动态对等及形式对等

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动态对等形式对等是由尤金·奈达创造的术语,是指两种不同的翻译方法,用来在原文和译文之间达到不同的直译程度,如圣经翻译中所示的。

基本上,动态对等是意译(翻译短语或整个句子的意思),以可读性而目标;形式对等是直译(直接翻译短语和单词的意思),保持字词的保真度英语fidelity

翻译方法[编辑]

形式对等法倾向于强调对原本语言的词语细节和语法结构的保真度,而动态对等法往往使用更自然的表达方式,但是词汇准确度较低。

根据尤金·奈达,当初他创造“动态对等”时,他将其定义为“当一个翻译,其中原本语言的信息被转移到目标语言,使得目标语言的意思基本上与原本语言一样时,它就运用了动态对等。”[1]目标是两者语言的读者可以以相似的形式理解文本的意思。

晚年,奈达避免使用“动态对等”这个词,更愿意使用“功能对等”。[2][3][4]“功能对等”的含义是,对等性不只是在原文化的原文和目标文化的目标文本(译文)之间的功能,但是那个“功能”可以视作文本的一个性质。功能对等可以与人民在文化中的互动方式有联系。

近年来,一个新的翻译方法出现,它由真圣经翻译(Real Bible Translation,RBT)运用。它采用逆形式对等法,可以被认为是以英语作为“原文”,以古希伯来语的词汇规律和语素作为“目标语言”,目标是使现代的读者沉浸于古代的思考模式。

圣经翻译[编辑]

圣经翻译采用了各种方法将原文翻译成英文,从极端的形式对等到极端的动态对等。 [5]

主要运用形式对等[编辑]

适度运用形式对等和动态对等(最优对等)[编辑]

主要运用动态对等或重述,或两者[编辑]

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Nida, Eugene A., and Charles R. Taber. (1969). The Theory and Practice of Translation, With Special Reference to Bible Translating, 200. Leiden: Brill.
  2. ^ Let the words be written: the lasting influence of Eugene A. Nida p. 51 Philip C. Stine – 2004 "That probably would not have happened if it hadn't been for Nida's ideas" (Charles Taber, interview with author, 21 Oct. 2000).7 Nida later felt that the term "dynamic equivalence" had been misunderstood and was partly responsible for
  3. ^ Translation and religion: holy untranslatable? p91 Lynne Long – 2005 "In order to avoid certain misunderstandings, de Waard and Nida (1986: 7, 36) later replaced the term 'dynamic equivalence' with 'functional equivalence', but they stated clearly that 'The substitution of "functional equivalenceTemplate:"' is not..."
  4. ^ The History of the Reina-Valera 1960 Spanish Bible p98 Calvin George – 2004 "190 For this reason in his later writings he distanced himself from the term 'dynamic equivalence,' preferring instead 'functional equivalence.' 191 The idea is to produce the closest natural equivalent in the target or 188 190 Nida, ..."
  5. ^ Data collected from two sources that have nearly identical ranking with an overlapping (supplemental) list of translations studied: 1. Thomas, Robert L., Bible Translations: The Link Between Exegesis and Expository Preaching, pages 63ff; and 2. Clontz, T.E. and Clontz, J., The Comprehensive New Testament, page iii.
  6. ^ Principles of Bible Translation from Hebrew and Greek | NWT. JW.ORG. [2017-09-04] (英语).