性交

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阿夫里爾繪製的畫作,描繪了一對男女的性交過程(以傳教士式這一種最常見的体位進行)[1][2]

性交英语:Sexual intercourse),或稱性交合,指的是將一般為勃起狀態的陰莖插入陰道及在內抽送的過程,主要目的是为了令自身獲得性快感繁殖下一代[3]。其也会被人們稱為陰道交(vaginal sex)或阴道性交(vaginal intercourse)[2][4]。其他的插入式性行為包括肛交(把陰莖插入至肛門)、口交(以口腔、舌、齒等部位刺激性伴侶生殖器)、指交(以手指刺激性伴侶的生殖器)、插入假陰莖(特別是捆綁式假陰莖)至性器官[5][6][7]。這些活動牽涉到個體與個體之間的身體接觸英语physical intimacy,當事人通常能從中獲得身心之愉悅感,性交亦有助加強人與人之間的感情纽带[5][8]

「性交或其他性活動包含什麽成分在內?」此一問題有着許多不同的看法及答案[9][10],對此問題抱持的觀點亦可能影響当事人對性健康英语sexual health的看法[11][12]。儘管「性交」(特别是性交合)一詞通常指的是陰莖-陰道交,和能產生后代英语offspring的交合[3],但它亦普遍地代指带侵入成分的口交,以及陰莖-肛交,但代指后者的情況則較为常見[13]。它通常由「插入與否」此一點來定義。而諸如不帶侵入成分的舔陰、互相撫慰等非插入式性行為,則一般會被統稱為体外性行为(outercourse)[14]。然而非插入式性行為在一些情況下亦會遭認作性交[5][15]。「性行为」(sex)一詞通常是在代指性交,但其亦可指任何形式的性活动[11][16]。 雖說非插入式性行為能顯著降低從中感染性傳播疾病的風險[12][17],但因為人們仍可從性活动中感染的缘故[18][19],所以世界卫生组织建议人們應實行安全性行為[12]

在人类社会中,许多国家对性行为都有着某种的法律限制,比如近親性交、與未成年人動物性工作者非自願者發生的性行為,以至鸡奸婚前性行為婚外性行為宗教信仰在與性行為有關的抉擇中亦扮演了一定的角色,比如與处女相关的抉擇[10][20],以及相關的法律和公共政策。不同宗教及教派對性的看法英语Religion and sexuality差異很大,雖然當中亦有相同之處,比如對通奸的反對及禁止。

非人動物的生殖性性行为一般會稱為「交配」(copulation),當中精子可以不經陰道的方式來進入雌性的生殖管道,比如泄殖腔交配(cloacal copulation)。對於大多數哺乳动物而言,交配會在發情期發生(雌性生殖週期中最有可能發生受精的時間段),增加了成功受精英语Internal fertilization的機會[21][22]。然而人类目前已知無論雌性是否處於發情期,倭黑猩猩海豚黑猩猩這些物種都會照樣地從事性交,並會發生同性性行为[23]。就像人類主要是為了快樂而從事性活動一樣[24],上述動物也同樣遭認為會為了享受而從事性交[25],性交還成为了加強牠們社會紐帶的促成因子[24]

行為[编辑]

定義[编辑]

阿希尔·德微理亚英语Achille Devéria於19世紀所绘的一幅畫作,畫中一對伴侣正在從事陰道交

性交可由不同的詞語來代稱,包括交配(copulation)、交媾(coitus)、交尾(coition)、性交合(intercourse)。交媾的英語「coitus」是由拉丁语「coitio」或「coire」衍生而來,其意思為「一同到达或一同參與」,在拉丁语中其泛指各式各樣的性活動,但一般情况下它所指的是陰莖-陰道交[26]。它亦常遭稱為陰道交(vaginal sex)或阴道性交(vaginal intercourse)[4][27],以上兩者皆可指任何與陰道有关的性活動,尤其是帶侵入成分的,包括女同性恋伴侣間的性活動英语Lesbian sexual practices[28][29]。相反,交配更經常地指非人動物的交媾過程;它可代表異性或同性配偶英语Same-sex relationship間的任何性活動[30],但一般定義為一種把精子從雄性體內轉移到雌性體內的性生殖行為,或雄性和雌性之間的有性生殖行為[30][31][32]

