布吉人

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Hofdames in Bone Celebes TMnr 10003352.jpg

布吉人又译作武吉斯人马来语Orang Bugis),印度尼西亚苏拉威西3个主要民族中人口最多的一个。

许多布吉人居住在望加锡、Pare-pare这样的港口城市,但更多布吉人居住在Maros的低地平原上,从事农业。有自己的民族语言布吉语。在欧洲的文献中,布吉人以勤劳勇敢闻名。马来西亚雪兰莪州也有少量布吉人分布。

歷史[编辑]

生活方式[编辑]

宗教[编辑]

五種性別[编辑]

布吉人的社會當中,將性別分為五類。分別是oroané、makkunrai、bissu、calabai、以及calalai。前兩者是屬於順性別,後兩者可能會被粗略的視為跨性別,而bissu則是一種更加抽象的身分。

oroané[编辑]

順性別男性,指出生時的生物性別是男性,自己也認為自己是男性。

makkunrai[编辑]

順性別女性,指出生時的生物性別是女性,自己也認為自己是女性。

bissu[编辑]

Bissu 是布吉人的五種性別之一。 There are divergent theories regarding the definitive origins and meaning of "gender transcendent", as the bissu are commonly called.[1]

To be considered bissu, all aspects of gender must be combined to form a whole. This can include those who are born intersexed. However, being bissu does not necessarily mean one does not possess only fully functioning male or female sexual organs, or even that one would not be called a cisgender male or female outside of Bugis society.[2]

The role of the bissu (along with the other gender roles not normally found in Western society) exist in Bugis society because it is a cultural belief that all five genders must harmoniously coexist.

The advice of bissu is typically sought when a particular approval from the powers of the batin world is required. This may, for example, be the situation when a Bugis person is departing Sulawesi for the Hajj, the compulsory pilgrimage to Mecca. In that situation the bissu will permit an excellent djinn to seize them and to proceed as an emissary of the batin.

This is not in keeping with traditional Islam, but it has been tolerated by the regional Muslim establishment on condition that it does not comprise any act that is evidently in opposition to the Sharia. In this exceptional case, it means that the spirit and the Bissu's powers should not be measured as in any way autonomous from Allah’s power, because he is the only one who is to be venerated.

在日常的生活中,bissu與calabai 、calalai,,都可以進出住宅及村落當中的男性區域與女性區域。

calabai[编辑]

Calabai是布吉人的五種性別之一。根據布吉人的性別系統,Calabai是"錯置的女性",也就是說在出生的時候被登記為男性,但是卻在社會中扮演著異性戀女性的角色

The fashions and gender expression of Calabai individuals are distinctly feminine, but do not match that of the "typical" cis-gendered woman.

"If there is to be a wedding in Bugis society, more often than not calabai will be involved in the organization. When a wedding date has been agreed upon, the family will approach a calabai and negotiate a wedding plan. The calabai will be responsible for many things: setting up and decorating the tent, arranging the bridal chairs, bridal gown, costumes for the groom and the entire wedding party (numbering up to twenty-five), makeup for all those involved, and all the food. Rarely did I attend a village wedding with less than a thousand guests. On the day, some calabai remain in the kitchen preparing food while others form part of the reception, showing guests to their seats."[Sharyn Graham]

calalai[编辑]

calalai指的是出生時的性別為女性,但是在布吉人的社會當中扮演著異性戀男性的角色。calalai無論在穿著或是舉止上都像男性,從事陽剛特質的工作,而且會與其女性伴侶同居已領養小孩。

外部連結[编辑]