德国医疗制度

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德国 拥有一个覆盖全民[1] 多方参与的医疗系统. 德国的医疗保险主要有两种: 一种是"法定医疗保险" (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung) 也叫疾病基金, 第二种是 "私人医疗保险" (Private Krankenversicherung).[2][3][4]

强制医疗保险适用于收入低于设定标准之下的人群,由私立非营利性的"疾病基金"提供.它对所有参保人实行相同的医疗保障,保费由参保人和参保人雇主联合承担.强制医疗保险的补偿标准是在一级由各个自主利益集团(例如医师协会)通过复杂的社会协商来决定.疾病基金按规定必须覆盖广大的人群,它不能通过按精算方法来歧视或决绝任何人参保.另外有少数人的保险是由税收支付的政府公务员保险或者或者社会福利保险.收入高于强制医疗保险设定标准之上的人,可以参加疾病基金(多数人确实是这么做的),也可以购买私人医疗保险. 各式各样的对疾病基金的补充性私人保险可供人们选择.

历史沿革[编辑]

1970至今[编辑]

管理[编辑]

医疗保险[编辑]

保险体制[编辑]

公共保险[编辑]

私立保险[编辑]

统计数据[编辑]

主要疾病[编辑]

医院[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ Bump, Jesse B. The long road to universal health coverage. A century of lessons for development strategy. Seattle: PATH. October 19, 2010 [March 10, 2013]. "Carrin and James have identified 1988—105 years after Bismarck’s first sickness fund laws—as the date Germany achieved universal health coverage through this series of extensions to minimum benefit packages and expansions of the enrolled population. Bärnighausen and Sauerborn have quantified this long-term progressive increase in the proportion of the German population covered by public and private insurance. Their graph is reproduced below as Figure 1: German Population Enrolled in Health Insurance (%) 1885–1995." 
    Carrin, Guy; James, Chris. Social health insurance: Key factors affecting the transition towards universal coverage. International Social Security Review. January 2005, 58 (1): 45–64 [March 10, 2013]. doi:10.1111/j.1468-246X.2005.00209.x. "Initially the health insurance law of 1883 covered blue-collar workers in selected industries, craftspeople and other selected professionals.6 It is estimated that this law brought health insurance coverage up from 5 to 10 per cent of the total population." 
    Bärnighausen, Till; Sauerborn, Rainer. One hundred and eighteen years of the German health insurance system: are there any lessons for middle- and low income countries?. Social Science & Medicine. May 2002, 54 (10): 1559–1587 [March 10, 2013]. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00137-X. PMID 12061488. "As Germany has the world’s oldest SHI [social health insurance] system, it naturally lends itself to historical analyses." 
  2. ^ The Case for Universal Health Care in the United States. Cthealth.server101.com. [2011-08-06]. 
  3. ^ Health Insurance in Germany – Information in the English & German Language
  4. ^ http://www.willamette.edu/centers/publicpolicy/projects/oregonsfuture/PDFvol5no2/countries_healthcare.pdf