]
ST2-22 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 94 160000 14.3 51300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][44]
VFTS 259 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 94 164000 13.65 37600 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
VFTS 562 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 94 164000 13.66 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
VFTS 512 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 93 164000 14.28 47300 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
HD 97950 A1b (位于NGC 3603内的HD 97950) 92 24800 11.18 40000 双星系统 SIMBAD [3][16]
VFTS 16 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 91.6 164000 13.55 50600 质光关系 SIMBAD [13][6]
HD 97950 A3 (位于NGC 3603内的HD 97950) 91 24800 12.95 50000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][16]
NGC 346-W1 (位于小麦哲伦星系内的NGC 346) 91 200000 12.57 43400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][45]
HSH95-45 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 90 163000 14.65 42000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
R127 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2055) 90 160000 10.15 18500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [46][18]
VFTS 333 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 90 164000 12.49 37600 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
VFTS 267 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 89 164000 13.49 44700 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
VFTS 64 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 88 164000 14.621 39800 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][15]
BAT99-80 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 87 165000 13 45000 质光关系 SIMBAD [23][44]
R140b (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 87 165000 12.66 47000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][6]
VFTS 542 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 87 164000 13.47 44700 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
VFTS 599 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 87 164000 13.8 44700 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
WR 89 (位于HM 1) 87 11000 11.02 39800 恒星演化 SIMBAD [28][18]
圆拱星团-F7 (位于圆拱星团) 86.3 25000 15.74 (J波段) 32900 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
Sk -69° 104 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1910) 86 160000 12.1 39900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
VFTS 1017 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 86 164000 14.5 50100 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
布雷21 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1910) 85 160000 11.29 71000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][18]
LH 10-3061 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1763) 85 160000 13.491 52000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][15]
Sk 80 (位于小麦哲伦星系内的NGC 346) 85 200000 12.31 38900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][47]
VFTS 603 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 85 164000 13.99 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
Sk -70° 91 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的BSDL 1830) 84.09 165000 12.78 48900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [48][15]
R147 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 84 164000 12.993 47300 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][49]
HD 93250 A (位于船底座星云内的川普勒16) 83.3 7500 7.5 46000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [50][11]
HSH95-30 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 83 163000 14.21 37000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
WR 20a A (位于维斯特卢2) 82.7 20000 13.28 43000 双星系统 SIMBAD [51]
OGLE-ECL-17 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2048) 82 160000 14.05 45000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][15]
WR 20a B (位于维斯特卢2) 81.9 20000 13.28 43000 双星系统 SIMBAD [51]
川普勒27-27 (位于川普勒27) 81 3900 13.31 37000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][18]
BAT99-96 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 80 165000 13.76 42000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][6]
HD 15570 (位于心脏星云内的IC 1805) 80 7500 8.11 46000 质光关系 SIMBAD [10][11]
HD 38282 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 80 163000 11.11 47000 双星系统 SIMBAD [42][18]
HSH95-70 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 80 163000 14.96 47000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
圆拱星团-F15 (位于圆拱星团) 79.7 25000 16.12 (J波段) 35600 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