儘管「性交」及「性行為」这倆用詞最常指的是陰莖-陰道交[33],但「性行為」及「發生性行為」亦可指任何涉及二人或以上的插入或非插入式性行為[11][16][34]。世界衛生組織(WHO)指出,非英語系語言和文化「對性活動的描述用語及其所包含的含義都稍有不同」[11]。用於描述性交或其他性活動的通俗語(俚語)和委婉語亦有所差異,比如英語中的「Fuck」、「shag」(性交的俚語)和「sleep together」(睡在一起)[35][36][37]粤語中的「[38]普通話中的「[39]。以勃起的陰莖插入陰道此一行為在英語中亦遭稱為「intromission」,等同拉丁語的「immissio penis」(皆指插入陰莖)[40]

比起其他性行為,陰道/肛/口交更常遭界定為性交[41]。雖然非插入式性行為和非陰莖-陰道交的性活動亦可能遭界定是性交[5][6][15],但是它們也可以被認為是避免失貞的一種手段,以至被界定為「體外性行為」。相比起肛交,口交更常發生此一情況[42]。女性更常於陰莖 - 陰道交失貞的部分原因是肛交或口交除了可為異性性伴侣带來愉悦感外,還可以是沒有從事生殖性行為時避免失貞的一種選擇[42]。一些男同性戀者亦会同樣地以陰莖摩擦或口交來避免失貞,因為他們視陰莖-肛交如同性交,並會導致失貞。而其他男同性戀者会以陰莖摩擦或口交作為他們最主要的性活動[10][43][44]。女同性戀者則可能会視口交或指交等同性交[9][10][45],並以女陰摩擦作為她們最主要的性活動[2][46]

研究者通常將性交限定為陰莖-陰道交,同時使用其他術語去把性交以外的性行為區分,例如肛交或口交[47]理查德·勒納勞倫斯·斯坦伯格英语Laurence Steinberg這兩位學者指出,研究者們「很少公開他們怎樣定義性行為(sex)一詞,定義中的潛在差異亦很少在學術界中討論及解決[9]。」勒納和斯坦伯格認為,研究者對陰莖-陰道交「這種形式的性活動有着一種文化上的偏见」,並對「不容置疑地把性行為等同性交此一問題」表示關注,因為「『受訪者怎理解那些關於性活動的問題,是否與研究者所想的一致?』此一點仍沒有系統地訪問調查[9]。」此一問題點可把其他形式的性活動降格為一種「前戲」,甚至使它們不被視為「真正的性行為」,並限制了強奸的定義[48][49][50][51]。在概念上把性行為與陰道交混为一谈此一點,可能会削弱了非異性戀者獲得性功能障礙及可能從事之性行為的信息的真偽性,異性戀者可能從事的非陰道性活動的信息亦同樣如是,其真偽性亦都可能因此而削弱[49]

生物學意義[编辑]

动物与人类[编辑]

古生物学

根據「自然」(Nature)期刊,小肢魚英语Microbrachius(Microbrachius dicki)是至今所知第一個以交配行體內受精的物種。約在3億8500萬年前,人類遠祖古老的盾皮魚,出現如人類性交的親密動作。科學家在屬於盾皮魚綱的雄性小肢魚化石發現,牠們演化出稱為鰭足的交尾器(clasper)的有骨L型生殖器,可輸送精子給雌性。雌性小肢魚演化出小型成對骨頭,可鎖住雄性的生殖器交配。[52][53][54][55]

人類[编辑]

過程、生理現象[编辑]

人類的性交由性欲開始,前戲性刺激使得腦下垂體產生動情激素,逐漸引起男性生殖系統的陰莖勃起、分泌尿道球腺液,女性生殖系統的陰道分泌潤滑液,在彼此性興奮時使男性陰莖放入女性陰道口交合。待彼此性高潮之前後,在陰道交合時射精能使男性精液集中匯入女性体内(利於生物性的受孕繁衍)。最終則以性消退期(sexual resolution phase)為結束。

交合時的身体位姿,一般可采纳女仰臥女側臥女俯臥男仰臥或其他體位(坐姿、立位等)

其他衍生性行为

人类性愛动作中,为滿足彼此性欲,若以單獨一方性器官与另一方性器官除外之其他身体部位之间的進入或接合之性刺激行為[56](非前戏性质的口交指交等),一般與雌雄性器官交配定义有別,名称則常各依身体部位作区隔。另外,人类同性之间无法生育交配,但亦基於情慾等目的而仿性交姿势衍生其他同性性行為

身心症狀與疾病[编辑]

