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念珠菌属

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念珠菌屬
Candida albicans.jpg
放大200倍后看到的白色念珠菌
科学分类 e
界: 真菌界 Fungi
门: 子囊菌门 Ascomycota
纲: 酵母菌綱 Saccharomycetes
目: 酵母菌目 Saccharomycetales
科: 酵母菌科 Saccharomycetaceae
属: 念珠菌屬 Candida
Berkh.英语Christine Marie Berkhout, 1923

见正文

念珠菌屬學名Candida)是酵母中的一,这一属中的许多物种是动物宿主里面的寄生物,人类自然也是它们的宿主之一。虽然通常它们都是以共生体的形式与宿主和平共处,但某些假丝酵母可能会导致疾病。临床上发现,假丝酵母中最常见的是白色念珠菌,它们通常会感染人类和其它动物,导致出现鹅口疮(又叫念珠菌病),尤其在免疫力低下的病人身上发生[1]。许多假丝酵母的成员都是动物肠道中常见的菌种,包括存在于哺乳动物宿主身上的白色念珠菌,而其它的则是在昆虫体内共生[2][3]。通常这一属中的菌种也叫做念珠菌,例如白色念珠菌热带念珠菌等。

过去十年里,由于免疫力低下的病患数量增加,同时因为这类病患身上的机会感染主要是由假丝酵母属菌种导致的,因此我们已经看到有针对性地药物治疗变得越来越重要[4]。于此同时,假丝酵母属中的某些品种已经完成了测序,因此我们有机会得以借助后基因时代的方法,来仔细研究它们的一些生物学特征。通过这种研究(包括致病性的假丝酵母以及相关的其它酵母品种),我们已经得到一些知识使得我们可以创造革命性的抗真菌治疗方法,独创性的特异免疫干涉疗法,以及真菌感染的高灵敏度诊断方法[4]。有些另类医学的实践者认为,假丝酵母的过度繁殖可以导致从疲劳到增重的许多健康问题,然后这并没有任何证据可以支持这种理论,因此绝大多数医生不相信这种说法[5][6]

南极假丝酵母是一种工业脂肪分解酶的来源。

实验室特征[编辑]

在实验室中培养发现,假丝酵母在琼脂平板上呈现出大片圆形的白色或奶油色的菌落[7]。白色念珠菌就是得名于拉丁文的“白色的”(albicans)。

临床特征[编辑]

许多假丝酵母属品种都是表皮感染的病原,例如鹅口疮,以及阴道念珠菌感染。对于健康的个体,这种感染可以通过抗真菌治疗而治愈。然而对于免疫低下的病人来说,长期深层的酵母感染可能会导致致命的后果。对于艾滋病病人,在重症监护病房中的病人,接受化疗的癌症患者,以及已接受器官移植的病人等疫力低下的人来说,假丝酵母也是多种致命的机会感染病原体[4]。其它常见的假丝酵母感染还包括由于佩戴丙烯酸假牙而导致的口腔念珠菌感染,这在佩戴假牙的老年人中尤其常见[8]。此外使用抗胃酸药物也可能导致肠胃中大片白色念珠菌菌落的出现,而这可能会妨碍辅酶Q10的吸收[9]

[编辑]

在假丝酵母属当中,白色念珠菌是人类肠胃中常见的组成菌落之一,也是皮肤及泌尿生殖系统中的其中一种共生菌种。它是导致大部分念珠菌血液感染的罪魁祸首,然而,最近由光滑念珠菌导致的感染却在不断增加,这可能是由于它对常用于抗真菌治疗的药物氮唑不敏感而导致的。其它医学上比较重要的品种包括近平滑假丝酵母、热带假丝酵母以及都柏林假丝酵母[4]

其它的品种,例如橄榄假丝酵母在水果上用于生物控制[10]

其它[编辑]

