情感 (心理學)

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情感(英語:Affect)是心理學中用來描述感覺情緒經驗的概念,情感一詞在其他領域有不同的含義[1]。在心理學中,情感是生物體與刺激相互作用的導體。這個詞有時也指情感表達,像是以面部、聲音或手勢等行為作為情感的指標[2]

情感領域是現代心理學描述的三個分支之一,這三個分支為認知意動和情感。情感也在「心理學ABC(ABC of psychology)」的行列中,即 「情感(Affect)」、「行為(Behavior)」和「認知(Cognition)」[3]

情感狀態是一種心理-生理學結構(psycho-physiological constructs)。目前大多數的觀點認為,情感狀態主要沿著三個主要方面變化:效價(valence)、喚起(arousal)和動機強度(Motivational salience)[4]。效價是對經驗狀態主觀的正面評價。情緒效價則是指情緒的後果、情緒引發的情境或主觀感受的態度[5]。喚起能夠透過交感神經系統的啟動來做客觀的測量,也能夠通過自我報告進行主觀的評估。喚起是一種與動機強度密切相關的結構,但它們的不同之處在於動機必然會引起動作,而喚醒則不然[6]。動機強度是指對於行動的衝動[7]、渴望走向或遠離刺激的力量。簡單動作也可以沒有動機衝動[8]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Neil., Martin, G.; William., Buskist,. Psychology 4th ed. Harlow, England: Allyn and Bacon. 2010. ISBN 9780273720119. OCLC 463856021. 
  2. ^ VandenBos, Gary R. APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association. 2006. ISBN 1591473802 (英语). 
  3. ^ Duncan, Seth; Barrett, Lisa Feldman. Affect is a form of cognition: A neurobiological analysis. Cognition & Emotion. 2007-09, 21 (6): 1184–1211. ISSN 0269-9931. PMC 2396787. PMID 18509504. doi:10.1080/02699930701437931 (英语). 
  4. ^ Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Gable, Philip A.; Price, Tom F. Does Negative Affect Always Narrow and Positive Affect Always Broaden the Mind? Considering the Influence of Motivational Intensity on Cognitive Scope. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2013-8, 22 (4): 301–307. ISSN 0963-7214. doi:10.1177/0963721413481353 (英语). 
  5. ^ Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Amodio, David M.; Gable, Philip A. Attitudes toward emotions.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2011, 101 (6): 1332–1350. ISSN 1939-1315. doi:10.1037/a0024951 (英语). 
  6. ^ Gable, Philip A.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie. Does arousal per se account for the influence of appetitive stimuli on attentional scope and the late positive potential?: Approach, arousal, and attentional scope. Psychophysiology. 2013-4, 50 (4): 344–350. doi:10.1111/psyp.12023 (英语). 
  7. ^ emotion | The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology - Credo Reference. search.credoreference.com. [2019-02-26]. 
  8. ^ Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Price, Tom F. What is Approach Motivation?. Emotion Review. 2013-7, 5 (3): 291–295. ISSN 1754-0739. doi:10.1177/1754073913477509 (英语).