希钦斯剃刀

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希钦斯剃刀是一句认识论哲学剃刀法则,该法则认为举证责任在于提出理论者,如果提出者举不出实例对应理论,那么反驳者进行反驳时也不需要举出实例。

概述[编辑]

无证据的断言可以无证据的驳回。[1][2][3][4] — 希钦斯的剃刀,克里斯托弗·希钦斯

这个概念以作家,科普学家,新无神论者克里斯托弗·希钦斯命名,致敬了奥卡姆剃刀[5][6][7]该格言出自希钦斯2007年所著的《神并不伟大:宗教如何毒害了万物》 。[8][4]它是萨根标准(“特别的主张要有特别的证据”)的一个更强的,适用于一切主张的法则。

历史[编辑]

希钦斯的剃刀是对一句拉丁语的改编quod grātīs asseritur, grātīs negātur (“毫无根据的假设可以被毫无根据的反驳”),这句话在19世纪被人们挂在嘴边。[9][10]

另见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Oxford Essential Quotations (4 ed.): Facts. Oxford Press. Oxford University Press. [19 June 2019]. (原始内容存档于2019-09-26). What can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence. Christopher Hitchens 1949–2011 English-born American journalist and writer: in Slate Magazine 20 October 2003 
  2. ^ McGrattan, Cillian. The Politics of Trauma and Peace-Building: Lessons from Northern Ireland. Abingdon: Routledge. 2016: 2. ISBN 978-1138775183. 
  3. ^ Antony, Michael. Where’s The Evidence?. Philosophy Now: a magazine of ideas. Issue 78. 2010 [19 June 2019]. (原始内容存档于2019-09-26). As Christopher Hitchens is fond of saying, ‘what can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence.’ 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Hitchens, Christopher. God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything Kindle. Twelve Books. 6 April 2009: 258. ASIN B00287KD4Q. What can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence. This is even more true when the ‘evidence’ eventually offered is so shoddy and self-interested. 
  5. ^ Kinsley, Michael. In God, Distrust. The New York Times. 13 May 2007 [19 June 2019]. (原始内容存档于2019-07-04). Hitchens is attracted repeatedly to the principle of Occam’s razor 
  6. ^ Melchior, Jillian. Inside the Madness at Evergreen State. The Wall Street Journal. 21 September 2017 [19 June 2019]. (原始内容存档于2019-07-04). Mr. Coffman cited Christopher Hitchens's variation of Occam's razor: 'What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without' [evidence] 
  7. ^ Hitchens, Christopher. God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything Kindle. Twelve Books. 6 April 2009: 119. ASIN B00287KD4Q. [William Ockham] devised a 'principle of economy,' popularly known as 'Ockham’s razor,' which relied for its effect on disposing of unnecessary assumptions and accepting the first sufficient explanation or cause. 'Do not multiply entities beyond necessity.' This principle extends itself. 'Everything which is explained through positing something different from the act of understanding,' he wrote, 'can be explained without positing such a distinct thing.' 
  8. ^ Hitchens, Christopher. God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. New York, NY: Twelve Books. 2007: 150. ISBN 978-1843545743. 
  9. ^ Reinhardt, Damion. The Long History of Hitchens' Razor. Skeptic Ink. 25 July 2015 [31 March 2017]. (原始内容存档于2017-03-31). 
  10. ^ Jon R. Stone, The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations (2005), p. 101.