另类医学的实践者用Candida(假丝酵母或者叫念珠菌)这个词来指代大量病症的综合现象,包括肠胃不适、皮疹、牙龈肿痛以及其它疑难杂症。他们还认为,从具体至花粉过敏到模糊至脑力疲劳,甚至到增重或胃胀不适都是念珠菌引起的。这些症状统统被替代疗法实践者贴上“肠道念珠菌过度增生”的标签,甚至声称这将导致这些酵母会通过血液扩散到全身。

在替代疗法中,用来描述各种综合症状所用的念珠菌这个词,其实和临床医学中所指的特定致病真菌并没有任何关系,这会导致病人被误导。没有任何的研究能证明肠胃中的念珠菌会导致上述疾病 [5][6]

为了治疗这种所谓的念珠菌感染,替代疗法实践者通常会建议避免使用抗生素,避免女性生育的药物控制,以及避免食用含糖量高,或者含有酵母的食品,同时采取措施消除身体中过多的酵母。然而,并没有任何证据能证明这种治疗方式能够治疗肠胃念珠菌感染,或者治愈按照他们的理论能够治愈的病症[5][6][11][12]

種類[编辑]

在念珠菌屬中最常見的種類為白色念珠菌,為人類常見的正常菌叢,常棲於表皮、腸胃道,及泌尿道表面。當免疫系統缺陷時,大量念珠菌可能進入到血液循環中,此時稱為念珠菌血症(Candidemia)。Yet, there is an increasing incidence of infections caused by C. glabrata英语Candida glabrata and C. rugosa, which could be because they are frequently less susceptible to the currently used azole英语azole antifungals.[13]Other medically important species include C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis.[4]

其他Candida 菌种,如C. oleophila英语Candida oleophila 已在水果上用作生物防治剂。[10]