BI 237 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的BSDL 2527) 79.66 165000 13.83 51300 质光关系 SIMBAD [48][15]
VFTS 94 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 79 164000 14.161 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][15]
VFTS 151 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 79 164000 14.13 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
HSH95-31 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 78 163000 14.12 48000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
LH 41-32 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1910) 78 160000 13.086 48200 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
匹斯密斯24-17 (位于NGC 6357内的匹斯密斯24) 78 5900 11.84 42700 质光关系 SIMBAD [52][43]
VFTS 404 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 78 164000 14.14 44700 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
HSH95-112 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 77 163000 15.74 36000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
BAT99-68 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的BSDL 2505) 76 165000 14.13 45000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
HD 93632 (位于船底座星云科林德228) 76 10000 8.23 45400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][11]
NGC 346-W3 (位于小麦哲伦星系内的NGC 346) 76 200000 12.8 52500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][45]
VFTS 169 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 76 164000 14.437 47300 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][15]
VFTS 440 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 76 164000 12.046 39800 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][15]
AB1 (位于小麦哲伦星系内的DEM S10) 75 197000 15.238 79000 质光关系 SIMBAD [53][45]
WR 22 A (位于船底座星云波鸿10) 75 8300 6.42 44700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [28][11]
匹斯密斯24-1NE (位于NGC 6357内的匹斯密斯24) 74 6500 11 42500 双星系统 SIMBAD [52][54]
VFTS 608 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 74 164000 14.22 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
默瑟30-3 (位于龙鱼星云内的默瑟30) 73 40000 12.62 (J波段) 39300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [40]
默瑟30-11 (位于龙鱼星云内的默瑟30) 73 40000 12.33 (J波段) 36800 恒星演化 SIMBAD [40]
VFTS 566 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 73 164000 14.05 44700 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
LH 64-16 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2001) 72 160000 13.666 50900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][25]
NGC 2044-W35 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 72 160000 14.1 48200 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
VFTS 216 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 72 164000 14.389 44700 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][15]
HSH95-58 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 71 163000 14.8 50000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
ST2-1 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 71 160000 14.3 44100 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][44]
VFTS 3 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 71 164000 11.56 21000 质光关系 SIMBAD [55][6]
圆拱星团-F12 (位于圆拱星团) 70 25000 16.4 (J波段) 36900 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
布雷50 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2033) 70 165000 13.25 117000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][18]
HD 15629 (位于心脏星云内的IC 1805) 70 7500 8.42 45900 质光关系 SIMBAD [10][11]
HD 37974 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的N135) 70 163000 10.99 22500 质光关系 SIMBAD [56][18]
HD 93129 Ab (位于船底座星云内的川普勒14) 70 7500 7.31 44000 三星系统 SIMBAD [34][57]
M33 X-7 B (位于三角座星系) 70 2700000 18.7 35000 双星系统 SIMBAD [58][59]
Sk -69° 194 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2033) 70 160000 12.131 45000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][49]
VFTS 125 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 69.6 164000 16.6 55200 质光关系 SIMBAD [13][44]
HD 46150 (位于蔷薇星云内的NGC 2244) 69 5200 6.73 44000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][11]
HD 229059 (位于伯克利87) 69 3000 8.7 26300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][11]
ST2-3 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 69 160000 14.264 44900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
ST2-32 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 69 160000 13.903 45400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
W28-23 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2033) 69 160000 13.702 51300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][25]