身心症狀
循環系統疾病
性病

性傳播疾病指主要藉由性行為為傳染途徑的傳染病。會直接接觸體液的性行為都有感染性病的風險。醫療健康專家建議採取安全性行為,例如正確使用保險套等隔離措施,可以減低風險。還有人進一步認為禁慾和忠實單一性伴侶更能減低風險。禁慾,忠實,保險套合稱ABC三原則,是許多國家的安全性行為教育政策。

文化、倫理和法律[编辑]

“性交”是一種自然的生物性行動,而“性行為”則是人類社會涉及法律和道德的一種社會性的行為,在不同的國家和歷史階段對性行為都有不同的解釋。同時性交也涉及倫理學等學科。

婚姻[编辑]

  • 婚前性行為,指性行為的參與者並未明確建立彼此婚姻配偶關係。這在一些人類文化與信仰的倫理傳統中向來視為禁忌,較一般不合乎禮法、道德更嚴重看待。而發生婚前性行為是在什麼樣的情境、是否能被社會大眾接受或容忍的程度,在各種不同文化之間有所差異。婚前性行為亦可指稱其他多重性關係情境(如:外遇)或超過一個以上的性伴侶關係。
  • 圓房:新婚夫婦的“初夜”(兩人結婚之後第一次性交)。

性犯罪[编辑]

妨害性自主罪
性交[56]是否涉及“妨害性自主罪”的其中兩項指标是:
不乎合上述兩項構成要件之性交即被視為強制性交與未滿合法性交年齡人士發生性行為,此係為社會法律和道德所不容許。
妨害風化罪
妨害風化罪
妨害婚姻及家庭罪
妨害婚姻及家庭罪

其他動物[编辑]