  • Candida adriatica Čadež, Cardinali, Ciafardini & G. Péter
  • Candida aechmeae Landell & P. Valente
  • Candida africana H.-J. Tietz, Hopp, Schmalreck, Sterry & Czaika
  • Candida akabanensis Nakase, M. Suzuki, M. Takash., Rosadi, Hermosillo & Komag.
  • Candida alai S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • 白色念珠菌 Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout
  • Candida allociferrii Ueda-Nishim. & Mikata
  • Candida amphicis S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida anglica Kurtzman, Robnett & Yarrow
  • Candida aquae-textoris Vallini, Frassinetti & Scorzetti
  • Candida arabinofermentans Kurtzman & Dien
  • Candida arcana S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida argentea S.L. Holland, S.V. Avery & P.S. Dyer
  • Candida ascalaphidarum N.H. Nguyen, S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida asparagi F.Y. Bai & H.Z. Lu
  • Candida atlantica (Siepmann) S.A. Mey. & Simione
  • Candida atmosphaerica Santa María
  • Candida aurita A.V. Polyak. & Chernov
  • Candida bambusicola Nakase, Jindam., Am-in & Limtong
  • Candida bentonensis Kurtzman
  • Candida berkhoutiae Nakase, Jindam., Am-in, C.F. Lee & Limtong
  • Candida bertae C. Ramírez & A.E. González
  • Candida berthetii Boidin, Pignal, Mermiér & Arpin
  • Candida blackwelliae F.Y. Bai & Z.H. Ji
  • Candida blankii H.R. Buckley & Uden
  • Candida blattae N.H. Nguyen, S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida blattariae S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida bohioensis S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida boidinii C. Ramírez
  • Candida boleticola Nakase
  • Candida bombicola (J.F.T. Spencer, Gorin & A.P. Tulloch) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida bracarensis A. Correia, P. Samp., S.A. James & C. Pais
  • Candida broadrunensis S.O. Suh & J.J. Zhou
  • Candida bromeliacearum Ruivo, Pagnocca, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida buenavistaensis S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida buinensis Soneda & S. Uchida
  • Candida californica (Mrak & McClung ex K.W. Anderson & C.E. Skinner) F.Y. Bai, Z.W. Wu & V. Robert
  • Candida carvajalis S.A. James, E.J. Carvajal, C.J. Bond, K. Cross, N.C. Núñez, Portero & I.N. Roberts
  • C. carvajalis[14]
  • Candida caryicola Kurtzman
  • Candida caseinolytica Phaff, Starmer, Lachance & Ganter
  • Candida castellii (Capr.) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida cellulolytica Nakase, M. Suzuki, M. Takash., Hamam., Hatano & Kukui
  • Candida cerambycidarum S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida cetoniae Gouliam., R.A. Dimitrov, M.T. Sm., M. Groenew. & Boekhout
  • Candida chauliodis N.H. Nguyen, S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida chilensis Grinb. & Yarrow
  • Candida chrysomelidarum N.H. Nguyen, S.O. Suh, Erbil & M. Blackw.
  • Candida citrica C. Ramírez
  • Candida coleopterorum F.L. Hui, X.J. Liu, Y.C. Ren, L.L. Xu, Z.H. Yi & S.T. Liu
  • Candida colliculosa (Sacc. & D. Sacc.) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida conglobata (Redaelli) Cif.
  • Candida corniculata Kuraishi
  • Candida corydali N.H. Nguyen, S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida cylindracea Koichi Yamada & Machida ex S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida danieliae M. Groenew., V. Robert & M.T. Sm.
