心理變數

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心理變數Psychographic)是市場行銷學的一種技巧,透過對人口進行問卷調查某個特定議題的內容。問卷調查包括有一系列的心理特質命題(Psychographic statements,通常有大約50條),這些命題通常在選擇之時,設問卷者心目中已有大概一系列認為可能會影響消費者進行消費的因素。從受訪者對問卷內各項心理特質命題的傾向(極同意、同義、中立、不同意、極不同意),行銷者可以找出商品在不同層面的客戶在個性、價值觀、態度、興趣、生活態度等各項變數的差異,從而更有效的針對特定客戶群而進行更有效的行銷策略。

搜集得來的數據會先行進行factor analysis,找出各項可能影響客戶消費的因素;之後再進行cluster analysis,把受訪者按照分析出來的因素來加以分類。最後透過心理變數而劃分的市場區間(Market segments)稱為「心理變數區間」(Psychographic segments)。

以下為某酒精生產商委托行銷機構進行調查後從數據產生出來的心理變數圖:

+--------------------------------------------Lazy & Complacent*-------------+----------------------------------+
|                                                                           |

| | | | | | | | | | | | Cheap* | | | | | | | | | | | | *Always available in stores | | Has no hang-over* *Has no effects on body

|                                                                           |

| | Has just right alcohol kick* | | *Has medicinal value | Conservative*

|                                     *Does not smell good                 Good for the body*

| | *Good tasting | High quality* *Genuine | | Smooth on throat when taken neat*| Habit/usual brand* | | Light on chest* Worth the price* *Economical to drink | | *Macho drink | *Open-Minded | *Has an imported image-------------*Popular/Well-known brand---------Makes him more energetic*-----------------+

|                                                               Workaholic* |

| | *For drinking during payday *Modern brand | | | Adaptable/Easygoing* For drinking alone* | | *Has an advertisement I like No acrid taste* | | *Passive Macho For the young* For special occasions* | | Favorite brand of the barkada* Does not have a strong smell* | | My type of drink* | | For people who drink moderately* | | | Active Extrovert* | | For people who drink a lot* | | | *For all types of people | | For drinking with friends* | | | | | | | | When one wants to relax* | | | | | | | | | | | | |+-----------------------------------------------------------For drinking in a bar*-----------------------------+

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