^American Psychiatric Association, DSM-5 Fact Sheets, Updated Disorders: Gender Dysphoria （页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆） (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013): 2 ("DSM-5 aims to avoid stigma and ensure clinical care for individuals who see and feel themselves to be a different gender than their assigned gender. It replaces the diagnostic name 'gender identity disorder' with 'gender dysphoria', as well as makes other important clarifications in the criteria.").
^Fraser, L; Karasic, D; Meyer, W; Wylie, K. Recommendations for Revision of the DSM Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in Adults. International Journal of Transgenderism. 2010, 12 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.509202.已忽略未知参数|s2cid= (帮助)
^Newman, L. Sex, Gender and Culture: Issues in the Definition, Assessment and Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. July 1, 2002, 7 (3): 352–359. doi:10.1177/1359104502007003004.已忽略未知参数|s2cid= (帮助)
^Heylens G, De Cuypere G, Zucker KJ, Schelfaut C, Elaut E, Vanden Bossche H, De Baere E, T'Sjoen G. Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. March 2012, 9 (3): 751–7. PMID 22146048. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02567.x. Of 23 monozygotic female and male twins, nine (39.1%) were concordant for GID; in contrast, none of the 21 same‐sex dizygotic female and male twins were concordant for GID, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.005)... These findings suggest a role for genetic factors in the development of GID.
^Diamond, Milton. Transsexuality Among Twins: Identity Concordance, Transition, Rearing, and Orientation. International Journal of Transgenderism. 2013, 14 (1): 24–38. doi:10.1080/15532739.2013.750222. Combining data from the present survey with those from past-published reports, 20% of all male and female monozygotic twin pairs were found concordant for transsexual identity... The responses of our twins relative to their rearing, along with our findings regarding some of their experiences during childhood and adolescence show their identity was much more influenced by their genetics than their rearing.已忽略未知参数|s2cid= (帮助)
^Davidson, Michelle R. A Nurse's Guide to Women's Mental Health. Springer Publishing Company. 2012: 114. ISBN 0826171133.
^Ansara, Y. Gavriel; Hegarty, Peter. Cisgenderism in psychology: pathologising and misgendering children from 1999 to 2008. Psychology and Sexuality. 2012, 3 (2): 137–60. doi:10.1080/19419899.2011.576696.
^ 23.023.123.223.3American Psychiatry Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) 5th. Washington, DC and London: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013: 451–460. ISBN 0-89042-555-8.