  • Candida delhiana Mukerji & M. Khanna
  • Candida dendrica (Van der Walt, Klift & D.B. Scott) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida dendronema Van der Walt, Klift & D.B. Scott
  • Candida derodonti S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida diddensiae (Phaff, Mrak & O.B. Williams) Fell & S.A. Mey.
  • Candida digboiensis G.S. Prasad, Mayilraj, Sood & Ban. Lal
  • Candida diospyri F.Y. Bai & H.Z. Lu
  • Candida dosseyi N.H. Nguyen, S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida dubliniensis D.J. Sullivan, Western., K.A. Haynes, Dés.E. Benn. & D.C. Coleman
  • Candida duobushaemulonis Cend.-Bueno, Kolecka, Alastr.-Izq., Gómez-López, Cuenc.-Estr. & Boekhout
  • Candida ecuadorensis S.A. James
  • Candida endomychidarum S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida entomophila D.B. Scott, Van der Walt & Klift
  • Candida eppingiae M. Groenew., V. Robert & M.T. Sm.
  • Candida ethanolica Rybářová, Štros & Kock.-Krat.
  • Candida ezoensis Nakase, Imanishi, Jindam. & Am-in
  • Candida fermentati (Saito) F.Y. Bai
  • Candida flosculorum C.A. Rosa, Pagnocca, Lachance, Ruivo & A.O. Medeiros
  • Candida fluviatilis L.R. Hedrick
  • Candida fragi M. Suzuki, Nakase & Fukaz.
  • Candida fragicola Nakase
  • Candida freyschussii H.R. Buckley & Uden
  • Candida friedrichii Uden & Windisch
  • Candida frijolesensis S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida fructus (Nakase) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida fukazawae Nakase, M. Suzuki, Sugita, S.O. Suh & Komag.
  • Candida fungicola Nakase, M. Suzuki, Sugita, S.O. Suh & Komag.
  • Candida gelsemii Lachance
  • Candida germanica Kurtzman, Robnett & Yarrow
  • Candida ghanaensis Kurtzman
  • Candida gigantensis S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • 光滑念珠菌 Candida glabrata (H.W. Anderson) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida glaebosa Komag. & Nakase
  • Candida glucosophila Tokuoka, Ishit., Goto & Komag.
  • Candida golubevii C.A. Rosa, Jindam., Limtong, Nakase, Pagnocca & Lachance
  • Candida gorgasii S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • 高里念珠菌 Candida guilliermondii
  • Candida haemuloni (Uden & Kolip.) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida hainanensis F.Y. Bai & S.A. Wang
  • Candida hawaiiana Lachance, J.M. Bowles & Starmer
  • Candida heliconiae Ruivo, Pagnocca, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida heveicola F.Y. Bai & S.A. Wang
  • Candida hispaniensis Kurtzman
  • Candida hyderabadensis R.Sreen. Rao, Bhadra, N.N. Kumar & Shivaji
  • Candida hydrocarbofumarica K. Yamada, T. Furuk. & Nakahara ex Ramirez
  • Candida incommunis Y. Ohara, Nonom. & M. Yamaz.
  • Candida inconspicua (Lodder & Kreger-van Rij) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida insectalens (D.B. Scott, Van der Walt & Klift) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida insectamans D.B. Scott, Van der Walt & Klift
  • Candida insectorum D.B. Scott, Van der Walt & Klift
  • Candida intermedia (Cif. & Ashford) Langeron & Guerra
  • Candida inulinophila Nakase, Jindam., Am-in & Limtong
  • Candida ipomoeae Lachance, C.A. Rosa, Starmer & J.M. Bowles
  • Candida jeffriesii N.H. Nguyen, S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida jiufengensis F.Y. Bai & Z.H. Ji
  • Candida kanchanaburiensis Nakase, Jindam., Ninomiya, Imanishi, H. Kawas. & Potach.