動物的性交稱為交配。家畜之間的交配通常也稱配種鳥類魚類以及爬行类的交配可以稱為交尾。交配時某些雌性動物會含雄性陰莖,令其容易射精

大部份的陸生動物與鳥類都是进行體內受精而有交配行為,哺乳類動物也是把雄性的陰莖插進雌性的陰道內,雄性動物射精後,精子會進入雌性體內,並且與卵細胞發生受精作用。

若受精過程發生在體外或是沒有性交過程,則不再是交尾,例如魚類(雄性和雌性將生殖細胞排到水中,完成受精)或是人工授精

自然交尾在大部分的動物(如爬行動物)的交配是雙方生殖開口(泄殖腔)的對接,而在人類和其他哺乳動物則是雄性生殖器(陰莖)進入雌性生殖器(陰道),即性交。

交配是由於本能性欲和相應的誘發因素引起的(如:孔雀的開屏,雌性狗散發的氣味分子等)。

動物交配群像

注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Keath Roberts. Sex. Lotus Press. 2006: 145 [August 17, 2012]. ISBN 8189093592. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Wayne Weiten; Margaret A. Lloyd; Dana S. Dunn; Elizabeth Yost Hammer. Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. 2008: 422–423 [January 5, 2012]. ISBN 0495553395. Vaginal intercourse, known more technically as coitus, involves inserting the penis into the vagina and (typically) pelvic thrusting. ... The man-above, or "missionary," position is the most common sex position. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Sexual intercourse most commonly means penile–vaginal penetration for sexual pleasure and/or sexual reproduction; dictionary sources state that it especially means this, and scholarly sources over the years agree. See, for example;
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Sandra Alters; Wendy Schiff. Essential Concepts for Healthy Living. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2012: 180–181 [August 31, 2013]. ISBN 1449630626. Most heterosexuals are familiar with the notion of 'having sex' or sexual intercourse as vaginal sex, the insertion of a penis into a vagina. Vaginal sex, or coitus, is the most common and popular form of intimate sexual activity between partners. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Sexual Intercourse. Discovery.com. [2008-01-12]. (原始内容存档于2008-08-22). 
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  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 See page 11 onwards and pages 47–49 for views on what constitutes virginity loss and therefore sexual intercourse or other sexual activity; source discusses how gay and lesbian individuals define virginity loss, and how the majority of researchers and heterosexuals define virginity loss/"technical virginity" by whether or not a person has engaged in penile–vaginal sex. Laura M. Carpenter. Virginity Lost: An Intimate Portrait of First Sexual Experiences. NYU Press. 2005: 295 pages [October 9, 2011]. ISBN 0-8147-1652-0. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Defining sexual health: Report of a technical consultation on sexual health (PDF). World Health Organization: 4. January 2002 [September 5, 2012]. In English, the term 'sex' is often used to mean 'sexual activity' and can cover a range of behaviours. Other languages and cultures use different terms, with slightly different meanings. 
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    • Ken Plummer. Modern Homosexualities: Fragments of Lesbian and Gay Experiences. Routledge. 2002: 187–191 [August 24, 2013]. ISBN 1134922426. [S]ome sexual practices are regarded as inherently better (normal, natural, more satisfying) than others, with vaginal intercourse privileged as the 'Real Thing.' Such beliefs, influenced by views about sex as ultimately a reproductive function, continue to be perpetuated through discourses on sex despite a number of important contradictions. 
    • Richard M. Lerner; Laurence Steinberg. Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. 2004: 193–196 [April 29, 2013]. ISBN 0471690449. When researchers use the term sex, they nearly always mean sexual intercourse – more specifically, penile–vaginal intercourse... The widespread, unquestioned equation of penile–vaginal intercourse with sex reflects a failure to examine systematically 'whether the respondent's understanding of the question matches what the researcher had in mind.' 
    • See page 11 onwards and pages 47–49 for views on what constitutes virginity loss and therefore sexual intercourse or other sexual activity; source discusses how gay and lesbian individuals define virginity loss, and how the majority of researchers and heterosexuals define virginity loss/"technical virginity" by whether or not a person has engaged in penile–vaginal sex. Laura M. Carpenter. Virginity Lost: An Intimate Portrait of First Sexual Experiences. NYU Press. 2005: 295 pages [October 9, 2011]. ISBN 0-8147-1652-0. 
    • Fedwa Malti-Douglas. Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: A-C. Macmillan Reference. 2007: 308. ISBN 0028659619. Sexual intercourse. [T]he term coitus indicates a specific act of sexual intercourse that also is known as coition or copulation. This 'coming together' is generally understood in heteronormative terms as the penetration of a woman's vagina by a man's penis. 
    • Irving B. Weiner; W. Edward Craighead. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology 4. John Wiley & Sons. 2010: 1577 [August 21, 2013]. ISBN 0470170239. Human sexual intercourse, or coitus, is one of the most common sexual outlets among adults. Sexual intercourse generally refers to penile penetration of the vagina... 
    • Clint E. Bruess; Elizabeth Schroeder. Sexuality Education Theory and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2013: 152 [December 5, 2014]. ISBN 1449649289. Vaginal sex is defined as when a penis or sex toy is inserted into a vagina for pleasure. In many cultures around the world, vaginal sex is what is usually implied when people refer to 'having sex' or 'sexual intercourse'. It is the most frequently studied behavior and is often the focus of sexuality education programming for youth. 
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  36. ^ Shag. Merriam-Webster. [March 30, 2013]. 
