^The university of MIchigan manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States, totaling about $1 billion in 2009. a b c "Annual Report on Research and Scholarship FY2009 Financial Summary" (PDF). University of Michigan Office of the Vice President for Research. January 21, 2010. http://research.umich.edu/content/2010/01/fy09-financial-report.pdf. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
^The institution, though founded in 1636, did not receive its name until 1639. It was nameless for its first two years
^See University of Pennsylvania for details the circumstances of Penn's origin. Penn's self-stated founding date of 1740 is a matter of longstanding controversy between Penn and Princeton boosters.
^Epstein, Joseph. Snobbery: The American Version. Houghton Mifflin. 2003. ISBN0-618-34073-4. p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools, the Ivy League colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them." and Wolff, Robert Paul. The Ideal of the University. Transaction Publishers. 1992. ISBN1-56000-603-X. p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University of California was as much an expression of Ivy League snobbery as it was of radical social critique."
^The Associated Press. Yale Jinx Overcome, Dartmouth Now Seeks To Break Spell Cast by Princeton Teams. The New York Times. 1935-10-05: 35.
^Auchincloss, Louis. East Side Story. Houghton Mifflin. 2004. ISBN0-618-45244-3. p. 179, "he dreaded the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges"
^McDonald, Janet. Project Girl. University of California Press. 2000. ISBN0-520-22345-4. p. 163 "Newsweek is a morass of incest, nepotism, elitism, racism and utter classic white male patriarchal corruption.... It is completely Ivy League—a Vassar/Columbia J-School dumping ground... I will always be excluded, regardless of how many Ivy League degrees I acquire, because of the next level of hurdles: family connections and money."
^scandals: James Axtell, The Making of Princeton University（2006）, p.274; quoting a former executive director of the Ivy League