  • Candida kantuleensis Nitiyon, Khunnamw., Lertwatt. & Limtong
  • Candida keroseneae Buddie, Bridge, J. Kelley & R.J. Ryan
  • Candida khao-thaluensis J.Z. Groenew., M.T. Sm. & V. Robert
  • 克柔念珠菌 Candida krusei
  • Candida labiduridarum S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida leandrae Ruivo, Pagnocca, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida lessepsii S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida linzhiensis F.Y. Bai & Z.W. Wu
  • Candida lipophila Lachance, C.A. Rosa, Starmer, Schlag-Edl., J.S.F. Barker & J.M. Bowles
  • Candida lodderae Kumbh.
  • Candida lundiana Saks., M. Suzuki, Lumyong, Ohkuma & Chantaw.
  • Candida lyxosophila Van der Walt, N.P. Ferreira & Steyn
  • Candida magnifica Verona
  • Candida maltosa Komag., Nakase & Katsuya
  • Candida manassasensis S.O. Suh & J.J. Zhou
  • Candida margiti F.L. Hui, X.J. Liu, Y.C. Ren, L.L. Xu, Z.H. Yi & S.T. Liu
  • Candida maris (Uden & Zobell) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida maritima (Siepmann) Uden & H.R. Buckley
  • Candida materiae A.C. Barbosa, R.M. Cadete, F.C.O. Gomes, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida melibiosica H.R. Buckley & Uden
  • Candida membranifaciens (Lodder & Kreger-van Rij) Wick. & Burton
  • Candida mengyuniae Jian He & Bo Chen
  • Candida mesenterica (A. Geiger) Diddens & Lodder
  • Candida metapsilosis Tavanti, A. Davidson, Gow, M. Maiden & Odds
  • Candida methanosorbosa (S. Abe & Yokote) J.A. Barnett, R.W. Payne & Yarrow
  • Candida michaelii S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida middelhoveniana J.R.A. Ribeiro, P.M.B. Carvalho, A.S. Cabral, A. Macrae, Mend.-Hagler, Berbara & Hagler
  • Candida mogii Vidal-Leir.
  • Candida montana Goto & Oguri
  • Candida montrocheri M. Morelet
  • Candida morakotiae Nakase, Jindam., Ninomiya, Imanishi & H. Kawas.
  • Candida multis-gemmis (Buhagiar) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida mycetangii Kurtzman
  • Candida namnaoensis Nakase, Jindam., Am-In, Ninomiya & H. Kawas.
  • Candida nanaspora Saëz & Rodr. Mir.
  • Candida natalensis Van der Walt & Tscheuschner
  • Candida neerlandica Kurtzman, Robnett & Yarrow
  • Candida nemodendra (Van der Walt, Klift & D.B. Scott) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida nitratophila (Shifrine & Phaff) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida nivariensis Alcoba-Flórez, Méndez-Álv., Cano, Guarro, Pérez-Roth & Arévalo
  • Candida nongkhaiensis Nakase, Jindam., Am-in & Limtong
  • Candida nonsorbophila Nakase, Jindam., Am-in, Ninomiya, H. Kawas. & Limtong
  • Candida norvegica (Reiersöl) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida odintsovae Babeva, Reshetova, Blagod. & Galimova
  • Candida olivae Nisiotou, Panagou & Nychas
  • Candida onishii Kumbh.
  • Candida orba Starmer, Phaff, Ganter & Lachance
  • Candida oregonensis Phaff & Carmo Souza
  • Candida orthopsilosis Tavanti, A. Davidson, Gow, M. Maiden & Odds
  • Candida ovalis Kumam. & M. Yamam.
  • Candida oxycetoniae F.Y. Bai & Z.H. Ji
  • Candida palmioleophila Nakase & Itoh
  • Candida palmyrensis S.O. Suh & J.J. Zhou
  • Candida parablackwelliae F.L. Hui & L.N. Huang
  • Candida parachauliodes F.L. Hui, X.J. Liu, Y.C. Ren, L.L. Xu, Z.H. Yi & S.T. Liu
  • Candida parapolymorpha S.O. Suh & J.J. Zhou
  • 近平滑假丝酵母 Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron & Talice