  37. ^ Sleep together. TheFreeDictionary.com. [March 30, 2013]. 
  38. ^ 曾子凡. 香港粵語慣用語研究. 香港城市大學. 2008-11-10: 92. ISBN 9789629371470. 
  39. ^ 【肏】字是什么意思?【肏】字的解释_汉语大字典. wenku1.com. [2017-03-19]. 
  40. ^ Intromission. Merriam-Webster. [December 26, 2012]. 
  41. ^
  42. ^ 42.0 42.1
    • Ken Plummer. Modern Homosexualities: Fragments of Lesbian and Gay Experiences. Routledge. 2002: 187–191 [August 24, 2013]. ISBN 1134922426. The social construction of 'sex' as vaginal intercourse affects how other forms of sexual activity are evaluated as sexually satisfying or arousing; in some cases whether an activity is seen as a sexual act at all. For example, unless a woman has been penetrated by a man's penis she is still technically a virgin even if she has had lots of sexual experience. 
    • Randall, H. E. & Byers, S. E. What is sex? Students' definitions of having sex, sexual partner, and unfaithful sexual behaviour. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 2003, 12: 87–96. Recently, researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia have investigated university students' definitions of having sex. These studies found that students differ in their opinions of what sexual behaviours constitute having sex (Pitts & Rahman, 2001; Richters & Song, 1999; Sanders & Reinisch, 1999). While the vast majority of respondents (more than 97%) in these three studies included penile–vaginal intercourse in their definition of sex, fewer (between 70% and 90%) respondents considered penile-anal intercourse to constitute having sex. Oral-genital behaviours were defined as sex by between 32% and 58% of respondents. 
    • See page 11 onwards and pages 47–49 for views on what constitutes virginity loss and therefore sexual intercourse or other sexual activity; source discusses how gay and lesbian individuals define virginity loss, and how the majority of researchers and heterosexuals define virginity loss/"technical virginity" by whether or not a person has engaged in penile–vaginal sex. Laura M. Carpenter. Virginity Lost: An Intimate Portrait of First Sexual Experiences. NYU Press. 2005: 295 pages [October 9, 2011]. ISBN 0-8147-1652-0. 
    • Bryan Strong; Christine DeVault; Theodore F. Cohen. The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationship in a Changing Society. Cengage Learning. 2010: 186 [October 8, 2011]. ISBN 0-534-62425-1. Most people agree that we maintain virginity as long as we refrain from sexual (vaginal) intercourse. ...But occasionally we hear people speak of 'technical virginity' ... Other research, especially research looking into virginity loss, reports that 35% of virgins, defined as people who have never engaged in vaginal intercourse, have nonetheless engaged in one or more other forms of heterosexual activity (e.g. oral sex, anal sex, or mutual masturbation). ... Data indicate that 'a very significant proportion of teens ha[ve] had experience with oral sex, even if they haven't had sexual intercourse, and may think of themselves as virgins'. 
    • Robert Crooks; Karla Baur. Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. 2010: 286–289 [August 30, 2012]. ISBN 0495812943. Noncoital forms of sexual intimacy, which have been called outercourse, can be a viable form of birth control. Outercourse includes all avenues of sexual intimacy other than penile–vaginal intercourse, including kissing, touching, mutual masturbation, and oral and anal sex. 
  43. ^ Joseph Gross, Michael. Like a Virgin. The Advocate/Here Publishing. 2003: 44–45 [2011-03-13]. 0001-8996. 
  44. ^ Dolby, Tom. Why Some Gay Men Don't Go All The Way. Out. February 2004: 76–77 [2011-02-12]. 
  45. ^ Karen Bouris. What Parents and Teenage Girls Should Know about "Losing Your Virginity". Conari Press. 1995: 133–134 [2015-10-21]. ISBN 0-943233-93-3. 
  46. ^ Jerrold S. Greenberg; Clint E. Bruess; Sarah C. Conklin. Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2007: 429 [2010-12-19]. ISBN 0-7637-4148-5. 9780763741488. 
  47. ^
  48. ^ Ken Plummer. Modern Homosexualities: Fragments of Lesbian and Gay Experiences. Routledge. 2002: 187–191 [August 24, 2013]. ISBN 1134922426. [S]ome sexual practices are regarded as inherently better (normal, natural, more satisfying) than others, with vaginal intercourse privileged as the 'Real Thing.' Such beliefs, influenced by views about sex as ultimately a reproductive function, continue to be perpetuated through discourses on sex despite a number of important contradictions. 
  49. ^ 49.0 49.1 Andrew Baum; Tracey A. A. Revenson; Jerome Singer. Handbook of Health Psychology 2nd. Psychology Press. 2012: 259–260 [April 30, 2013]. ISBN 080586461X. 
  50. ^ Arthur G. Miller. Perspectives on Evil and Violence. Psychology Press. 1999: 240 [April 29, 2013]. ISBN 0805897844. Many people consider penile–vaginal intercourse the only form of 'real' sex. 
  51. ^ Pamela J. Kalbfleisch; Michael J. Cody. Gender Power and Communication in Human Relationships. Routledge. 2012: 153 [April 30, 2013]. ISBN 1136480501. 
  52. ^ 人類性交始祖 億萬年前魚類. 中央日報 網路報 (中央社). 2014-10-20. 澳洲阿得雷德(Adelaide)福林德斯大學(Flinders University)古生物学教授朗恩(John Long)說:「Microbrachius意思是小臂(小肢),但是科學家數世紀以來始終不解,這些有骨的成對手臂到底有什麼用途。」他說:「我們已揭開這個大謎團,這是用來交配,好讓雄性可將交尾器放進雌性生殖器區。」 
  53. ^ Microbrachius Dicki, Ancient Plated Fish, Were The First Creatures To Have Sex. PARIS-AFP. 2014-10-20. 
  54. ^ 最早性交生物就是它 側面完成體內受精. 風傳媒. 2014-10-20. 
  55. ^ 性交的始祖是……魚?. 2014-10-21. 這個發現不只關乎「性行為」本身。……許多對人體構造相當重要的演化特徵(例如頷部、牙齒、成對的肢體和體內受精行為)都是始於這些覆有骨甲的魚。 
  56. ^ 56.0 56.1 性侵入行為”:“以性器進入他人之性器、肛門口腔,或使之接合之行為”。或“以性器以外之其他身體部位或器物進入他人之性器、肛門,或使之接合之行為”。參見 中華民國刑法第10條第5款。
  57. ^ 以中華民國刑法為例,參見兩小無猜條款

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