HD 93403 A (位于船底座星云内的川普勒16) 68.5 10400 8.27 39300 双星系统 SIMBAD [60][18]
HD 93130 (位于船底座星云科林德228) 68 10000 8.04 39900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][11]
HM 1-8 (位于HM 1) 68 11000 12.52 46100 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][43]
HSH95-75 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 68 163000 15.08 39000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
BAT99-93 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 67 165000 13.446 45000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
Sk -69° 200 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2033) 67 160000 11.18 26300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
圆拱星团-F18 (位于圆拱星团) 66.9 25000 16.7 (J波段) 36900 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
圆拱星团-F4 (位于圆拱星团) 66.4 25000 15.63 (J波段) 36800 质光关系 SIMBAD [30][31]
BAT99-59 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2020) 66 165000 13.186 71000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
BAT99-104 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 66 165000 12.5 63000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
HD 5980 B (位于小麦哲伦星系内的NGC 346) 66 200000 11.31 45000 三星系统 SIMBAD [61][57]
HD 190429 A (靠近巴纳德146) 66 7800 6.63 46000 双星系统 SIMBAD [62][11]
LH 31-1003 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1858) 66 160000 13.186 41900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
LH 114-7 位于大麦哲伦星系内的N70) 66 160000 13.66 50000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][15]
匹斯密斯24-1SW (位于NGC 6357内的匹斯密斯24) 66 6500 11.1 40000 双星系统 SIMBAD [52][54]
BAT99-126 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2081) 65 165000 13.166 71000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
HSH95-89 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 65 163000 14.76 44000 质光关系 SIMBAD [19]
VFTS 63 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 65 164000 14.4 42200 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][44]
VFTS 145 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 65 164000 14.3 39800 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
VFTS 518 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 65 164000 15.11 44700 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
BD+43° 3654 (来自天鹅座OB2速逃星) 64.6 5400 10.06 40400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [63][57]
BAT99-129 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的DEM L294) 64 165000 14.701 79000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
HSH95-68 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 64 163000 15.15 43000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
Sk -69° 25 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1748) 64 160000 11.886 43600 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
川普勒27-23 (位于川普勒27) 64 3900 10.09 27500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][18]
HD 46223 (位于蔷薇星云内的NGC 2244) 63 5200 7.28 46000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][11]
HD 64568 (位于船尾座OB2内的NGC 2467) 63 16000 9.39 54000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][18]
HD 303308 (位于船底座星云内的川普勒16) 63 9200 8.17 51300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][18]
HR 6187 A (位于天坛座OB1内的NGC 6193) 63 4300 5.54 46500 七星系统 SIMBAD [64][11]
LH 10-3058 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1763) 63 160000 14.089 54000 质光关系 SIMBAD [14][15]
ST5-71 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2074) 63 160000 13.266 45400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
AB9 (位于小麦哲伦星系内的DEM S80) 62 197000 15.431 100000 质光关系 SIMBAD [53][45]
布雷32 B (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1966) 62 165000 12.32 43600 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][18]
HD 93160 (位于船底座星云内的川普勒14) 62 8000 7.6 42700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [21][11]
LH 41-1017 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1910) 62 160000 12.266 42700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
默瑟30-6a A (位于龙鱼星云内的默瑟30) 62 40000 10.39 (J波段) 29900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [40]
ST4-18 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2081) 62 160000 13.639 44800 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
VFTS 664 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 62 164000 13.937 39900 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][15]
HD 229196 (位于天鹅座OB9) 61.6 5000 8.59 40900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [63][43]
AB8 B (位于小麦哲伦星系内的NGC 602) 61 197000 12.83 45000 双星系统 SIMBAD [61][65]
