战冠

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藏于印第安納波利斯兒童博物館的典型平原印第安人战冠

战冠(英語:War bonnet)是北美洲大平原印第安人的一种羽毛头饰,通常由族群内广受尊敬者佩戴。

战冠最初是平原印第安人作战时佩戴的头饰,随后逐渐演变为部落仪式期间的典礼头饰。战冠的羽毛通常是羽,鹰羽被许多平原印第安族群视为最为尊贵的象征[1],许多战士一生中仅获得两到三根鹰羽的奖赏;当鹰羽数量较多时,就会被编织成战冠头饰。战冠被印第安人在精神层面和政治层面赋予重要意义,成为族群内部广受认可、享有盛名人士的专属头饰[2][3]。这类著名人士通常曾展现出无私而英勇的光荣行为,或是为族群的繁荣作出了重大贡献。在大部分族群中,战冠仅仅是部落内部的酋长和精神领袖的专属头饰。

在平原印第安人的传统中,战冠仅能由男人佩戴,女人另有其他种类的头饰。但近年来,许多名望较高的原住民女性都被授予战冠头饰,作为荣誉的象征[4]

除了传统的鹰羽战冠外,平原印第安人另有其他种类的战冠,如带有野牛角、染色马鬃和猫头鹰羽的鹿皮战冠,插有金雕尾羽的鹿皮或毛毡战冠,以及羽毛排列松散、垂在两侧的鹿皮或毛毡战冠[5]

流行文化[编辑]

由于战冠极具特色的外形,佩戴战冠的平原印第安人在现代已经成为关于美洲原住民的典型刻板印象,被现代流行文化用以作为美洲原住民文化的象征。但是,未经许可而唐突地佩戴战冠的行为会被印第安人视为冒犯[6][7][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]。曾有非原住民在当地演出期间佩戴羽毛战冠,招致美洲原住民的反对和批评。已经有多个音乐节的组织方禁止售卖和佩戴美洲原住民头饰[7][12][14][15][16][17]

图册[编辑]

参见[编辑]

  • 换羽
  • 鷹羽法:美国政府通过鹰羽法准许平原原住民合法收集鹰羽,用于宗教和文化活动,而不会被认定为非法狩猎[18]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Grinnell, George Bird. The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Lifeways. World Wisdom, Inc. 2008: 209. ISBN 9781933316604. 
  2. ^ Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, by George E. Hyde, edited by Savoie Lottinville, University of Oklahoma Press (1968), hardcover, 390 pages; trade paperback, 280 pages (March 1983), pp 214, 216, 239, 307. ISBN 0-8061-1577-7, ISBN 978-0-8061-1577-1.
  3. ^ The Battle of Beecher Island and the Indian War of 1867–1869, by John H. Monnett, University Press of Colorado (1992), pages 46 to 48. ISBN 0-87081-347-1.
  4. ^ Behind First Nations headdresses: What you should know
  5. ^ Howard, James H. Plains Indian Feathered Bonnets. Plains Anthropologist (Maney Publishing). 1954, 1 (2): 23–26. ISSN 0032-0447. JSTOR 25666195. doi:10.1080/2052546.1954.11908159. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Houska, Tara. 'I Didn't Know' Doesn't Cut It Anymore. Indian Country Today Media Network英语Indian Country Today Media Network. [April 20, 2015]. (原始内容存档于July 6, 2017). On imitation Native headdresses as "the embodiment of cultural appropriation ... donning a highly sacred piece of Native culture like a fashion accessory 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Keene, Adrienne (April 27, 2010) "But Why Can’t I Wear a Hipster Headdress? 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期May 13, 2016,." at Native Appropriations – Examining Representations of Indigenous Peoples.
  8. ^ This means war: why the fashion headdress must be stopped. The Guardian. July 30, 2014. 
  9. ^ Ricky Martin Accused of Cultural AppropriationAfter Posting Headdress Photo. USA Today. Nov 29, 2018. 
  10. ^ Coachella Attendee Apologizes for Culturally Appropriating a Native American Headdress. Teen Vogue英语Teen Vogue. April 27, 2017. 
  11. ^ HERE'S WHY YOU SHOULDN'T WEAR A NATIVE AMERICAN HEADDRESS. MTV. June 4, 2014. 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 "ReMatriate was started earlier this year by women from the Yukon and northern B.C. in response to offensive runway fashion shows and “festival wear” appropriated from indigenous traditional arts and sacred objects and sold as commodities without permission." See Northern-sparked 'ReMatriate' campaign takes on cultural appropriation. Northern Journal. May 4, 2015 [2016-10-08]. 
  13. ^ 'Still experiencing a cultural genocide'. BBC NEWS. May 13, 2016. 
  14. ^ Pharrell Apologizes for Wearing Headdress on Magazine Cover. Rolling Stone. June 5, 2014 [2015-11-09]. 
  15. ^ No More War Bonnets at Glastonbury Music Festival. Lakota Law Project. October 17, 2014 [2016-10-08]. 
  16. ^ Rota, Zack. Why Native Headdresses No Longer Belong at Music Festivals. 29 July 2014. 
  17. ^ Osheaga Issues Ban on Headdresses as Fashion Accessories. exclaim.ca. 
  18. ^ Eagle Permits - Native American Feather Permit. www.fws.gov. 
  • Hardin, Barry E. The Plains Warbonnet: Its Story and Construction. Book Publishing Company. 2013. ISBN 9781929572236. 
  • Hirschfelder, Arlene; Molin, Paulette F.; Wakim, Yvonne; Dorris, Michael A. American Indian Stereotypes in the World of Children: A Reader and Bibliography. Scarecrow Press. 1999. ISBN 9781461656302. 
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Infobase Publishing. 2014. ISBN 9781438110103. 

外部链接[编辑]