近平滑念珠菌 C. parapsilosis

  • Candida peoriensis Kurtzman
  • Candida picachoensis S.O. Suh, C.M. Gibson & M. Blackw.
  • Candida piceae Kurtzman
  • Candida picinguabensis Ruivo, Pagnocca, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida pignaliae (F.H. Jacob) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida pimensis S.O. Suh, C.M. Gibson & M. Blackw.
  • Candida pinus (Lodder & Kreger-van Rij) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida plutei S.O. Suh & M. Blackw.
  • Candida ponderosae Kurtzman
  • Candida pseudoaaseri Pfüller, Y. Gräser, M. Erhard & M. Groenew.
  • Candida pseudocylindracea F.Y. Bai & Chen Wang bis
  • Candida pseudofarinosa S. Mallet, S. Weiss, N. Jacques & Casarég.
  • Candida pseudoflosculorum M. Groenew., V. Robert & M.T. Sm.
  • Candida pseudoglaebosa M. Suzuki & Nakase
  • Candida pseudohaemulonii Sugita, M. Takash., Poonwan & Mekha
  • Candida pseudointermedia Nakase, Komag. & Fukaz.
  • Candida pseudojiufengensis F.Y. Bai & Z.H. Ji
  • Candida pseudolambica M.T. Sm. & Poot
  • Candida pseudotumoralis Morquer, E. Puget & Bazex
  • Candida psychrophila (Goto, Sugiy. & Iizuka) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida qinlingensis F.Y. Bai & H.Z. Lu
  • Candida quercitrusa S.A. Mey. & Phaff
  • Candida quercuum Nakase
  • Candida railenensis C. Ramírez & A.E. González
  • Candida restingae C.A. Rosa, Lachance, Starmer, J.S.F. Barker, J.M. Bowles & Schlag-Edl.
  • Candida rhizophorensis Fell, M.H. Gut., Statzell & Scorzetti
  • Candida rignihuensis C. Ramírez & A.E. González
  • Candida rishiriensis Nakase, Imanishi, Ninomiya & M. Takash.
  • Candida robnettiae M. Groenew., V. Robert & M.T. Sm.
  • Candida rongomai-pounamu Padamsee, B.S. Weir, M.E. Petterson & P.K. Buchanan
  • Candida ruelliae Saluja & G.S. Prasad
  • Candida rugopelliculosa Nakase
  • Candida sagamina Nakase, M. Suzuki, Sugita, S.O. Suh & Komag.
  • Candida saitoana Nakase & M. Suzuki
  • Candida sake (Saito & M. Ota) Uden & H.R. Buckley ex S.A. Mey. & Ahearn
  • Candida santamariae Montrocher
  • Candida saopauloensis Ruivo, Pagnocca, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida savonica Sonck
  • Candida schatavii (Kock.-Krat. & Ondrush.) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida sequanensis Saëz & Rodr. Mir.
  • Candida sharkensis Fell, M.H. Gut., Statzell & Scorzetti
  • Candida silvanorum Van der Walt, Klift & D.B. Scott
  • Candida silvatica (Van der Walt, Klift & D.B. Scott) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida silvicultrix Van der Walt, D.B. Scott & Klift
  • Candida sinolaborantium S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida sojae Nakase, M. Suzuki, M. Takash., Yozo Miyak., Kagaya, Fukaz. & Komag.
  • Candida solani Lodder & Kreger-van Rij
  • Candida soli Okuma & Goto
  • Candida sonorensis (M.W. Mill., Phaff, M. Miranda, Heed & Starmer) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida sophiae-reginae C. Ramírez & A.E. González
  • Candida sorboxylosa Nakase
  • Candida spenceri Nakase, Jindam., Imanishi, Am-In, Ninomiya, H. Kawas. & Limtong
  • Candida spencermartinsiae Statzell, Scorzetti & Fell
  • Candida sphagnicola Kachalkin & Yurkov
  • Candida subhashii M. Groenew., Sigler & S.E. Richardson
  • Candida succicola Nakase, Jindam., Am-in & Limtong
  • Candida succiphila J.D. Lee & Komag.
  • Candida suecica Rodr. Mir. & Norkrans
  • Candida suthepensis Saks., M. Suzuki, Lumyong, Ohkuma & Chantaw.
  • Candida suzukii G. Péter, Tornai-Leh., Fülöp & Dlauchy
  • Candida takamatsuzukensis Nagats., Kiyuna, R. Kigawa & Sugiy.
  • Candida tallmaniae J.Z. Groenew., M.T. Sm. & V. Robert
  • Candida tammaniensis Kurtzman & Robnett
  • Candida taylorii Statzell, Scorzetti & Fell
  • Candida temnochilae S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • Candida tetrigidarum S.O. Suh, N.H. Nguyen & M. Blackw.
  • C. theae英语Candida theae[15]
  • Candida tibetensis F.Y. Bai & Z.W. Wu
  • Candida tocantinensis A.C. Barbosa, C.G. Morais, C.G. Morais, L.H. Rosa, Pimenta, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida tocantinsensis A.C. Barbosa, Morais, Morais, C.A. Rosa, Pimenta, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida torresii (Uden & Zobell) S.A. Mey. & Yarrow
  • Candida touchengensis Nakase, Jindam., Am-in & Limtong
  • 热带念珠菌 Candida tropicalis (Castell.) Berkhout
  • Candida trypodendri Kurtzman & Robnett
  • Candida tsuchiyae Nakase & M. Suzuki
  • Candida tumulicola Nagats., Kiyuna, R. Kigawa & Sugiy.
  • Candida tunisiensis Eddouzi, V. Hofst., M. Groenew., Manai & Sanglard
  • Candida ubatubensis Ruivo, Pagnocca, Lachance & C.A. Rosa
  • Candida ulmi Kurtzman
  • Candida vartiovaarae (Capr.) Uden & H.R. Buckley
  • Candida vaughaniae J.Z. Groenew., M.T. Sm. & V. Robert
  • Candida vespimorsuum Padamsee, B.S. Weir, M.E. Petterson & P.K. Buchanan
  • Candida vini (J.N. Vallot ex Desm.) Uden & H.R. Buckley ex S.A. Mey. & Ahearn
  • Candida viswanathii Sandu & H.S. Randhawa
  • Candida vrieseae Landell & P. Valente
  • Candida wancherniae Nakase, Jindam., Ninomiya, Imanishi & H. Kawas.
  • Candida wuzhishanensis F.Y. Bai & Chen Wang bis
  • Candida xiaguanensis F.L. Hui, X.J. Liu, Y.C. Ren, L.L. Xu, Z.H. Yi & S.T. Liu
  • Candida xyloterini S.O. Suh & J.J. Zhou
  • Candida yunnanensis F.L. Hui & L.N. Huang
  • Candida zemplinina Sipiczki
  • Candida zeylanoides (Castell.) Langeron & Guerra