BAT99-79 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2044) 61 165000 13.486 42000 质光关系 SIMBAD [5][15]
HD 5980 A (位于小麦哲伦星系内的NGC 346) 61 200000 11.31 37000 三星系统 SIMBAD [61][57]
HSH95-64 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 61 163000 15.03 40000 质光关系 SIMBAD [7][19]
LH 41-18 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1910) 61 160000 12.586 38500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
默瑟30-9 A (位于龙鱼星云内的默瑟30) 61 40000 12.25 (J波段) 34500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [40]
ST5-25 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2074) 61 160000 13.551 48600 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][25]
VFTS 422 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 61 164000 15.14 39800 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
WR 102hb (位于五合星团) 61 26000 13.9 (J波段) 25100 恒星演化 SIMBAD [66][67]
Sk -67° 166 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的GKK-A144) 60.68 160000 12.22 41800 质光关系 SIMBAD [48][15]
Sk -67° 167 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的GKK-A144) 60.68 160000 12.586 41800 质光关系 SIMBAD [48][15]
Sk -71° 46 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的BSDL 2242) 60.68 160000 13.241 41800 质光关系 SIMBAD [48][15]
布雷10 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1770) 60 165000 12.69 117000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][18]
布雷94 A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2081) 60 165000 12.996 83000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][15]
布雷95a A (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2081) 60 165000 12.2 83000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][68]
默瑟30-7 A (位于龙鱼星云内的默瑟30) 60 40000 11.52 (J波段) 41400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [40]
R134 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 60 164000 12.75 39800 质光关系 SIMBAD [8][6]
R142 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 60 164000 11.82 18000 质光关系 SIMBAD [55][6]
R143 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 60 160000 12.014 27000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [46][15]
Sk -69° 142a (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 1983) 60 160000 11.093 34000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [46][49]
Sk -69° 259 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的NGC 2081) 60 160000 11.93 23000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [23][18]
Var 83 (位于三角座星系) 60 3000000 16.027 27500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [69][70]
VFTS 430 (位于大麦哲伦星系内的蜘蛛星云) 60 164000 15.11 24500 质光关系 SIMBAD [55][6]

一些常见的质量在60个太阳质量之下的恒星:

恒星名称 質量(太陽=1) 距離(光年) 视星等 有效温度(K) 估算方法 链接 參考文獻
弧矢增二十二 (位于船帆座分子云脊内的船帆座R2) 56.1 1080 2.25 40000 质光关系 SIMBAD [62][11]
造父三 (来自仙王座OB3速逃星) 51.4 3100 5.05 36000 质光关系 SIMBAD [62][11]
弧矢增六 Aa (位于NGC 2362) 50 5120 4.89 32000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [71][11]
参宿二 (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 44 2000 1.69 27500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [72][11]
伐二 A (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 39 1500 5.02 34900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [73][74]
少卫/紫微右垣六 (来自NGC 1502速逃星) 37.6 6000 4.29 29000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [75][11]
天津增九 (位于天鹅座OB1内的IC 4996) 37 5100 4.82 18700 质光关系 SIMBAD [76][11]
尾宿三 (位于天蝎座OB1内的NGC 6231) 36 8210 4.705 17200 质光关系 SIMBAD [77][78]
参宿一 Aa (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 33 1260 2.08 29500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [79]
伐一C1 (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户四边形星团) 33 1340 5.13 39000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [80][11]
王良二 (位于仙后座OB14) 33 4000 4.16 23500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [81][11]
海山二 B (位于船底座星云内的川普勒16) 30 7500 4.3 37200 双星系统 SIMBAD [82][39]
天社一 B (位于船帆座OB2) 28.5 1230 1.83 35000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [83][11]
觜宿一 A (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座λ星协) 27.9 1100 3.54 37700 质光关系 SIMBAD [84][85]
卷舌三 (位于英仙座OB2内的加州星雲) 26.1 1200 4.04 35000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [75][11]
WR 79a (位于天蝎座OB1内的NGC 6231) 24.4 5600 5.77 35000 质光关系 SIMBAD [86][11]
参宿三 Aa1 (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 24 1200 2.5 29500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [87][88]
伐三 Aa1 (位于猎户座分子云团内的NGC 1980) 23.1 1340 2.77 32500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [89][90]
WR 78 (位于天蝎座OB1内的NGC 6231) 22 4100 6.48 50100 质光关系 SIMBAD [28][29]
