急性腎損傷

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急性腎損傷
(Acute kidney injury)
Kidney – acute cortical necrosis.jpg
腎臟病理標本顯示已標記的皮質為蒼白色、對比於尚存的髓質組織的暗色區。病人死於急性腎損傷。
类型腎功能衰竭
分类和外部资源
醫學專科腎臟科
ICD-10N17
ICD-9-CM584
DiseasesDB11263
MedlinePlus000501
eMedicinemed/1595
Patient UK英语Patient UKacute-kidney-injury-pro 急性腎損傷
MeSHD058186

急性腎損傷(Acute kidney injury、AKI、以前稱為「急性腎衰竭」(acute renal failure、ARF)、急性腎功能衰竭),[1][2]通常在7天內腎臟發展為腎功能突然損失掉。[3]

其原因是多方面的。通常發生原因為腎組織損壞造成的結果,其起因為任何病因(例如低血壓)腎血流量的減少(腎缺血(ischemia))、暴露於對腎有害的物質(Nephrotoxicity)、腎發炎的過程,或阻塞尿流量的尿路阻礙。AKI診斷是基於特有的實驗室研究結果上、如升高的尿素氮肌酸酐,或腎臟不能產生足夠量的尿

AKI可能導致一些併發症,包括代謝性酸中毒(Metabolic acidosis)、高鉀血症尿毒症、身體體液平衡(Fluid balance)的改變,並影響到其它的器官系統。治療方法包括支持性看護,如腎替代治療法(Renal replacement therapy),以及潛在病症的治療。

症狀和病徵[编辑]

急性腎損傷的症狀來自腎功能與該疾病相關的各種干擾。

急性腎損傷的主要症狀有:

  • 尿少或無尿。
  • 腫脹,尤其是腿和腳。
  • 食慾不振。
  • 噁心和嘔吐。
  • 感到混亂、焦慮和不安或睏倦。
  • 肋骨以下的背部疼痛,這被稱為側腹痛。

病因[编辑]

急性腎損傷可由全身性疾病(如狼疮性肾炎等自體免疫疾病)、敗血症、心臟衰竭,肝衰竭、擠壓傷顯影劑、特定的抗生素等引起。

腎前性[编辑]

AKI腎前性的原因(腎前氮質血症(Azotemia))是那些有效降低血液流向腎臟

參見[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

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