引用[编辑]

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  2. ^ Nguyen NH, Suh SO, Blackwell M. Five novel Candida species in insect-associated yeast clades isolated from Neuroptera and other insects. Mycologia. 2007, 99 (6): 842–858. doi:10.3852/mycologia.99.6.842. 
  3. ^ Suh SO, Nguyen NH, Blackwell M. Yeasts isolated from plant-associated beetles and other insects: seven novel Candida species near Candida albicans. FEMS Yeast Res. 2008, 8 (1): 88–102. PMID 17986254. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 d'Enfert C; Hube B (editors). Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics. Caister Academic Press. 2007. ISBN 9781904455134. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Dubious "Yeast Allergies". [2009-09-24]. (原始内容存档于2008-05-13). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Mayoclinic.com. [2009-09-24]. (原始内容存档于2013-10-23). 
  7. ^ Candida species. DoctorFungus.org. [2007-02-09]. (原始内容存档于2007-02-08). 
  8. ^ Darwazeh A, Lamey P, Samaranayake L, MacFarlane T, Fisher B, Macrury S, MacCuish A. The relationship between colonisation, secretor status and in-vitro adhesion of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells from diabetics. J Med Microbiol. 1990, 33 (1): 43–9. PMID 2231671. 
  9. ^ Krone C, Elmer G, Ely J, Fudenberg H, Thoreson J. Does gastrointestinal Candida albicans prevent ubiquinone absorption?. Med Hypotheses. 2001, 57 (5): 570–2. PMID 11735312. doi:10.1054/mehy.2001.1410. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Efficacy of Candida oleophila strain 128 in preventing Penicillium Expansum infection in apricot fruit. Acta Hort. (ISHS). 1999, 485: 141–148 [2009-09-24]. (原始内容存档于2018-11-06). 
  11. ^ Factsmart.org. [2009-09-24]. (原始内容存档于2009-05-31). 
  12. ^ HealthnVitality.com. [2009-09-24]. (原始内容存档于2008-09-25). 
  13. ^ Candida rugosa, an Emerging Fungal Pathogen with Resistance to Azoles: Geographic and Temporal Trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program. J Clinical Microbiology. 2006, 44: 3578–3582 [2016-04-26]. doi:10.1128/jcm.00863-06. (原始内容存档于2010-07-08). 
  14. ^ James, S. A.; Carvajal Barriga, E. J.; Bond, C. J.; Cross, K.; Nãºã±Ez, N. C.; Portero, P. B.; Roberts, I. N. Candida carvajalissp. Nov., an ascomycetous yeast species from the Ecuadorian Amazon jungle. FEMS Yeast Research. 2009, 9 (5): 784–788. PMID 19459983. doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2009.00518.x. 
  15. ^ Chang, C. F.; Lin, Y. C.; Chen, S. F.; Carvajal Barriga, E. J.; Barahona, P. P.; James, S. A.; Bond, C. J.; Roberts, I. N.; Lee, C. F. Candida theae sp. nov., a new anamorphic beverage-associated member of the Lodderomyces clade. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2012, 153 (1–2): 10–14. PMID 22088606. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.09.012.