希臘正教會

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希臘正教(正教会,青色线条表示)與其他基督教派的分流、关系圖
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希臘正教會希腊语Ελληνορθόδοξη Εκκλησία英语:Greek Orthodox Church)是東羅馬帝國國家教會分裂後,東羅馬正教會的幾個教會統稱[1][2][3],其神學根植於初期教父以及拜占庭文化,禮拜儀式使用通用希臘語[4][5][6]與普世牧首共融。其起源於近東的初期基督教以及拜占庭帝國,今天的東正教修道最重要的中心為在埃及西奈半島聖凱瑟琳修道院和以及馬其頓阿索斯山

東西教會大分裂時與羅馬天主教會各分東西,並斯拉夫正教會等正教會共融成為東正教會

沿革[编辑]

希臘正教的起源可以追溯到公元一世紀的巴爾幹中東地區教會[7][8][9][10][11][12][13],它保留了許多古代教會的傳統。[13]希臘正教以及普世正教會不像天主教一樣以單一主教管轄,如教宗,而是由多個自主教會組成一個群集。並由君士坦丁堡普世牧首為平等的精神領袖。

希臘正教重視與其他東正教教會(如俄羅斯東正教)的團結與交流。東正教有著共同的教義和崇拜儀式,他們認為自己不是一個個獨立的教會,而是作為同一個教會的一小部份。希臘正教最著名的是其保有豐富意象的傳統(參見:拜占庭藝術)、對上帝聖母的崇拜、以及使用可以追溯到公元四世紀,由聖約翰創立的富有東正教特色的事奉聖禮

現今有部分希臘東正教徒,其祖先歷史可以追溯到拜占庭和奧斯曼時期,他們的祖先使用阿拉伯語希臘語,生活在土耳其南部、以色列巴勒斯坦伊拉克敘利亞黎巴嫩約旦埃及。他們使用阿拉伯語且保持了拜占庭的希臘文化傳統。[14][15][16]君士坦丁堡在基督教創立以來的前八個世紀,其在羅馬帝國的影響範圍內是基督教最重要的智慧,文化和社會發展與傳承中心[16][17][18][19],而今日希臘正教的大多數儀式、傳統和做法至今仍然在君士坦丁堡教會運作。於公元10世紀,希臘正教使得斯拉夫民族開始發展文明以及與其他歐洲國家接觸,並發展出了斯拉夫正教會禮儀。[20][21] [22][22][23][23][24]

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参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Demetrios J. Constantelos, Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church, Holy Cross Orthodox Press 3rd edition (March 28, 2005)
  2. ^ L. Rushton, Doves and magpies: village women in the Greek Orthodox Church Women's religious experience, Croom Helm, 1983
  3. ^ Paul Yuzyk, The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada, 1918–1951, University of Ottawa Press, 1981
  4. ^ Demetrios J. Constantelos, The Greek Orthodox Church: faith, history, and practice, Seabury Press, 1967
  5. ^ Daniel B. Wallace: Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, page 12,.  Zondervan, 1997.
  6. ^ Robert H. Stein: The method and message of Jesus' teachings, page 4,.  Westminster John Knox Press, 1994.
  7. ^ Janet Saltzman Chafetz; Helen Rose Ebaugh. Religion and the New Immigrants: Continuities and Adaptations in Immigrant Congregations. AltaMira Press. 18 October 2000: 155 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-7591-1712-9. The distinctive characteristics of the Greek Orthodox Church are its sense of continuity with the ancient Church of Christ and the Apostles and its changelessness. The Orthodox church traces its existence, through the ordinatinon of Bishops. directly back to the Apostles and through them to Jesus. 
  8. ^ Sally Bruyneel; Alan G. Padgett. Introducing Christianity. Orbis Books. 2003: 7 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-1-60833-134-5. The Eastern Orthodox and thye Roman Catholic Churches are the oldest with roots going back to the earliest Christian groups. 
  9. ^ Benjamin Jerome Hubbard; John T. Hatfield; James A. Santucci. An Educator's Classroom Guide to America's Religious Beliefs and Practices. Libraries Unlimited. 2007: 63 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-1-59158-409-4. The Orthodox Church traces its origins to the churches founded by the apostles in the Middle East and the Balkans in the first century. 
  10. ^ Robert L. Plummer. Journeys of Faith: Evangelicalism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Anglicanism. Zondervan. 6 March 2012: 128 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-310-41671-5. Catholicism holds that if a Church claims to be Christian, then it must be able to show that its leaders-its bishops and its presbyters (or priests)- are successors of the apostles. That is why the Catholic Church accepts Eastern Orthodox ordinations and sacraments as valid, even though Eastern Orthodoxy is not in full communion with Rome. 
  11. ^ William A. Dyrness; Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen. Global Dictionary of Theology: A Resource for the Worldwide Church. InterVarsity Press. 25 September 2009: 244 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-8308-7811-6. This connection is apparent through the historical succession of bishops of churches in a particular geographic locale and by fidelity to the teachings of the apostles (cf. Acts 2:42) and life as it developed in the patristic tradition and was articulated by the seven ecumenical councils. 
  12. ^ Heidi A Campbell. When Religion Meets New Media. Routledge. 22 March 2010: 13 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-203-69537-1. There are three branches within Christianity: Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. ... The Christian church draws its lineage and roots from the time of Jesus Christ and the apostles in CE 25–30 and the birth of the Church at Pentecost in ... 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Wendy Doniger. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. January 1999: 309 [2 September 2013]. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. EASTERN ORTHODOXY, one of the major branches of CHRISTIANITY, characterized by its continuity with the apostolic church, its liturgy, and its territorial churches. 
  14. ^ Byzantium in Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing Vol. 1, Kelly Boyd (ed.), Fitzroy Dearborn publishers, 1999 ISBN 978-1-884964-33-6
  15. ^ Edwin Pears, The destruction of the Greek Empire and the story of the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, Haskell House, 1968
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Millar, Fergus. A Greek Roman Empire : power and belief under Theodosius II (408–450). University of California Press. 2006: 279 pages. ISBN 0-520-24703-5. 
  17. ^ Tanner, Norman P. The Councils of the Church, ISBN 978-0-8245-1904-9
  18. ^ The Byzantine legacy in the Orthodox Church by John Meyendorff – 1982
  19. ^ Hugh Wybrew, The Orthodox liturgy: the development of the eucharistic liturgy in the Byzantine rite – 1990
  20. ^ The Christian Churches of the East, Vol. II: Churches Not in Communion with Rome by Donald Attwater – 1962
  21. ^ J Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes (1987)
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Joan M. Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, 1990
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs Christendom – 1970
  24. ^ Andreĭ Lazarov Pantev, Bŭlgarska istorii︠a︡ v evropeĭski kontekst – 2000

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