军市增五 (位于科林德121) 21.4 2800 3.043 15500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [91][11]
参宿七 A (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 21 860 0.13 12100 恒星演化 SIMBAD [92][11]
弧矢二 (位于科林德121) 21 2000 2.45 15000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [81][11]
天市右垣十一/ (位于天蝎-半人马星协内的上天蝎次集团) 20.2 370 2.569 34000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [75][11]
参宿增三十六 (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 20 2900 4.618 33400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [93][94]
参宿增一 Aa (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 18 1260 4.07 35000 质光关系 SIMBAD [95][96]
(来自猎户四边形星团速逃星) 16 1300 5.18 33000 质光关系 SIMBAD [97][11]
参宿六 (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 15.5 650 2.09 26500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [71][11]
天津增二十八 (位于天鹅座OB4) 15 3260 4.233 10800 恒星演化 SIMBAD [98][99]
南船三 A (位于天蝎-半人马星协内的IC 2602) 14.9 460 2.76 31000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [71][100]
伐二 B (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 14.8 1500 6.38 29300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [101]
卷舌四 (位于英仙座OB2) 14.5 750 2.86 20800 恒星演化 SIMBAD [71][11]
参宿增一 B (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 14 1260 4.07 31000 质光关系 SIMBAD [95][96]
军市一 (位于本地泡) 13.5 490 1.985 23200 恒星演化 SIMBAD [102][103]
卷舌二 A (位于英仙座α星团) 13.5 640 2.88 26500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [71][104]
伐三 Aa2 (位于猎户座分子云团内的NGC 1980) 13.1 1340 2.77 27000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [89][90]
房宿三 A (位于天蝎-半人马星协内的上天蝎次集团) 13 440 2.307 27400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [105][106]
参宿增一 Ab (位于猎户座分子云团内的猎户座OB1) 13 1260 4.07 29000 质光关系 SIMBAD [95][96]
苍蝇座θ Aa (位于半人马座OB1) 11.5 7400 5.53 83000 质光关系 SIMBAD [107][11]
天社一 A (位于船帆座OB2) 9 1230 1.83 57000 质光关系 SIMBAD [83][11]
心宿增四 A (位于蛇夫座ρ星云复合体) 8.7 360 4.63 22000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [108][11]
心宿二 B (位于环泡1) 7.2 550 5.5 18500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [105][85]
毕宿八 A (位于双鱼-波江座星流) 7.18 480 3.47 18700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [71][109]
天船五 (位于英仙座α星团) 7 520 3.01 14900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [110][100]
天船四 (位于英仙座α星团) 6.2 580 4.31 16000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [110][11]
孔雀十一 (位于杜鹃-时钟座星协) 5.91 180 1.94 17700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [111][90]
昴宿六 A (位于昴宿星團) 5.9 440 2.87 12300 恒星演化 SIMBAD [112][11]
天狼增四 (位于科林德121) 5.6 440 4.1 13600 恒星演化 SIMBAD [110][113]
蓋屋一 (位于双鱼-波江座星流) 4.3 440 4.71 13500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [110][114]
天庾一 (位于双鱼-波江座星流) 3.65 370 4.69 13400 恒星演化 SIMBAD [115][11]
天园三 (位于杜鹃-时钟座星协) 3.55 150 3.55 13700 恒星演化 SIMBAD [116][117]
小斗七 (位于天蝎-半人马星协内的蝘蜓座η移动星群) 3.2 310 5.453 12500 恒星演化 SIMBAD [110][57]
小斗二 (位于天蝎-半人马星协内的蝘蜓座ε移动星群) 2.87 360 4.91 10900 恒星演化 SIMBAD [118][100]
蛇腹二 (位于杜鹃-时钟座星协) 2.64 150 4.12 11000 恒星演化 SIMBAD [119][110]
鸟喙四 A (位于杜鹃-时钟座星协) 2.5 140 4.37 10600 恒星演化 SIMBAD [120][85]
羽林軍二十五 (位于双鱼-波江座星流) 2 320 5.66 10600 恒星演化 SIMBAD [110][121]
太阳 (位于太阳系) 1 0.0000158 -26.744 5772 测定标准 NASA [122][123][124]

黑洞[编辑]

黑洞是巨型恆星的最終演化物。理論上它們不是恆星,它們核心不再引起核聚變。另外,理论上存在的微黑洞与恒星演化无关。

愛丁頓光度極限[编辑]

天文學家經過長期推論的結果顯示,一顆原恆星成長到120倍太陽質量以上時必然會猛烈爆炸。很早期的第三星族星可以超過這個極限,如果目前宇宙存在任何質量超過120倍太陽質量的恆星,它們將對現時的恆星演化理論產生疑慮。

質量極限出現的原因是因為擁有更巨大質量的恆星在消耗燃料的速率更快,比其他中小質量的恆星更加巨大。如果一顆巨型恆星在恆星核心引起核聚變所發岀的壓力發光能量超出它本身內部拉扯重力,就稱為愛丁頓極限。在超過這個極限時,恆星將會開始推擠自己,或流失足夠的質量使內部降低到至恆星可以承受的速率。在理論上,由於恆星風會讓許多物質流出,一顆更巨大的恆星不能一直維持如此巨大的質量。[128]

天文學家在研究銀河系已知恆星最密集的星群:圓拱星團後,證實在那裏不存在質量達到150倍太陽質量的恆星,但经过对大麦哲伦云星系R136超星团研究后,却发现了多颗超过这一极限的恒星,这些超大的恒星很有可能是合并的产物。[129]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ What is a star?. Royal Greenwich Observatory. [2006-09-07]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-03). 
  2. ^ Hinshaw, Gary. The Life and Death of Stars. NASA WMAP Mission. August 23, 2006 [2006-09-01]. (原始内容存档于2008-03-12). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Crowther, Paul A.; Schnurr, Olivier; Hirschi, Raphael; Yusof, Norhasliza; Parker, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.; Kassim, Hasan Abu. The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150 M⊙ stellar mass limit. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 21 October 2010, 408 (2): 731–751 [2021-06-08]. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.408..731C. ISSN 0035-8711. S2CID 53001712. arXiv:1007.3284可免费查阅. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17167.x. (原始内容存档于2017-05-17) (英语). 
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