应急反应

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应急反应英语:Fight-or-flight response,也直译为打或逃反应)最初由沃尔特·布拉德福·坎农提出[1][2][3][4][5],他的理论认为动物面对威胁通常会激发交感神经系统,从而引发打斗或逃跑。后来,这一反应被认为是脊椎动物以及其他生物应激反应的最初阶段。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Some references say he first described the response in 1914 in The American Journal of Physiology. Others in the 1915 edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Other sources say that he first used the term in 1929 or in 1932 edition of the same book. The issue needs further research.
  2. ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1929. 
  3. ^ H.S.Bracha; Ralston, TC; Matsukawa, JM; Williams, AE; Bracha, AS. Does "Fight or Flight" Need Updating?. Psychosomatics. 2004, 45 (5): 448–9 [2010-10-04]. PMID 15345792. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.45.5.448. Walter Cannon's original formulation of the term for the human response to threat, 'fight or flight,' was coined exactly 75 years ago, in 1929. 
  4. ^ Shelley Elizabeth Taylor, LC Klein, BP Lewis. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight (PDF). Psychological Review. [2010-10-04]. First described by Walter Cannon in 1932, the fight-or-flight response is characterized physiologically by sympathetic nervous system activation that innervates the adrenal medulla, producing a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially ... 
  5. ^ Walter Bradford Cannon. Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1915.